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during the periods above mentioned, with many important records, and curious and valuable documents, together with the first edition of the Common Prayer-book, as settled upon at the restoration of Charles n., and that very ancient work called Doomsday-book."

Let me now enter the Horse Armoury. Ay! this is a goodly sight in the eyes of a warrior; for here the walls are hung

Resplendently, with arms and armour bright,
Habergeon hard, and ponderous battle axe,
Hauberk and helm, cuirass, and lance, and sword.

Armour has, at different periods, been formed of different materials, leather, and padded linen, iron, steel, brass, silver, and gold. The hauberk, or shirt of mail, was formed of rings, placed edgeways, or of flat rings, sown on the vesture, or of small metal plates, covering each other like the scales of a fish. Over body armour surcoats were once worn, to prevent the sun from heating it. Gambuised armour was made of stitched padded work; leathern vests were worn by archers; mail and plate armour were mingled together, before plate armour became general. Plate armour was not only plain but also fluted, black, bronzed, and engraved, as well as inlaid and embossed. Armour was at times so expensive, that it was said of sir Walter Raleigh, that when habited in his silver suit of armour, " he

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had a Spanish galleon on his back." When men dwell together in the fear of God, and in mutual affection, how little is armour required!

These mail-clad warriors make us think of the Philistine giant slain by David, who, nearly three thousand years ago, defied the armies of the living God. "And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span. And he had an helmet of brass upon his head, and he was armed with a coat of mail; and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass. And he had greaves of brass upon his legs, and a target of brass between his shoulders. And the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam; and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron: and one bearing a shield went before him," 1 Sam. xvii. 4—7. How beautifully clear is this description! As I read it the Philistine giant seems to stride before me, and I can almost see his ugly, frowning face in spite of his iron helmet. This passage of Holy Writ is a perfect picture.'

Among such a profusion of armed men and armed horses, the spectator becomes bewildered. Here are Edward ij in his hauberk; Henry vi, in flexible plate armour, with battle-axe, longpointed toes to his soflerets, and enormous spurs; Edward iv, in tournament armour; Henry vn, in an elegant fluted suit; Henry viu, and Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk—the latter in plate, and the former in gilt plate armour. These, with Charles i, in his gilt armour, James n, in his cuirass, and more than a dozen others, all on horseback, make a formidable appearance. Let me, for a moment, take a single figure, that I may see of what a suit of armour is composed, beginning at the feet, and ending with the head.

First come the sabatynes, or steel clogs; then the greaves, or shin pieces; then the cuisses, or thigh pieces; next, the breech mail; the tuillettes, or waist pieces; and the cuirass, or breast plate. Now come the vambraces, or lower-arm covers; rere-braces for the rest of the arms to the shoulders; gauntlets, or iron gloves for the hands, and a helmet for the head. There are, besides, a dagger, a short sword, a cloak worn over the armour, a bacinet, a long sword, a pennoncel, held in the left hand, and a shield. The lance used in tilting is different to that employed in a deadly enterprise.

I could willingly linger here, but it may not be ; hurrying, therefore, past the effigies, archers, soldiers, and swordsmen, officers, cavaliers, cuirassiers, and pikemen, and stealing a hasty glance at the pistols, carbines, muskets, and fowling pieces, the Mameluke crimson-velvet saddle; the splendid Turkish bridle, and the swords, helmet, and girdle of Tippoo-Saib, I make the best of my way to Queen Elizabeth's Armoury, without pausing more than a minute to admire the ramrod canopy, the gun-barrel pillars, the gigantic manat-arms, the crusader on his barbed horse, and the curious representation of St. George and the dragon.

THE TOWEE OF LONDON.

21

And now the implements of war, the instruments of destruction, thicken upon me. These are the prolific progeny of evil passions; the scorpion brood of sin. There is a party of visitors before me, and their admiration and praise are unbounded. One timid female alone has whispered the word "dreadful!" and dreadful they are: cross-bows, daggers, swords, pikes, and halberds, hand-guns, arquebuses, haquebuts and demihaques, are mingled with wheel-locks, snaphaunces, calivers, and carabines. There seems no end to the ingenious devices of strife and violence, anger and hatred, malice and all uncharitableness. Esclopettes, fusils, musketoons, and fowling pieces, petronels, blunderbusses, dragons, and hand-mortars, dogs, tricker-locks, and selfloading guns, are but a small part of the murderous collection.

Turn which way I will, I see weapons of coldblooded cruelty. Ingenuity has been industrious and successful, in providing means to beat, bruise, pierce, cut, tear, mangle, batter, and destroy the human form. Thumb-screws, yokes, cravats, billhooks, glaives, gisarmes, ranseurs, partizans, and spontoons; iron maces, military forks, and two-handed battle-axes. Here is a tormenting catchpole, with a collar of torment; there, an Iddart staff or a Jedburgh axe; and yonder a military flail, a beheading axe, and a murderous morning star. Did the warlike wielders of these expect to enjoy peace? could the merciless inventors of them ever hope for mercy? If the High and Holy One should deal with them as they have dealt with others, the gates of mercy are closed against them for ever.

In this cell, formed within the thickness of the wall, it is said that sir Walter Raleigh stretched his imprisoned limbs. There are inscriptions cut on the angles of its entrance, supposed to be by the hands of captives confined there. One is, "He that endureth to the end shall be saved;" and another, " Be faithful*unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life." Under any circumstances, these are impressive texts of Scripture, but how significant and striking, with the axe of the executioner in prospect! But enough of the White Tower. Geoffry, prince of Wales, in the year 1234, broke his neck in the vain attempt to escape from its massy walls; but I can walk away unquestioned and unopposed.

The savage yells and howlings of wild beasts used to resound in sullen echoes from the outward parts of the fortress, but the dens of the old

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