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crime, by cutting down a tree which fins; and yet your filial piety does over-shaded their tombs ?” “Well, not carry you so far as to make war my lord,” said Ty-jin-Kie, “the upon these facrilegious animals !" moles and the rats are far more de- The emperor, recalled to humanity ficient in respect to your ancestors, by these reflections, pardoned the fince they even gnaw their very cof. two officers.

CHARACTERISTIC MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.

meal a stranger partakes with them THE PERSIANS.

brings a blefling upon the house: to [From Francklin's Tour from Bengal to Persia; just published.]

account for this, we must understand

it as a pledge of faith and protection, S during my stay in Perfia (says when we confider that the continual

ation I was placed in, by living in a involved, with very little cessation, native family, I had an opportunity fince the extinction of the Sefi faof seeing more of the nature and dif- mily, have greatly tended to an position of the middling fort of peo- universal depravity of difpofition, ple, and their manners and customs, and a perpetual inclination to acts than perhaps has fallen to the lot of of hostility. This has leffened that moit

travellers; I am induced to give softness and urbanity of manners for the few observations I made during which this nation has been at all that period. The Persians, with re- former times so famous; and has ac spect to outward behaviour, are cer- the same time too much extinguished tainly the Parisians of the east. all sentiments of honour and humaWhilst a rude and infolent demean- nity amongst those of higher rank. our peculiarly marks the character The Persians, in their conversaof the Turkish nation towards fo- tion, aim much at elegance, and are reigners and christians, the beha- perpetually repeating verses and pafviour of the Persians would, on the sages from the works of their most contrary, do honour to the most favourite poets, Hafiz, Sàdi, and civilized nations : they are kind, Jàmi; a practice universally precourteous, civil; and obliging to all valent, from the highest to the low, strangers, without being guided by eft; because those who have not the those religious prejudices so very advantages of reading and writing, prevalent in every other Mahome. or the other benefits arising from dan nation; they are fond of en- education, by the help of their mequiring after the manners and cus- mories, which are very reteative, toms of Europe; and, in return, and what they learn by heart, are very readily afford any information always ready to bear their

in in respect to their own country. conversation. They also delight The practice of hospitality is with much in jokes and quaint exprefthem so grand a point, that a man fions, and are fond of playing upon thinks himself highly honoured if each other; which they sometiines you will enter his house and partake do with great elegance and irony., of what the family affords; whereas There is one thing much to be adgoing out of a house, without sinoak- mired in their conversation, which ing a caleàn, or taking any other is the strict attention they always refreshment, is deemed, in Persia, pay to the person speaking, whom a high affront; they say that every they never interrupt on any account, They are in general a perfonable, came to visit the family where I and in many respects a handsome, lived, which many did, directed by people : their complexions, saving their curiosity to see an European, those who are exposed to the incle understanding I belonged to the mencies of the weather, are as fair house, they made no fcrupte of pullas Europeans.

part

They

ing off their veits, and conversing The women at Shirauz have at all with great inquisitiveness and famitimes been celebrated over those of liarity, which seemed much gratified other parts of Persia for their beauty, by my ready compliance with their and not without reason. Of those requests, in informing them of Euwhom I had the fortune to fee du- ropean customs and manners, and ring my residence, and who were never failed to procure me thanks, mostly relations and friends of the with the additional character of a family I lived in, many were tall good-natured Fcringy (the appeland well shaped ; but their bright lation by which all Europeans are and sparkling eyes was a very striking distinguished). The women in Perbeauty : this, however, is in a great fia, as in all Mahomedan nations, measurę owing to art, as they rub after marriage, are very little their eye-brows and eye-lids with than flaves to their husbands. Those the black powder of antimony (call- 'mild and familiar endearments which ed furma), which adds an incom- grace the social board of an Euparable brilliancy to their natural ropean, and which at the fame time lustre. The large black eye is in they afford a mutual fatisfaction to moft estimation among the Perfians, either sex, tend also to refine and and this is the most common at polith manners, are totally unknown Shirauz. As the women in Mahu- in Mahomedan countries. The hufmedan countries are, down to the band, of a fufpicious temper, and meanest, covered with a veil from chained down by an obstinate and head to foot, a fight is never to be persevering etiquette, thinks him. obtained of them in the street ; but felf affronted even by the enquiry from my situation, I have feen many of a friend after the health of his of them within doors, as when any wife!

SELECT BIOGRAPHY.

LIFE OF

fects. But more fully to determine CAPTAIN JAMES COOK. the question, Mr. Cook ordered

fome buckets of water to be drawn (Compiled from Dr. Kippis's late Publication.)

up alongside the ship, which were

found full of an innumerable quanContinued from page 73.

tity of small globular insects, about N the 29th of August, between the size of a common pin's head, our voyagers were near the Cape of life was perceived in them, there Good Hope, the whole sea, within could be no doubt of their being the compass of their fight, became living animals, when in their own at once, as it were illuminated. native element; and they were unThe captain had been formerly doubtedly the cause of the sea's ilconvinced by Mr. Banks and Dr. Tumination. The Resolution and Solander, that such appearances in Adventure, on the 30th, anchored the occan were occafioned by in- in Table Bay, at the Cape of Gond

Hope,

Hope, where the governor received by the name of the Aurora Borealis. him with the greatest politeness, and Captain Cook had never heard, that promised every affistance which the an Aurora Australis had been seen place afforded. From the Cape, before. The officer of the watch our commander departed, on the observed that it sometimes broke 22d of November, in search of a out in spiral rays, and in a circular southern continent; and having got form; at which time its light was clear of the land, directed his course very strong, and its appearance beaufor Cape Circumcifion; but a dread- tiful. It diffused its light throughful gale of wind coming on about out the whole atmosphere, without the 6th of December, which at times appearing to have any particular diwas so furious, that the ships could rection. On the 17th of March, carry no fail, they were driven so after two months longer navigation far to the eastward of their course, amidst islands and mountains of ice, that no hopes were left of reaching considering that it would be very the defired spot.

improper to continue longer in high December the 10th, our naviga- southern latitudes, he resolved to tors began to be obstructed with quit them, and to proceed to New islands of ice ; one of which was so Zealand, with a view of looking for much concealed by the haziness of the Adventure, which had acci. the weather, that they were almost dentally parted from him on the close upon it before it was perceived. Sth of February, and that he might Captain Cook judged, that it might procure some refreshments. He be about fifty feet high, and half a therefore steered his course for that mile in circumference : it was flat island, and came to anchor in Dusky on the top, and its fides rose in a per- Bay the 26th of March. From this pendicular direction, against which place, he proceeded to Queen Char. the sea broke with amazing fury, lotte's Sound; where he had the faand was dashed up to a great height. tisfaction of finding the Adventure, Six of them were pafled on the 12th, from which they had been separated some of which were nearly two miles fourteen weeks. in circuit, and fixty feet high ; but, After quitting New Zealand, in such was the force and height of company with the Adventure, Mr. the waves, that the sea broke quite Cook paid a visit to his old friends over them. Hence was exhibited a at Otaheite, the Society and Friendview that, for a few moments, was ly Ines ; and having examined a pleasing to the eye; but the pleasure space of more than forty degrees of was foon swallowed up in the horror longitude, between the tropics, rewhich seized upon the mind, from turned to Queen Charlotte's Sound. the prospect of Turrounding danger. He again set fail the 27th of On the i4th, the vessels were stop- November, to explore the unknown ped by an inmense field of low ice, parts of the Pacific Ocean. In this to which no end could be seen, ei. perilous navigation, he was often ther to the eatt, west, or fouth. By interrupted by islands of ice; among the 17th of January 1773, he had which he was sometimes as it were reached the latitude of 67o. 15. inclosed; and though his vessel was where he found the ice entirely almost every moment in hazard of plosed. In the morning of the 17th being dalhed to pieces, by large df February, between midnight and, mafies, which floated around, he three o'clock, lights were seen in the advanced, ainidst all these obstaheavens, similar to those which are cles, till Nature set bounde to his known in the northern hemisphere, course. VOL. II.

M

January

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January the 26th, 1774, our na- no vestiges of it could he' find. He vigators passed the Antarctic circle, next proceeded to the Marquefas, for the third time, in 109 degrees discovered in 1595; and vilired, of weft longitude; where they found for the second time during this the mildest sun-fhine they had expe- voyage, the island of Otaheite.rienced in the frigid zone. This When he had procured some reinduced them to hope, that they freshments, he failed for the New {hould be able to proceed as far to. Hebrides; which, though difcoverwards the fouth as others had to- ed as early as 1606, by Quiros, wards the north : but the next day, had never been fufficiently explored. a folid field of ice appeared before Exclusive of ascertaining the extent them, which extended from east to and fituation of these islands, which weft farther than the human eye had barely been seen by others, cap could reach. Within this field nine- tain Cook acquired a knowledge of ty-feven islands were counted, be- several before unknown, which enfides those on the outside, many of titled him to bestow on the whole, which were large, and had the ap- that appellation by which they are pearance of a ridge of mountains, now distinguished. rising regularly above each other, During the month of August 1774, till the most distant ones seemed as captain Cook continued surveying if lost in the clouds. The outer, or these islands; and having set fail on northern edge of this immense field, the 1st of August, discovered a large was composed of loose or broken ice, track of land, to which he gave packed so closely together, that it the name of New Caledonia. He could not be entered. Captain also explored the coasts of this counCook, however, was of opinion, try, and found it to be the most conthat there must be land to the south siderable of all the tropical islands behind 'it. “ If there is,” says he, in those parts, and, except New Hol" It can afford no better retreat for land and New Zealand, the largest birds, or any other animals, than that has been seen in the South the ice itself, with which it must be Pacific Ocean. Our navigator, on entirely covered.” He then adds, leaving New Caledonia, fell in with “ I, who was ambitious not only of an uninhabited island, on the roth going farther than any body had of October, which he named Norgone before, but as far as it was folk Isle, in honour of the noble fapossible for man to go, was not sorry inily of Howard ; and finding that at meeting with this interruption, provisions were now beginning to as it in fome measure relieved us, run short, he failed again for New and shortened the dangers and hard- Zealand; where he accordingly Trips inseparable from the naviga- came to anchor the 18th of October tion of the southern polar regions. Here he continued till November Since, then, we could not proceed 10, when he again set out in purfuit farther to the south, no other rea- of his great object, the existence of fon need be assigned for my tacking à southern continent. Having failed and standing back to the north, be- till the 29th, in different degrees of ing at this time in the latitude of latitude, extending from 43. to 559 70°, 10. south, and longitude 106o. 48. fouth without fuccefs, he gave

up all hopes of finding the object of Mr. Cook, after this, went in his pursuit, and resolved to steer die quest of land, said to have been dif- redly for the west entrance of the covered by Juan Fernandez; but ftraits of Maghalhaens, with a view

of

54'. west.”

of coasting the south side of Terra municated by him on the 18th of del Fuego, round Cape Horn to the April, relative to the tides of the Strait Le Maire.

South Seas. For the former of these During the remainder of this papers, the Society resolved to be voyage, nothing very remarkable ftow on him fir Godfrey Copley's anoccurred. After leaving Terra del nual gold medal; at the delivery of Fuego, our navigator proceeded which, fir John concluded his speech round Cape Horn, patied through in a manner highly honourable to Strait Le Maire, to Staten Island; and, our navigator. “If Rome," said having explored part of the neigh. he, “ decreed the civic crown to hin bouring seas, directed his course to who saved the life of a single citithe Cape of Good Hope, from which zen, what wreaths are due to the place he failed to England. He ar- man who, having himself faved rived on the 19th of July 1775, many, perpetuates, in your Transac. having been absent three years and tions, the means by which Britain eighteen days.

may now, on the most diftant voy, From the period of captain Cook's ages, preserve numbers of her intre, leaving the Cape of Good Hope to pid fons, her mariners, who, braving that of his return to it again, he every danger, have so liberally con. had traversed no less a space than tributed to the fame, to the oputwenty thousand leagues; an extent lence, and to the maritime empire nearly equal to three times the equa- of their country.” torial circumference of the earth. Captain Cook, however, was not But what will appear still inore fur- present to receive the honour conprising is, that though exposed to ferred on him. Some months before almost every change of climate, he the anniversary of St. Andrew's day, lolt no more than four men during he had failed on his last expedition. his voyage.

The medal was therefore delivered Lord Sandwich, who was still at into the hands of Mrs. Cook. the head of the Admiralty, took the There remained still another im. earliest opportunity of laying the portant object to be investigated ; fervices of our navigator before the the practicability of a northern paf. king, who feemed anxious to confer fage to the Pacific Ocean. It had on him some mark of distinction. long been a favourite scheme with On the oth of August, he was navigators, and particularly the Engin consequence raised to the rank lith, to discover a shorter and more of a poft captain, and, on the commodious course to the East InY2th, was appointed a captain in dies, than that by the Cape of Good Greenwich Hospital; a situation in- Hope. Several attempts were fortended to afford him an honourable merly made for this purpose, by reward for his eminent services. On our own countrymen, as well as the 7th of March 1776, he was ad- the Dutch ; but it had ceased for mitted a member of the Royal So- many years to be an object of pur. ciety; and that fame evening a paper fuit. In the beginning of the prewas read, which he addressed to fir fent century, however, it was again John Pringle, giving an account of revived by Mr. Dobbs; and cap: the method he had pursued to pre- tain Middleton was sent out by go. serve the health of the crew of the vernment in 1741, and captains Resolution during her voyage round Smith and Moore in 1746.. but the world. At the request of the these attempts proved ineffectual, preldent, another paper was coin. although an act of parliament had

been

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