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THE ELDER.

is encouraged likewife in objects of called caravans from Suez to Cairo, commerce so much, that the mer- and from place to place, in the dochandise exported and received by minion of Egypt, are merely carathis caravan enjoys a perfect exempo vans of transport. The camels are tion from duty. It employs about supplied by the Arabs, who confix thousand camels, and takes to ftantly encompass all fertile coạn. Mecca and Gedda ordinary linens, tries bordering the defart, and who coral, beads, amber, cochineal, draw a very ample subsistence from French cloth, quicksilver, pimento, this transport fervice; but they are tinfel, German dollars, and Venetian not always contented with this. fequins. The value of these arti. They are constantly finding precles amounts to about one hundred tences for war, or, more properly thoufand pounds, and they are ex. speaking, for rapine, and become as changed for Indian goods, muslins, hurtful by their depredations as they Surat ftuffs, rich Mawls, and coffee. are useful in the other sense, But this is but a fmall portion of the trade carried on from Cairo to

HISTORICAL MEMOIRS Gedda. The other part is carried on by sea, and employs upwards of OF THE LIFE AND DEATH OF PLINY fiíty ships of two hundred tons burthen each, and some of a thousand

[Transmitted by G. W.] tons. The amount of this com- PLINY was a physician and na. merce keeps in circulation not less turalist, born of an illustrious family than three millions of pounds flere at Verona. He lived under the ling.

Roman emperors Vespasian and Ti. There is likewise an almost con- tus, who honoured him with their ftant intercourse by caravans be- esteem. He was the author of a tween Cairo and Syria, composed 'great number of works, but no other generally of one hundred camels than his Natural History has sureach. They bring cotton, filk, and vived the wreck of time. He wrote soap, and take away linens, coffee, upon a much more extensive plan and money. The annual amount than Aristotle, and probably his was of this commerce may be fifty thou, too unlimited. Desirous of comfand pounds sterling.

prehending every thing, he seems to Another caravan comes annually have endeavoured to take measure with the subjects of the king of Mo- of nature, and even to have found rocco from Fez and Moroeco. It is it too confined for the extent of his commonly composed of about five genius, thousand camels to carry the mere His Natural History compre. chandize, and of about fifteen thou. hends, independent of his history of fand mules for the travellers. They animals, plants, and minerals, a hir. bring gold dust and massive curren- tory of heaven and earth, medicine, cy, filver in bars; and they take in commerce, navigation, a history of return India goods and raw silk. arts liberal and mechanic, the oriThe amount of this branch is about gin of customs; in fine, all natuone hundred thousand pounds annu- ral sciences, and all human arts, ally. Part of this caravan passes on What is most astonishing, is to find to Mecca, and part remains to tranf. him in every part equally great; an act business, and to return with the elevation of ideas, and a nobleness return of the caravan.

of style, heighten still more his proI know of no other caravans im• found erudition. He not only knew mediately comimercial, What are all that could be known in his time,

but

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but he bad that facility of thinking, day I allot to bufiness, and I reserve upon the whole, which multiplies the night for reading and compofiknowledge: he poffefled that deli- tion. Should I not be even too cacy of reflection, upon which de- happy if this conduct procured me pends the elegance of taste; and he no other advantage than that of liv. communicates to his readers a cer- ing longer? Sleep absorbs half the tain liberty and boldness of thoughts, life of man; and it is a more certain which is the bafis of philofophy. and a more legal gain than any His work, though as variegated as other, to purloin as much time as nature herself, always depicts her in possible from Morpheus." a beautiful dress. It may, indeed, Pliny's death was occafioned by a be said, that his book is a compila- fatal accident, which is set forth at tion of all that was wrote before length in a letter from his nephew him; a copy of all that was excel- to Tacitus the historian. He was at lent and ufeful in learning: but this Nismus, where he commanded a copy has such striking features fquadron of Roman ships. Perceivthis composition contains a variety ing a large and uncommon cloud of objects, placed in such an entire rise from Mount Vesuvius, he sail. new point of light, that it is prefer- ed towards it, to observe the different able to the greatest of those original forms that this dreadful phænomeproductions, that treat upon the non would successively undergo. Tame subjects.

He dictated his observations with This learned naturalift, as Pliny the same tranquillity of mind as if the Younger, his nephew, informs nothing had been to be dreaded from us, lived a regular ceconomical life, it. Nevertheless, burning calcined slept but little, and employed all his pulverised stones and fints began to time to the best advantage. He al- fall upon his ships in great quanțiways had a person to read at his ties. Pliny deliberated a moment, table, and, in his perambulations in whether he should veer about, agree search of knowledge, he had con- ably to the exhortations of the piStantly with him his book, his tablets, lot; but his insatiable thirst of knowand his amanuenfis, as he read no ledge and instruction prevailed, and work from which he did not make he rejected his pilot's advice. “ Forextracts.

tune,” said he, “ favours the brave! He had, probably, never his pa- - let us go and join Pomponianus, rallel for affiduity in reading and who is now on shore.” This was writing. One day the reader, during one of his friends, whom he found the repast, having given a vicious busy in preparing to escape, as foon pronunciation to some words, one of as the wind, which was contrary, Pliny's friends stopt him, and made had veered about. Pliny embraced him begin again. " Pliny said to his and encouraged him; and to dimi, friend,“ You nevertheless under- nilli his fears, and convince his friend stood him ?” which being agreed to, of their seeming security, he went Pliny added, “Why then did you and bathed; then supped, and was make him read it again? your in- very chearful. terruption has made us lose above ten After the repast, he went to rest, lines.” At another time, observing and flept profoundly. Nevertheless, his nephew walking without his the apparent danger obliged him to book, he said, “ You cannot afford wake. The court of the house was. to lose this time."

filled with alhes, and the building He wrote to Titus in the follow. was so much shook by repeated earthing familiar manner: “ The whole quakes, that it seemned corn from its

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Published by D. Brewman May 1,

'1.1790.

foundation; the walls threatened the Romans in abhorrence; and fanevery moment to fall in. On the cying themselves fufficiently trong other hand, the eruptive matter fell by their hatred alone, resolved to in such quantities in the open coun- perish rather than surrender. They try, that there was the greatest dan- were not ignorant of the Roman ger of being smothered abroad. It usage towards towns taken by afwas, nevertheless, determined to faily fault; they knew that all in them forth at break of day. A dark and were either put to death or conthick vapour surrounded Pliny, and demned to savery, and that the it was necessary to destroy its effects places which they stormed were imby lighted Aambeaux. Having inediately given up to pillage. They gained the sea fide, in order to know had heaped together at Aftapa the if it was possible to fail, they found plunder of the whole country, and it more tempestuous than ever. amassed immenfe riches by rapine Pliny threw himself upon the and murders. Martius offered them ground, and called for cold water, their lives and liberties, if they would which he drank; when a sulphure- give up their wealth: but it was ous smell arose, and a flame fuc- dearer to them than life itself; they ceeded. Every one few; Pliny rose therefore refused it at such a price, and supported himself by two flaves, and could not bring themselves to but he fell breathless the next in. affent, that the fruit of so many years ftant; fuffocated, doubtless, by the employed in injustice and robbery, burning air which he had inhaled. Hould pass into the possession of His body was found, two days after, their mortal enemies. They caused without any visible wound, with his their gold and filver money, and cloaths entire, and he appeared only whatever they had of value, to be as if he was afleep. This happened brought into the market-place; then, about seventy-nine years before the with a firmness worthy of a better birth of Christ, when Pliny was in motive, they placed upon this heap his fifty-sixth year.

their old people, their wives and chil

dren'; they enclosed them with a INSTANCE

circle of faggots ready to be light

ed, and placed a guard of fifty young DF UNCOMMON FEROCITY, IN THE PEOPLE OF ASTAPA.

men, with orders to set the whole on

fire, and not suffer a single person to [From M. De Folard's Life of Scipio and escape, if they were beaten in the Epaminondas.)

sally they were then going to make ASTAPA was a small town, upon the Romans. erected on à mountain, without Having taken these fatal precaueither fortifications or garrison. Lu- tions, they all devoted themselves to cius Martius, he who acquired such death, by the most horrible impreca-, reputation before the arrival of Sci- tions, and swore to kill themselves pio, and who commanded a separate if they were worsted in the combat, corps of troops, summoned it to surrather than submit to the republic. render; to which no attention was Full of this terrible resolution, they paid. The inhabitants, accustomed briskly fallied out. Martius, who to pillaging, were unwilling to fubnever thought them capable of this mit to a power, under which they rafiness, was surprised; the first must have lived peaceably and on a posts were carried; they observed no good footing with their neighbours, order in the action, but fought with without being allowed to commit such fury, that at first nothing could any violence or injustice. They held withstand them. Martius, towards

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