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their habitations, and a confiscation of power as existed in the wealth, the disa all their goods, I am not sagacious cipline, and the habits of such corporaenough to discover how this despotic tions, as those wirich you havé rashly {port, made of the feelings, consciences, destroyed, cannot find any way of cona prejudices, and properties of men, can verting it to the great and lasting bebe discriminated from the rankelt tye nefit of his country. On the view of ranny.

this subject a thousand uses suggest If the injustice of the course pur- themselves to a contriving mind. To fued in France be clear, the policy of destroy any power, growing wild from the measure, that is, the public benefit the rank productive force of the huto be expected from it, ought to be at man mind, is almost tantamount, in Icaft as evident, and at least as imports the moral world, to the destruction of

To a man who acs under the the apparently active properties of boinfluence of no pallion, who has no dies in the material. It would be like thing in view in his projects but the the attempt to defroy (if it were in public good, a great diiference will im our competence to destroy) the expanmediately strike him, between what five force of fixed air in nitre, or the policy would di&tate on the original in- power of steam, or of electricity, or of troduction of such inftitutions, and on magnetism. These energies always a question of their total abolition, where existed in nature, and they were always they have cast their roots wide and discernible. They seemed, some of deep, and where hy long habit things them unserviceable, some noxious, some more valuable than themselves are so no better than a sport to children ; unadapted to them, and in a manner inter- til contemplative ability, combining woven with them, that the one cannot with practic skill, tamed their wild nabe destroyed without notably impairing 'ture, subdued them to use, and rendered the other. He might be embarrasted, them at once the most powerful and the if the case were really such as fophifters most tractable agents, in subservience represent it in their paltry fiyle of de to the great views and designs of men, bating. But in this, as in most ques- Did fifty thousand persons, whose mentions of state, there is a middle. There tal and whose bodily labour you might is something else than the mere alter- direct, and so many hundred thousand native of absolute destruction, or unre a year of a revenue, which was neither. formed existence. spartam načtus es; lazy nor superstitious, appear too big hanc exorna.

This is, in my opinion, for your abilities to wield ? Had you a rule of profound sense, and ought no way of using the men but by connever to depart from the mind of an verting monks into pensioners Had honest reformer. I cannot conceive you no way of turning the revenue to how any man can have brought himself account, but through the improvident to that pitch of presumption, to cons, resource of a spendthrift fale? If you der his country as nothing but carte were thus deftitute of mental funds, blanche, upon which he may scribble the proceeding is in its natural course. whatever he pleases. A man full of Your politicians do not understand warm speculative benevolence may with their trade; and therefore they fell his society otherwise constituted than he their tools. firds it; but a good patriot, and a true " But the institutions favour of supolitician, always confiders how he shall perftition in their very principle; and make the most of the existing materials they nourish it by a permanent and of his country. A disposition to pre- standing influence. This I domot mean serve, and an ability to improve, taken to dispute ; but this ought not to hintogether, would be my standard of a der you from deriving from superiti. ftatesman. Every thing else is vulgar, tion itself any resources which may in the conception, perilous in the exe thence be furnished for the public adcution,


You derive benefits from “. He is not deserving to rank high, nany dispositions and many passions of or even to be mentioned in the order of the human mind; which are of as doubtgreat statesmen, who, having obtained ful a colour in the moral eye, as superthe command and direction of such a ftition itself. It was your business to VOL. II.


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correct and mitigate every thing which ple, I should be infinitely more inclined was noxious in this passion, as in all forcibly to rescue them from their mis the passions. But is superstition the serable industry, than violently to difgreatest of all possible vices? In its turb the tranquil repose of monastic pollible excess I think it becomes a very quietude, Humanity, and perhaps pogreat evil. It is, however, a moral licy, might better justify me in the one Tubject; and of course admits of all de- than in the other. It is a subject on grees and all modifications. Super- which I have often reflected, and never ftition is ihe religion of feeble minds;. reflected without feeling from it. I and they must be tolerated in an inter am sure that no confideration, excepe mixture of it, in fome trilling or some the neceflity of submitting to the yoke enthusiastic shape or other, elle you will of luxury, and the despotism of fancy, deprive weak minds of a resource found who in their own imperious way will necessary to the strongest. The body distribute the surplus product of the of all true religion consists, to be sure, foil, can justify the toleration of such in obedience to the will of the fove. trades and employments in a well-rereign of the world; in a confidence in gulated state. But, for this purpose his declarations; and an imitation of of distribution, it seems to me, that his perfections. The rest is our own. the idle expences of monks are quite It may be prejudicial to the great end; as well directed as the idle expences

of it may be auxiliary.

us lay-loiterers, 6. Before the inconveniencies are in- .Does not the fweat of the mason curred which must attend all violent and carpenter, who toil in order to parrevolutions in property through exten take the sweat of the peasant, flow as five confiscation, we ought to have some pleasantly and as falubriously, in the rational assurance that the purchasers construction and repair of the majestic of the confiscated property will be in a edifices of religion, as in the painted considerable degree more laborious, booths and fordid fties of vice and more virtuous, more sober, less disposed luxury; as honourably and as profitto extort an unreasonable proportion of ably in repairing thofe sacred works, the gains of the labourer, or to con which grow hoary with innumerable fume on themselves a larger share than years, as on the momentary receptacles is fit for the measure of an individual, of transient voluptuousness; in operaor that they should be qualified to dil- houses, and brothels, and gamingpense the surplus in a more steady and houses, and club-houses, and obelisks equal mode, so as to answer the pur- in the Champ de Mars? Is the surplus poses of a politic expenditure, than the product of the olive and the vine worse old poffeffors, call those poffeffors, employed in the frugal sustenance of bishops, or canons, or commendatory persons, whom the fictions of a pious abbots, or monks, or what you please. imagination raises to dignity by conThe monks are lazy. Be it fo. Sup- struing in the service of God, than in pose them no otherwise employed than pampering the innumerable multitude by singing in the choir. They are as of those who are degraded by being usefully employed as those who ncither made useless domestics subservient to sing nor fay. As usefully even as those the pride of man? Are the decorations who fing upon the stage. They are as of temples an expenditure less worthy usefully employed as if they worked a wise man than ribbons, and laces, and from dawn to dark in the innumerable national cockades, and petits maisons, fervile, degrading, unseemly, unmanly, and petit foupers, and all the innumeand often most unwholesome and pesti- rable fopperies and follies in which ferous occupations, to which by the opulence sports away the burthen of social economy fo inany wretches are its superfluity? inevitably doomed. If it were not « We tolerate even these ; not from generally pernicious to disturb the na., love of them, but for fear of worse. tural course of things, and to impede, We tolerate them, because property in any degree, the great wheel of cir- and liberty, to a degree, require that culation which is turned by the strangely toleration. But why proscribe the directed labour of these unhappy peo- other, and surely, in every point of

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view, the more laudable use of estates ? lations in which they originally stood. Why, through the violation of all pro- They do not hold the authority they perty, through an outrage upon every exercise under any conftitutional law principle of liberty, forcibly carry them of the Itate. They have departed from from the better to the worse ?

the instructions of the people by whom “ I can never,” says Mr, Burke, they were sent; which initructions, as \ consider the National Assembly as the Assembly did not act in virtue of, anything else than a voluntary any antient usage or settled law, were alsociation of men, who have availed the fole fource of their authority. The themselves of circumstances, to seize most considerable of their acts have not upon the power of the state. They been done by great majorities; and in have not the sanation and authority of this sort of near divisions, which carry the character under which they first onlŷ the constructive authority of the met, They have affumed another of whole, ftrangers will consider reasons a very different nature ; and have com as well as resolutions." pletely altered and inverted all the re [To be concluded in our next.]



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The following Declaration and Coun

ter Declaration were signed and ex-
changed on the 24th of last July.

HIS Catholic majelty having de

clared, that he was willing to give fatise DECLARATION.

faction for the injury done to the king, IS Britannic majesty having com- by the capture of certain vesfils bevefsels belonging to his subjects in the Nootka, and the compte de Florida port of Nootka, situated on the north- Blanca having ligned, in the name and west coast of America, by an officer in by the order of his Catholic majesty, a the service of the king; the undersigned declaration to this effect; and by which counsellor and principal secretary of his faid majesty likewise engages to state to his majelty, being thereto duly make full reftitution of the vessels so authorized, declares, in the name and captured, and to indemnify the parties by the order of his said majesty, that interested in those vessels for the loffes he is willing to give satisfaction to his they shall have sustained; the undersignBritannic mnajely for the injury of ed ambassador extraordinary and pleniwhich he has complained; fully pere potentiary of his majeity to the Catholic fuaded that his said Britannic majetty king, being thereto duly and expressly would act in the same manner towards authorised), accepts the laid declaration the king, under similar circumstances; in the name of the king; and declares, and his majesty further engages to make that his majesty will consider this defull reftitution of all the British yeffels claration, together with the performwhich were captured at Nootka, and to ance of the engagements contained indemnify the parties interested in those therein, as a full and entire fatisfaction vessels for the losses which they fall for the injury of which his majesty has have sustained, as soon as the amount complained. thereof Mall have been ascertained : The undersigned declares, at the

It being understood, that this decla- same time, that it is to be understood, ration is not to preclude or prejudice that neither the laid declaration signed the ulterior discussion of any right , by compte Florida Blanca, nor the acwhich his majesty may claim to form an ceptance thereof by the underligned, cftablishment at the port of Nootka. in the name of the king, is to preclude

In witness whereof, I have signed or prejudice in any respect, the right

this declaration, and sealed it which his majesty may claim to any with the seal of my arms, at establishment which his fubjects may

Madrid, the 24th of July 1790. have formed, or should be desirous of (LS.) Signed LE COMTE DE Fco. forming, at the said bay of Nootka. RIDA BLANCA. In witness whereof, I have signed


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this counter declaration, and II. And further, that a just reparasealed it with the seal of my tion Mall be made, according to the armis, at Madrid, the 24th of nature of the case, for all acts of vio. July 1790.

lence or hostility, which may have been (L. S.) Signed Alleyne Fitz- committed, subsequent to the month of

April 1989, by the subjects of either of

the contracting parties against the subCONVENTION

jes of the other; and that, in case any

of the aid respective subje&is fall, BRITANNIC

since the same period, have been forcibly JESTY AND THE KING OF SPAIN.

difpoflefled of their lands, buildings, SIGNED AT THE ESCURIAL, THE

veficis, merchandise, or other property TWENTY-EIGHTH OF OCTOBER, whatever, on the said continent, or on 1790.

the feas or islands adjacent, they fall THEIR Britannic and Catholie be established in the poffeffion the cof, majesties being defirous of terminating, or a just compensation shall be made to hy' a speedy and folid agreement, them for the loses which they shall have the differences which have lately arisen fultained. between the two crowns, have judged III. And, in order to strengthen the that the best way of attaining this falu- bonds of friendthip, and to preserve in tary object would be that of an ami. future a perfect harmony and good uncable arrangement, which fitting afide de:ftanding between the two contracting all retrospective discutiion of the rights parties, it is agreed, that their reand pretensions of the two parties, spective subjects Thall not be disturbed or should fix their respective fiuation for molested either in navigating or carrythe future on a batis conformable to ing on their fitheries in the Pacific Ocean their true interests, as well as the mu or in the South Seas, or in landing on tual delire with which their faid ma- the coasts of thote seas, in places not jelties are animated, of establihing with already occupied, for the purpose of cach other in every thing and in all carrying on their commerce with the places, the most perfect friendWhip, natives of the country, or of making harmony, and good correspondence. setrlements there; the whole subject, In this view, they have named and con- nevertheless, to the restrictions and prostituted for their plenipotentiaries; to visions fpecified in the three following wit, on


part of his Britannic majesty, articles. Alleyne Fitzherbert, esq, one of his IV. His Britannic majesty engages to faid majesty's privy council in Great take the most effectual measures to pie. Britain and Ireland, and his ambassador vent the navigation and fithery of his extrao: divary and plenipotentiary to subjects in the Pacific Ocean, or in the his Catholic majelty; and, on the part South Seas, from being made a pretext of his Catholic majelty, don Joseph Mo- for illicit trade with the Spanith fet. nino, count of Florida Blanca, kuight tlements; and, with this view, it is grand cross of the royal Spanish order moreover expressly ftipulated that Bri. of Charles III, counte!lor of state to his subjects fhall not navigate or carry faid majelty, and his principal secretary on their fitheries in the said fcas, ivithin of state, and of the dispatches; who, the face of ten fea leagues from any after having communicated to each part of the coasts already occupied by other their respective full powers, have Spain, agreed upon the following articles. V. It is agreed, that as well in the

Art. 1. It is agreed that the build- places which are to be reltored to the ings and tracts of land, fituated on the British fubjects, hy virtue of the fit north-west coast of the continent of article, as in all other parts of the northNorth America, or on illinds adjacent western coasts of North America, or of to that continent, of which the fubjects the idlands adjacent, fituated to the of his Britannic majesty were difpoffeiled, north of the parts of the said coaft alabout the month of April 1789, by a ready occupied by Spain, wherever the Spanish officer, fall be restvice to the subjects of cither of the two powers thall said British Subjects.

bare made liitleinents since the month


of April 1789, or thall hereafter make commons of the city of London, in any, the subjects of the other shall have common council assembled, approach free access, and Mall carry on their your majesty with hearts full of gratitrade without any disturbance or mo- rude, upon the agreeable prospect of a leitation.

continuance of established peace by the VI. It is further agreed with respect convention with Spain. to the eastern and western coaits of Deeply affected with the injuries South America, and to the islands ad. fustained by our fellow-subjects from jacent, that no settlements thall be that nation, we concurred in the geneformed hereafter, by the respective ral sentiments of the whole kingdom, subjects, in such parts of those coasts as expressed by the two houses of par: are situated to the south of those parts liament, on receiving your majesty's of the fame coasts, and of the islands ad- molt gracious message in the lalt feffion; jacent, which are already occupied by and we beheld with confidence the vi Spain : provided that the faid respective gorous measures which were adopted subjects shall retain the liberty of land to gain full satisfaction for the injuries. ing on the coasts and islands, lo situated, done, and to maintain the honour and for the purpose of their fithery, and of dignity of the British empire; to which ereĉing thereon huts, and other tem- meafures, and to your majesty's paterporary buildings, serving only for those nal regard for the interests of your purposes...

people, next to Divine Providence, we VII. In all cases of complaint or in- thankfully ascribe the happy issue of fraction of the articles of the present the late disagreements. 'convention, the officers of either party, Your majesty's faithful citizens of without permitting themselves previous- London are too well convinced of the ly to commit any violence or act of falutary consequences of continued force, shall be bound to make an exact peace, to delay their congratulations report of the affair, and of its ciicum- upon the reconciliation with Spain; Nances, to the respective courts, who fo!, notwithstanding they have ever will terminate fuch differences in an manifested their readiness to bear a proamicable manner.

portion of burthens created by the proVIII. The present convention Mall secution of a juft war, they cannot but be ratified and confirmed in the space of most ardently rejoice at the termination fix weeks, to be computed from the day of pending hostilities, at a time when of its signature, or fooner, if it can be the reduction of the national debt is an done.

object of importance to your people. In witness thereof, we the under Deign, fire, to accept our most corfigned plenipotentiaries of their Britannic dial wishes, that your majesty's reign and Catholic majesties, have in their may long continue in peace and prosnames, and in virtue of our refpective perity over a grateful and affectionate full powers, figned the present conven- people. tion, and let thereto the seals of our arms,

HIS MAJESTY'S ANSWER. Done at the palace of St. Laurence,

I receive with great pleasure the the twenty-eighth of October, one thou- dutiful and loyal address of the city of, Cand leven hundred and ninety:

London ; the protection of the navigaAlleyne Fitzher. El Conde de Flori- tion and commerce of my subjects is a bert. [L. S.] da Blanca. [L. S.] principal object of my attention; and

I am confident that I may always exADDRESS

pect their unanimous support in such

measures as may be necessary for that OF THE LORD-MAYOR, ALDERMEN, purpose. It affords me the highest sa

AND COMMONS OF THE CITY of tisfaction to reflect, that on the present LONDON, ON THE CONVENTION occasion, this object has been obtained

without difturbing the public tran. Most Gracious Sovereign,

quillity, which is productive of such WE your majetty's dutiful and loyal great and increasing advantages to my subjects, the lord-mayor, aldermen, and people,



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