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place, from the school-mistress of CAPTAIN JAMES COOK, the village: but his father, from [Compiled from Dr. Kippis's late Public the goodness of his character, have cation.]
ing been appointed bailiff on Airy
Holme, a farm belonging to the DY
URING the present period, late Thomas Scottow, esq. he re
the pursuit of foreign disco moved thither with his family; apd very and enterprize has exceeded his son James, being then about that of
eight years old, was, by Mr. Scotmariners have dauntlessly and repeatedly braved the dangers of rocks where he learned writing, and the
and shoals, in pursuit of islands hi
principles of arithmetic. therto unknown, and of passages never before explored ; travellers, of shopkeeper at Staiths, a fishing town
He was bound apprentice to a rank and fortune, have with equal ten miles norih of Whitby, before courage traversed defarts and woods, he had attained the age of thirteen ; in momentary danger of meeting but having a strong inclination for wild and ferocious natives, or more
a seafaring life, his passion for which destructive beasts of prey, for the
was probably strengthened by the purpose of aiding geographical pre; opportunities he had of frequenting cifion. Their adventures are read
the with avidity; and are generally ho- lent quarrel with his master, he
company of mariners, on a vionoured with approbation : but no traveller, or author, has risen fo procured his discharge; and, foon
after, bound himself, for seven years, high in the estimation of Europe, as the subject of the following memoirs, Whitby, both Quakers, and prin.
to Messrs. J. and H. Walker, of captain James Cook; whose success must excite the applause even of dulcipal owners of two ships employed ness, and whose fate will often-per- continued to serve, after the expihaps in ages to come-bedew the ration of his apprenticeship, in the cheeks of sensibility.
coal and other branches of trade, as
a common failor; but at length he Captain James Cook, the eminent was promoted to be mate of one of British navigator, was born the 27th his master's vessels. of O&tober 1728, at Marton, a small To this period, nothing strikingly village in the North Riding of York- portentous appeared either in his shire, about fix miles from Stockton character or conduct: he did not exó upon Tees. His father, whose chrif- hibit any marks of those superior tian name was also James, from his abilities, which have done diftin. dialect was supposed to be a Nor- guished honour to his country, thumbrian, and lived in the humble which rank him amongst the most station of a farmer's servant. He celebrated navigators, and which married a woman in the inferior render his name immortal. pank of life; they were both, how- In the spring of 1755, a war com. ever, noted for a more than moderate menced between Great Britain and portion of honesty, sobriety, and in- France. An order having been dustry.
issued from the Admiralty for im. Young Cook received the first ru, preffing seamen, Mr. Cook, then in diments of his education at his native the river with his ship, to avoid be
ing pressed, entered voluntarily into the full satisfaction of his employers. his majesty's service, to try his for- He did not, however, effect his purcune in another capacity. He re- pose without great hazard: having paired to a house of rendezvous at been engaged in this business for feWapping, and entered with an of- veral nights successively, he was at ficer belonging to the Eagle, a length discovered by the enemy, Thip of lišty guns, commanded by who sent a number of canoes filled captain Hamer. Captain, now fir with Indians, to furround him, and Hugh Palliser, was appointed, in he had no other alternative but to the month of October 1955, to this make for shore on the itland of Ore ship; and Cook's diligence, and at- leans, near the guard of the English gention to the dusies of his profef- hospital; to woich he was so closely fion, did not escape this commander's pursued, that he had scarcely leaped notice, who soon distinguished him from the bow of the boat, which beer to be an able and active seaman. longed to one of the Phips of war,
On the 10th of May 1759, he ob- when the Indians entered it by the tained a master's warrant for the stern, and carried it off in triumph. Grampus sloop, at the instance of Before this period, there is reason the member for Scarborough; but to believe, that Cook had scarcely this appointment did not take place, used a pencil, and was entirely unas the proper master of that vessel acquainted with drawing; but such unexpectedly returned. However, were the powers of his mind, and four days after, he was made master his aptitude for acquiring knowof the Garland: but here again he ledge, that he foon made himself was disappointed; for, upon enquiry, master of every object to which he it was found, that the ship had failed applied; and, notwithstanding the some days before. As a recompence disadvantages under which he lafor this accident, on the 15th of boured, he furnished the admiral May he was appointed to the Mer- with a complete draught of the cury, which was destined for North channel and foundings, America, to join the fleet under the Our navigator also performed command of fir Charles Saunders ; another important service while on who, in conjunction with general the American station, which does no Wolfe, was then engaged before less honour to his memory, and Quebec. During that memorable cqually deserves mention. The nafiege, it was found necessary to take vigation of the river St. Lawrence foundings in the channel of the is both difficult and dangerous, and river St. Lawrence, directly oppo. was particularly so then to the Enga fite the French camp at Montmo. Įish, who were scarcely acquainted rency and Beauport, that the admi- with that part of North America, ral might be enabled to lay his fhips and who had no chart, on the core before the enemies batteries, and rectness of which they could depend, cover the British army, in an attack The admiral, therefore, having rewhich the general intended to make ceived so favourable a specimen of on the French camp. This being Mr. Cook's abilities, appointed hiin a dangerous service, and as Cook's to survey those parts of the river fagacity and resolution were now below Quebec which navigators acwell known, captain Palliser recom- counted to be most dangerous. This mended him as a proper person to business he executed with the fame undertake it, and he was not disap- diligence, activity and skill, as he pointed; for Cook performed it in had displayed on the former occathe most effectual manper, and to lion,. When he had completed this chart, it was published, with found the same year, he married a young ings and directions for failing in it; lady of the name of Batts, at Barkand so great was its accuracy, that ing in Efex: he tenderly loved his it hath never fince been found ne- amiabie companion ; but the high tcessary to publish another.
and important services to which he Mr. Cook, after the expedition was called, from his public fituation, to Quebec, was appointed master of did not suffer him long to enjoy the the Northumberland, on the 22d felicity of matrimonial engagements. of September 1759, by a warrant Peace being concluded, in 1763, from lord Colvill. In this ship his between England, France, and lordship Itaid at Halifax the follow. Spain, captain Greaves was again ing winter, as commodore; and fent out as governor of NewfoundCook's behaviour in his new station land. As this country was confi. gained him the friendlip and esteem dered to be of great value in a comof his commander.
mercial view, and as it had been the Sensible, by this time, that he principal object of contention bewas in the high road to promotion, tween the English and the French, he spent his leisure hours in acquir- the governor, with fome difficulty, ing such branches of knowledge as obtained an establishment for the might qualify him for future service. furvey of its coasts; and Mr. Cook, At Halifax he first read Euclid, and on the recommendation of captain Audied aftronomy. The books he Greaves, was appointed to carry this was able to procure were indeed plan into execution. He therefore few, but application and industry went out with that gentleman; and, fupplied the deficiency.
after having surveyed the small During Mr.Cook's continuance as islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, master of the Northumberland, that which, by treaty, had been ceded Aiparrived at Newfoundland in Sep- to the French, he returned to Eng. tember 1762, to affist in the recap- land towards the conclusion of the ture of the island; and when that feason. object was accomplished, the English - In the beginning of 1764, our feet remained some days at Placentia, navigator accompanied his friend in order to put it in a better state of and patron fir Hugh Palliser, then defence. Here again our navigator appointed commodore and governor had an opportunity of displaying his of Labradore and Newfoundland, diligence, and manifesting his zeal; in the same station in which he had he surveyed the harbour and heights been under captain Greaves. Mr. of that place, and by this attracted Cook was well qualified for this emthe notice of captain, afterwards ad- ployment; the charts of his surveys, miral Greaves, at that time com. which he afterwards published, remander of the Antelope, and gover- flected the highest credit on his abinor of Newfoundland. His answers lities. He explored the inland part to this gentleman's profeffional quef- of the island of Newfoundland, in tions were fo fatisfactory, that he a much more accurate manner than thence conceived a very favourable had ever been done before; and by opinion of his abilities and nautical penetrating into the heart of the knowledge; and this was still fare country, discovered several large ther increased by a longer acquaint- lakes, the position of which is dir.
tinctly marked out in the general Towards the latter end of 1762, chart. Mr. Cook returned to England ; Mr. Cook was occafionally en, and, on the aid of December, in gaged in this service, returning to
England for the winter seasons, till time accounted an able mathema. the year 1767, which was the latest tician. period of his being employed as ma- Soon after the peace in 1763, two rine surveyor of Newfoundland. It voyages round the world were prve is evident, that he had now obtained ječted under the patronage of the a considerable knowledge in practical king, which were performed by astronomy, from a short paper writ- captains Byron, Wallis, and Care ten by him, and inserted in the fifty- teret; and before the two latter reseventh volume of the Philosophical curned, another was resolved on, Transactions, entitled, “ An obser- for the purpose of improving the vation of an eclipse of the fun at the science of astronomy. It having island of Newfoundland, August the been calculated, that the planet Ve 5th, 1766, with the longitude of the nus would pass over the sun's disk place of observation deduced from in 1769, it was judged that the best it.” This obfervation was made at place for observing this phenomeone of the Burgeo islands, néar non, would be either at the MarCape Ray, in lat. 47° 36' 19". on quefas, or at one of those iflands the south west extremity of New- which Tafman called Amsterdam, foundland ; and Mr. Cook's paper Rotterdam, and Middleburg, and having been communicated to Mr. which are now better known by the Witchell, he compared it with an appellation of the Friendly Ifles. observation made on the same eclipse The Royal Society, considering this by the Reverend Mr. Hornsby, matter as an object of great importand thence computed the difference ance to astronomy, petitioned his of longitude of the places of ob- majesty to appoint proper persons to Servation, making proper allowance observe the tranfit of Venus at either for parallax, and the prolate and of those places. It is almost needless fpheroidal figure of the earth. It to say, that the king cheerfully comappears, from the Philosophical plied with the object of this petition. Transactions, that Cook was at this
[To be continued.]
HISTORY OF THE THEATRE.
by the king; where, to avoid an ignoJANUARY-FEBRUARY.
minious death, he is furnished with poi. INCE our last account of the thea- fon by his father : but this alternative
tre, nothing worth recording has is prevented by Eudora; and, during occurred, except the fate of EUDORA, the occurrence of several other circum. a tragedy, written by Mr. Hayley, pro- ftances relative to the real murderer of fessedly for public representation ; and the prince, her husband's innocence is which appeared at Covent-garden thea. manifested ; a virtuous family are made tre on the 30th of January; the charac- happy, and the miscreants of the plot ters of which were supported by Messrs. torn in pieces by the populace. Harley, Hull, Farren, Macready, Pow. The author very properly takes occaell, Holman, and Mrs. Pope. -Palermo fion, from the fituation of Raymond, to is the scene of business, which com- intersperse some forcible and just reflecmences on the return of Raymond, the tions on the horrid crime of suicide. husband of Eudora, from a fuccessful The introduction of the dead prince, campaign against the Moors, in which at the moment previous to the intended he had accompanied the prince, who is execution of Raymond, met the most poisoned at a castle belonging to Raye marked disapprobation of the audience ; mond, where they had stopped during a in consequence of which, Mr. Hayley, whole night. Raymond being suspect, the next morning, waited on the mana. ed of the deed, is thrown into prison ger, and whally withdrew the piece.
the first seeds of this animofity. Queet AUTHENTIC ELUCIDATION OF THE
Juliana had violently opposed the mart'
time appointed for its consummation, PRINTED PRIVATELY, BUT NOT
creased her disgust. Every charm of PUBLISHED, BY A PERSONAGE
youth and beauty graced her first apo PRINCIPALLY INTERESTED: TRANSLATED FROM THE GEA. pearance at Copenhagen; her whole
behaviour was affability and condescens MAN, BY B.H. LATROBE. STOCK.
fon; her every glance, life, benevo: DALE. 35. 1789.
lence, and goodnefs; and the imme. FANY of the principal circum- diately took poffeffion of every heart in
stances, contained in this in. her dominions. teresting little volume, are already pret- “ In the year 1768, Struensee was ty generally known to the public. The appointed physician in ordinary to his work, however, has claims to praise, if Danish majesty; and, at the same time, not to originality: the author appears ordered to accompany him on his trato be competent to his subject; and vels. From that moment his whole at, while he details events, is by no means tention was devoted to the service of the heedless of causes; which, as the title king, or rather to the completion of his asserts, may arise from the first fource own ambitious views, founded on the of knowledge, the author's situation be possession of the favour of his soveing said to be that of an interested spec. reign. Fortune feconded his endea. tator.'
vours;, and in a short time raised him As the melancholy story of Anna to a situation too elevated to have been Matilda, filter to his present majesty, is attained even by- great abilities, and comprized in these theets; and as it is great success, unaided by the most una subject which has much excited the
common conjuncture of fortunate cir: attention of Europe; we will present our cumstances. readers with such extracts, relative to " It was resolved, that the prince the unfortunate queen, as are most like- royal should be inoculated for the small ly to form a connected series, and to pox. This operation was committed interest the feelings of sensibility. to the care of Struensee, who performed
“ During the king's absence, ani. it in the month of May 1770. He was at mofities had been carried at court to the same time appointed by the queen to tome length. The two dowager queens, superintend the education of the young Sophia Magdalen, the grandmother, prince. The inocularion succeeded bes and Juliana Maria, the stepmother of yond expectation, and Struensee was the king, both hated the reigning queen liberally rewarded. He was created an Matilda. The diflike of the first may honorary member of the council *, and easily have originated in that coolness appointed reader to their majesties, with which great inequality of age, charac- a falary of fifteen hundred dollars f. ter, and manners, feldom fails to pro- This enabled him to give up his pracduce between princes confined in the tice, and to attend constantly upon the trammels of a formal court etiquette; court. Struensee had, during the illbut neither her power, nor her situation, ness of the prince, entirely gained the rendered her aversion very formidable to favour of the queen. Her tendereft afthe young queen. The rooted hatred fections were centered in her child. of queen Juliana was of more import. Her kind heart would not fuffer her ance to her peace; and its confequences to leave him for one moment to the rendered it in time really dreadful to care of strangers, during a disorder that, her. The nuptials of the king planted with the best and most skilful manage# Conferenz Rath.
+ About three hundred pounds; a considerable salary in Denmark.