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them of a considerable portion of the ceremonies which the Spanislı common.

When the old man ar- monarchs are obliged to observe, and rived, he heard mention made of which they dare not, upon any prethis process ; and as he had been a tence, ' break through ; but yet is a witness of the past, he became a greater

check

upon the liberty of proper judge of the present. Have the queen confort, for they are of. ing conducted a great number of ren forbid things the most innocent. the inhabitants, who accompanied' The duchess of Terra Nova, who him, to a high pile of stones, litu- was 'cainerà major to the wife of ated at the diftance of a league, he Chartes 11. told her majefty plainly, began to remove them, and difco- that 'the queens of Spain must 106 vered the ancient and real crofs, look out of the windows of the palaceq. which had occafioned the lawsuit,' Théré happened to this princess an and which now brought it to a con. adventure, which, by the formaliciufion.

ties of the etiquette, had like to This old man, whose name is have occafioned her death. The John Jacob, was born at Charme, a queen was very fond of riding; and bailiwick of Orgelet, on the 10th of several fine horses having been November 1669. Mr. de Caumar- brought her from Andalusia, the tin de Sainte-Ange, intendant of had a mind to exercise one of thein; Franche-Comte, having in the year but she had no sooner mounted, 1985, heard of him; and having than the proud steed, beginning to fatisfied 'himself respecting his age, prance and caper, threw her off; and learned that he had really need when her majesty's foot hitched in of assistance, proposed to the mis the Itirrup, and she was dragged, nister of the finances, to grant him along; to the utmost peri! of her a pension of two hundred livres, co? life. All the courts were spectators enable him tơ terminate his long of this accident; buç nobody had career in peace, and to add to it a thought of fuccouring the

queen : present of twelve' hundred more thie etiquette formally opposed it;' This propofal was agreed to in the for it forbid any man whatsoever, month of September 1785, and since on pain of death, to touch the queen that period he has enjoyed this mark of Spain, and more especially her of beneficence conferred upon old foot. Charles II. who had a great age. On the 20th of October, "latt love for his queen, and whp, irona year, this old man was conducted to a balcony, law her danger, cried Paris, and prefented to the king, out vehemently'; but the cufort Who viewed him with equal atten. was inviolable, and the untouchable tion and surprize ; and treated with foot refrained the grave Spaniards much kindness this extraordinary from intermeddling in to delicate an man, who had been a subject to affair. At length, iwo brisk cavaliers, Louis XIV. and Louis XV. as well one named don Louis de las Terres, as to himself. Though reduced al-- and the other don Jaine de Sotomamost to' a fate of vegetation, he still jor, resolved to hazard all in spite vegetates with pleasure, and he has of the law prohibiting the touch of retained three passions, vanity, and the queen's foot. One seized the ger, and avarice.

bridle of the horse; and the other

laid hold of her majesty's foot, and SINGULAR LAW IN SPAIN, took it out of the Ilirrup; but, in

rendering her this service, displaced THE Spanish ttiquette is a céré' one of his fingers. When the queen tain regulation which contains all was extricated, the cavaliers took the

...advantage

** r " AND ITS EFFECTS

advantage of the confusion occafioned favour of heaven. But the Leze. by the accident, and, without stop- kees, who are remarkable for their ping, went home, took their horses, Strength and valour, gave him a difand fled from the punishment they ferent reception from what he had had incurred, for daring to offend expected. against so strict and so august a I have heard from many of the custom.

servants, who attended his person, The queen, after recovering from that in the wars of Hindoftan, Tuher fright, defired to see her two ran and Turkey, he never neglected deliverers. A young lord, their his ablutions; but would then hume friend, told her majelty, that they ble himself by prostrating his forewere obliged to fly their country, to head in the dust, and make prayers avoid the punishment allotted to and supplications to God, and that their crime. The queen, who was particularly during the battle with a Frenchwoman, knew nothing of the Omrahs of Hindoftan, he alightthe prerogative of her heel; and ed from his horse, rubbed his face very juftly imagining it a very im- against the earth, and made loud pertinent custom, to punish men for protestations of his own unworthi. saving her life, entreated, and ob ness. But in the war of Daghistan, tained, their pardon from the king he behaved in a manner quite conher husband." But the reluctance trary, being inflated with pride and which he fhewed on this occafion, arrogance, neglecting his duty to but ill accorded with his connubiai God; in consequence of which he love, and for that vehemence of de experienced a reverse of fortune ; fpair which he betrayed while the for the Lezekees, after having made danger continued.

great flaughter amongst his troops,

took refuge in their mountains; and AN ACCOUNT thus, although in fact victorious, OF THE MURDER OF NADIR SHAH, he was obliged to give up the war,

THE PERSIAN TYRANT. without having committed the ra. [From Memoirs of Khojeh Abdulkurreem, pine, and faciated his revenge, in

a person of distinction, who accompanied the manner he had meditated and Nadir on his return from Hindoftan co threatened. After his return from Perlia.]

Daghistan, he staid fome time in NADIR Shah commenced his Iran, to prepare for the Turkilla expedition against the Lezekee of war. He then marched to Kerhook, Daghistan, for which he was making and, afrer plundering Mouffel, Diar. preparations when I * took my leave beker, and other places in that quarof him at Cazvin. As he had con- ter, proceeded to Nejeff and Kerbela, quered Hindoftan and Turan with where he visited the sharines of the out experiencing any of the hard. Imams, and then proceeded through ships of war, he vainly imagined Irak Agem to Khorasan. that 'he should also now carry all Allavee Khan, when he was at before him, and arrogantly declared the court of Perfia, availing himself that he would make prostitutes of of Nadir Shah's favour and kindall the virgin daughters of their nefs, employed the opportunities, great men; and, in retaliation of whilft he was prescribing medicine, the blood of his brother, would de. to administer also wholesome advice, capitate five thousand Lezekees; and which the Shah took in very and, confiding folely in his own good part. The Hakeem Bafhy was strength, fought not the aid and also continually exerting his skill to * The Persian author of these Memoirs. correct the impetuofity of his tem

per,

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per, for the benefit of mankind; haram, killed the eunuch upon guard, and, by a proper medical treatment, who refused them adınittance; they his disposition was so much improv- then proceeded to the Shah. The ed, that for a fortnight together he substance of the various accounts is, would not order the discipline of the that they dispatched him with a stick, much less command any or matchlock ball, with blows, and to be deprived of his eyes or life, wounds, with words and knives, And especially when the attempt It is said that at first he raged and was made to assassinate him on the abused, and then humbly suppli; borders of Mazenderan, he did not cated for mercy ; but neither

prepunish any one until he had coolly vailing, he was obliged to submit to! and deliberately inveftigated the mat- his fate *. ter. But after the departure of Al- The women, with the jewel-office lavee Khan, his own physicians, and other valuable' effects, having from the dread of offending him, been fent on before to Kelat, under suffered the peccant humours again the charge of Naffirulla Mirza, to predominate, when he returned escaped the fury and rapine of the to bis old courses; every day, for affafsins. At day-break, when the the most trifting offences, he would principal Omrahs assembled toge: order fome to be deprived of eyes, ther to investigate this astonishing and some of life. At last his cruelty event, they found the trunk of had risen to such a pitch, that hè Nadir Shah lying headless on the had resolved to have a general mas- ground, and an old woman lament, facre of his Perlian troops, by the ing over the head. The troops and hands of the Afghans and Uzbecks, the country people now plundered in whom alone he now placed con

the Shah's

camp

with that fury of fidence. But he was himself mur- which he had set them the example dered the very night preceding the in Hindoftan, Turan, Turkey, and morning in which he had determined other places. His head was sent to to put his bloody purpose into exe- Aly Kuly Khan, his brother's son, cution. The following are the par- who had occasioned the conspiticulars of this event. On the night racy, in order to raise himself to of the 11th of Jemady ul Sany, A. H. the throne. 1160 (or June 8th, 1747), near the Nine days after the affaffination, city of Khojoon, three days journey Aly Kuly Khan ordered the body from Meshed, Mohammed Kuly to be removed to Methed, where Khan Ardemee, who was of the it was buried on the fifteenth day, fame tribe with Nadir Shah, his in the mausoleum which Nadir Shah, relation, and Kushukchee Bashee, had prepared for himself. with seventy of the kuksek or This prince was a brave and ex, guard, as well from a view to self-perienced soldier, pofleffed of an preservation, as at the instigation of acute, discriminating understanding, their commander, bound themselves with activity, resolution, and fore by an oath to assassinate Nadir Shah; fight; he knew very well how to but when the appointed hour arrived, conquer, and to inake himself obey. fifty-seven of them being seized with ed, but he was totally ignorant of a panic, refused to join in the exe- the true principles of government, cution of the plot. The other thir- for the prosperity of a kingdom ; feen, however, at night tore down and the impetuosity of his temper, the fera perdah, and entering the his cruelty and hardness of heart,

* This account agrees, in a great mea- fate of this despot, in his " Travels through Jure, with what Mr. Haqway lays of the Persia, by way of the Caspian Sea." VOL. II.

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made

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made his name universally abhorred and jewels to an incredible amount, and detested.

with the peacock throne, and other After the death of Nadir Shah, riches, which Nadir Shah had dehis nephew Aly Kuly Khan, with the pofited in Kelat. He put to death assistance of Thomas Aly Khan Je all the fons and grandsons of Nadir layer, and others of the nobility, Shah, excepting Sharokh Mirza, mounted the throne, and assumed the son of Reza Kuly Mirza, by a the title of Aly Shah. He got pof- daughter of Sultan Hufsein. He apsession of ten crores of rupees in pointed his own younger brother, money, with gold and silver bullion, Ibrahim Khan, his viceroy. .

NATURAL HISTORY.

SURINAM.

a sudden and violent shock is reCURIOUS ACCOUNT OF THE ELECTRICAL EEL, OR TORPEDO OB ceived, in all respects like that

which is felt on touching the prime BY WILLIAM BRYANT, ESQUIRE.

conductor, when charged with the

electrical fluid from the globe; and, (From Transactions of the American Phi- like that, chiefly affects the ends of losophical Society)

the fingers and elbow. Gently holdURINAM, a colony of South ing the tail of the fish with one hand,

America, belonging to the States and touching the head with the other, of Holland, abounds with as many a very violent shock is felt in both natural curiosities as any country in elbows, and through the breast and the world. But that which I look shoulders. I at first imagined that upon to be as surprifing as any in the violence of the shock proceeded it, and which I believe not yet from both arms receiving it at the been accurately described, is a fish fame time, and that the pain was no of the species of eel, and is caught more than that of the two strokes there in nets among other fish; ge- added together; but I found myself nerally in muddy rivers, and I be- mistaken. For upon seven persons lieve is found in most of the neigh, joining hands, and the first taking bouring provinces. In fize and hold of the tail, (which may with colour it is not unlike a common more ease be held than the head) cel of Europe or America, and in and the seventh at the same time Ihape resembles it more, except that touching the head, we were all afit is thicker in proportion to its fected in both elbows, and that in, length, and the head is more flat the fame manner as I remember to and not so pointed; but differs from have been in the electrical experi. them in this respect, that it comes ment, when several persons take to the surface to breathe in the air. hold of the wire, and the equilibri. It is called by the Dutch Beave Aal, um is restored by the Auids pafling, and by the English inhabitants the through their bodies. Numbing Eel. As to the other qua- I find the Mock may be received lities, of which I mean chiefly to through metallic substances : on take notice, and which I think are touching the fish with an old swordas different from the torpedo of Eu- blade, I was strongly affected. But rope, as the filh is in shape, they arming it with sealing-wax, and are as follows

taking hold of that part which was On touching the fish as it lies in covered with it, the electrical fluid the water, in a tub provided for it, (I cannot help calling it fo) would

not

not pass. Neither has it any effect ten observed, that on first taking on the body when touched with a hold of it, the fhock is tolerable; glass bottle, sealing-wax, &c. Yet but as foon as it perceives itself the I cannot observe the least dimi- least confined, the shock is much nution of this quality by placing more violent. This I experienced the tub which contains the fish on to my cost, as I one day took hold glass bottles ; it continues the same of it, about the middle of the fish. in all respects. So that whether it I lifted it partly out of the water, has an unaccountable faculty of col- when on a sudden I received fo lecting a quantity of the fluid from smart a fhock, that it occafioned a the surrounding waters, or through strong contraction in the bending the body of the person touching it, muscles of my fingers, and I could or has in its own body a large fund not immediately let it go; but en. which it can discharge at pleasure, deavouring to disengage my hand, I am greatly at a loss to think or threw it on the ground ; taking imagine.

hold of it a second time, to return Although it has no effect on the it into the tub, I was more strongly human body, when touched with a affected than at first, and that not piece of wood, or indeed any other only in my hands and arms, but substance not metallic ; yet an acci-' throughout my whole body; the dent discovered to me, that on some fore part of my head, and back occafions the effect would be fenfi- part of my legs fuffered principally; ble through wood. For one morn- and in the fame manner as on reing while I was standing by, as a ser- ceiving a very smart shock from a vant was emptying the tub, which he highly charged phial in electrical had lifted entirely from the ground, experiments. and was pouring off the water to re- On observing that the sensation new it, and the fish left almost dry, occasioned by the Mock, as to the the negro received so violent a fhock, nature and degree of strength upon as occasioned him to let the tub fall; touching different parts of the fish, and calling another to his assistance, was different, I was at first inclined I caused them both to lift the tub to think it might be owing to its free from the ground, when pouring having an extraordinary faculty of off the remains of the water, they containing more of the fluid in one both received fmart shocks, and part of its body than in another. were obliged to delift from empty. The tail part, to above one third ing the tub in that manner. This of its length, occasions rather a I afterwards tried myself, and re- numbness and tingling, than pain; ceived the like shock. This fifta but on applying the end of the indeed was one of the largest I have fingers to the back, head, and unseen, and but newly caught. For der part of its body, it causes a I observe that after being fome time sharp pricking pain. confined in a tub, and wanting per- possibly be accounted for, by the haps their natural food, they lose difference in the texture of the much of the strength of this extra- furtace of the skin, as the man. ordinary quality. I am fometimes ner of the electrical fluid's coming apt to conjecture that this' animal from a glass tube is different when has the power of communicating its surface is altered by being the stroke when, and with what de- rubbed with different substances, as gree of force it will; and that it has been lately taken notice of in serves it as a weapon of defence a letter to the Royal Society. against its enemics." For I have of.

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