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the ring opened, the belts began to We may

also infer the real dia. advance towards the south ; and to meter of Saturn from these mea. thew an incurvature answering to the fures, which are perhaps more to be projection of an equatorial line, or depended upon than any that have to a parallel of the fame. When hitherto been given. But as in my the ring closed up, they returned journal I have measures that were towards the north; and are now, repeatedly taken these ten years past, while the ring passes over the center, not only of the diameter of Saturn, exactly ranging with the shadow of it but of the ring, and its opening, on the body; generally one on each whereby its inclination may be side, with a white belt close to it. known; as well as of the distance of

Saturn is considerably flattened at the fourth, and fifth, and other fathe poles ; the axis of the planet is tellites, which will be of great use perpendicular to the plane of the in ascertaining the quantity of matring; and the equatorial diameter ter contained in the planet, I reserve is to the polar one nearly as eleven a full investigation of these things to ten,

for another opportunity.

SELECT BIOGRAPHY.

CELEBRATED TRAVELLER.

MEMOIRS

His first plan for the purpose, was OF THE LATE MR. LEDVARD, A that of embarking in a vessel which

was preparing to fail, on a voyage [From the Proceedings of the Association of commercial adventure, to Nootka

for promoting the Discovery of the in. Sound, on the western coast of Amneterior Parts of Africa.]

rica ; and with this view, he exMRI

TR. Ledyard was an American pended in sea stores the greatest part

by birth, and seemed from of the money which his chief bene. his youth to have felt an invincible factor, fir Joseph Banks, had liberaldesire to make himself acquainted ly supplied. But the scheme being with unknown or imperfectly dif- frustrated by the rapacity of a cul. covered regions of the globe. For tom-house officer, who had seized several years he had lived with the and detained the vessel for reasons Indians of America, had studied which, on legal inquiry, proved to their manners, and had practifed in be frivolous, he determined to tratheir school the means of obtaining vel over land to Kamtschatka, from their

protection, and of recommends whence to the western coast of Ameing himself to the favour of favages. rica the passage is extremely short, In the humble fituation of a corporal With no more than ten guineas in of marines, to which he submitted his purse, which was all that he had rather than relinquilh his pursuit, left, he crofled the British Channel he had made, with captain Cook, to Oftend, and, by the way of Denthe voyage of the world, and feel- mark and the Sound, proceeded to ing, on his return, an anxious desire the capital of Sweden; from whence, of penetrating from the north west- as it was winter, he attempted to ern coast, which Cook had partly traverse to the gulph of Bothnia on explored, to the eastern coast, with the ice, in order to reach Kamt-. which he himself was perfectly fa- schatka by the shortest way i

but miliar, he determined to traverse the finding, when he came to the middle vast continent, from the Pacific to of the sea, that the water was not the Atlantic Ocean.

frozen, he returned to Stockholm, VOL. II.

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and, taking his course northward, Such was his situation wher, ia walked into the arctic circle, and, consequence of fufpicions not hipassing round the head of the gulph, therto explained, or resentments for descended, on its eastern fide, to which no reason is afligned, he was Petersburgh.

seized, in the empress's name, by There he was soon noticed as two Rullian soldiers, who placed an extraordinary man.-Without him in a fledge, and conveying him, stockings or shoes, and in too much in the depth of winter, through the poverty to provide himself with deserts of the northern Tartary, left either, he received and accepted an him at last on the frontiers of the invitation to dine with the Portu- Polisi dominions. As they parted guese ambassador. To this invita- they told him, that if he returned to tion it was probably owing that he Russia he would certainly be hanged; was able to obtain the sum of twenty but that if he chose to go back to guineas for a bill on fir Joseph England, they wished him

a pleasant Banks, which he confessed he had no journey. authority to draw, but which, in In the midst of poverty, covered confideration of the business that he with rags, infested with the ufual had undertaken, and of the progress accompaniment of such clothing, that he had made, fir Joseph, he worn with continued hardship, exbelieved, would not be unwilling to haufted by disease, without friends, pay. To the ambassador's interest without credit, unknown, and full it might also be owing that he ob- of misery, he found his way to Kotained permillion to accompany a ningsberg.-There, in the hour of detachment of stores which the em- his utmoit distress, he resolves once press had ordered to be sent to more to have rècourse to his old beYakutz, for the use of Mr. Billings, nefactor ; and he fuckily found a an Englishman, at that time in her person who was willing to take his fervice.

draft for five guineas on the president Thus accommodated, he travelled of the Royal Society. eastward through Siberia, fix thou With this affistance, he arrived in sand miles to Yakutz, where he was England, and immediately waited kindly received by Mr. Billings, on fir Jofeph Banks, who told him, whom he remembered on board cap- knowing his temper, that he betain Cook's ship in the fituation of lieved he could 'recommend him to the astronomer's fervant, but to an adventure almost as perilous as whom the empress had now en• the one from which he had returned; trusted the schemes of northern dif- and then communicated to him the covery.

wishes of the Association for discover. From Yakutz, he proceeded to ing the infand countries of Africa. Oczakow, on the coast of the Kamt Mr. Ledyard replied, that he had fchatka sea ;' from whence he meant always determined to traverse the to have passed over to that peninsula, continent of Africa as soon as he had and to have embarked on the eastern explored the interior of North Amefide in one of the Ruffian vessels rica ; and, as fir Jofeph had offered that trade to the western shores of him a' letter of introduction, he' came America'; but, finding that the na. directly to the writer of thefe mevigation was completely obstructed moirs. Before 'I 'had learnt from by the ice, he returned again to the note the name and bulinefs of Yakutz in order to wait for the con- my vifitor, I was struck with the clusion of the winter.

manliness of his perfon, the breadth

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enemies, the Arabs on the north, or

of his chest, the openness of his On this grand adventure, Mr. countenance, and the inquietude of Ledyard left London on the 30th his eye. I opened the map of Africa of june 1788, and reached. Cairo before him, and tracing a line from on the 19th of August; whence he Cairo to Sennar, and from thence transmitted such accounts to his weltward in the latitude and sup- employers, as plainly shewed he posed direction of the Niger, I told was a traveller of observation and him, that was his route, by which I reflection, endowed with a soul for was anxious that Africa might, if discovery, and formed for atchievepoffible, be explored. He said, he ments of hardihood and peril. He Thould think himself fingularly for: had promised his next communicatunate to be entrusted with the ad- tion from Sennar, about fix hundred venture. I asked him, when he miles south of Cairo; but death difwould set out?“ To-morrow morn- appointed the hopes which were en ing!” was his answer.

tertained of his projected journey. REVIEW OF HISTORICAL BOOKS. BRUCE'S TRAVELS. CONTINUED

by their importunity that the husband FROM P.

suffers himself to be overcome. 309

second wife is courted for him by the TH

"HE importance of this work, will, first, in nearly the same manner as

we hope, fufficiently apologize among the Galla. for the great attention we have bestowed The Shangalla of both sexes, while on it, and for the many and long ex- single, go entirely naked; the married tracts we have made. Though our men, indeed, have a very slender coverauthor is certainly guilty of amplifica- ing about their waist, and married tion--and though inconsistencies, and women the same. Young nen and contradictions, fometiines appear - we young women, till long past the have no doubt but the outlines are puberty, are totally uncovered, and in formed on "the basis of truth; and that constant conversation and habits with Mr. Bruce really visited those distant each other, in woods and solitudes, free régions which he has described. from constraint, and without any pu.

Although the Shangalla live in nihment annexed to the transgression. separate tribes, cr nations, yet these Yet criminal commerce is much less nations are again subdivided into fami- frequent among them than in the fame lies, who are governed by their own number chosen among Christian naa head, or chief, and of a number of these tions, where the powerful prejudices of the nation is composed, who concur in education give great advantage to one all that regards the measures of defence fex in fubduing their passions, and where and offence against their common ene- the confequences of gratification, which my the Abyffinian and Arab. When- always involve some kind of punishever an expedition is undertaken by a ment, keep within bounds the desires.of nation of Shangálla, either against their the other.

"No one can doubt, but that the those who are equally their enemies, constant habit of seeing people of all

, the Abyssinians on the south, suppose ages naked at all times, in the ordinary the nation or tribe to be the Baasa, each transactions and neceffities of life, family attacks and defends by itself, mult greatly check unchastę propenand theirs is the spoil or 'pļunder who fities. take it.

"A woman, upon bearing a child, “ The mothers, sensible of the disad- or two, at ten or eleven years old, fees vantage of a small family, therefore her breast fall immediately down to feek to multiply and increase it by the near her knees. Her.common manner only means in their power; and it is of ruckling her children is by carrying

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them upon her back, as our beggars do, when grown up; and are, by reason of and giving the infant the breast over its length, for the first years, obliged her ihoulders. They rarely are mo- to hold it parallel, instead of perpendithers after twenty-two, or begin child- cular to the horizon. Their arrows are bearing before they are ten ; so that the full a yard and a half long, with large time of child-bearing is but twelve heads of very bad iron rudely Maped. years. In Europe, very many exam. They are, indeed, the only favages I ples there are of women bearing chil ever knew that take no pains in the dren at fourteen, the civil law fixes make or ornament of this weapon. A puberty at twelve, but by an inuendo branch of a palm, Atript from the tree seems to allow it may be something and made straight, becomes an arrow; eatlier. Women sometimes in Europe and none of them have wings to them. bear children at fifty. The scale of They have this remarkable custom, years of child-bearing between the fa- which is a religious one, that they fix vage and the European is, therefore, upon their bows a ring, or thong, of as twelve is to thirty-eight. There the skin of every beast Main by it, while can be little doubt but their desires are it is yet raw, from the lizard and serequal to their strength and consti- pent up to the elephant. tution ; but a Shangalla at twenty-two dually Itiffens the bow, till, being all is more wrinkled and deformed, ap- covered over, it can be no longer bent parently by old age, than is a European even by its master. That bow is then woman of fixty,

hung upon a tree, and a new one is “ To come ftill nearer, it is a fact made in its place, till the same circum. known to naturalists, and which the itance again happens; and one of apprication of the thermometer fuffi- these bows, that which its master liked ciently indicates, that there is a great beft, is buried with him in the hopes of and sensible difference in the degree of its rising again materially with his body, animal heat in both sexes of different when he shall be endowed with a greater nations at the fame ages or time of life. degree of strength, without fear of death, The voluptuous Turk eftranges himself or being subjected to pain, with a capafrom the fairelt and finest of his Cir- city to enjoy in excess every human cassian and Georgian women in his pleasure. There is nothing, however, feraglio, and, during the warm months spiritual in this resurrection, nor what in summer, addicts himself only to concerns the foul, but it is wholly cornegro laves brought from the very poreal and material ; although some latitudes we are now speaking of; the writers have plumed themselves upon sensible difference of the coolness of their fancied discovery of what they call their skins leading him to give them the the favages belief of the immortality of preference at that feason. On the other the soul." hand, one brown Abyssinian girl, a Some of the Shangalla kill their fick, companion for the winter months, is weak, and aged people ; and there are fold at ten times the price of the fairest others who honour old age and protect Georgian or Circaffian beauty, for op- it. posite reasons.

The fecond volume is closed with a “The Shangalla have no bread: no continuation of the history of Abysgrain or pulse will grow in the country: finia, to the reign of Tecla Haimanout Some of the Arabs, fettled at Ras el II. in 1769. * I fall now begin an Feel, have attempted to make bread of account of what passed at Masuah, the feed of the Guinea grass ; but it is and thence continue my journey to very tasteless, and bad, of the colour Gondar till my meeting with the king of cow-dung, and quickly producing there." worms."

The third volume commences with * 5They are all archers from their our author's progress towards Gondar; infancy. Their bows are all made of having, at Masuah, escaped many danwild fennel, thicker than the common gers and difficulties, thrown in his way proportion, and about feven feet long, by the naybe. He had to pass through and very elastic. The children use the the desert of Sainkar, which was a fame bow in their infancy that they do hazardous route, on account of the

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wandering and lawless tribes of the above the firk in perfect good condiShiho and Hazorta. At length, how- tion, ever, he reached the lofty and tremen Declaring ourselves now without dous mountain of Taranta. “ At half fear of contradiction, and, by the acpast two o'clock in the afternoon we be knowledgment of all, upon fair proof, gan to afcend the mountain, through a the two best men in the company, we inost rocky, uneven road, if it can de- returned, bearing very visibly the chaferve the name, not only from its in- racters of such an exertion ; our hands credible steepness, but from the large and knees were all cut, mangled, and holes and gullies made by the torrents, bleeding, with diding down and clamand the huge monstrous fragments of bering over the sharp points of the rocks which, loosened by the water, rocks; our clothes torn to pieces ; yet had been tumbled down into our way. we professed our ability, without any It was with great difficulty we could reproaches on our comrades, to carry creep up, each man carrying his knap, the two telescopes and time-keeper alfo. fack and arms; but it seemed beyond Shame, and the proof of fuperior conthe posibility of human ftrength to ftancy, so much humbled the rest of our carry our baggage and instruments, companions, that one and all

put

their Our tent, indeed, suffered nothing by hands so briskly to work, that, with inits falls; but our telescopes, time finite toil, and as much pleasure, we keeper, and quadrant, were to be treated advanced so far as to place all our inin a more deliberate and tender man, fruments and baggage, about two

o'clock in the afternoon, near half way “Our quadranthad hitherto been car- up this terrible mountain of Taranta. ried by eight men, four to relieve each 6 The middle of the mountain was other ; but these were ready to give up thinner of trees than the two extremes ; the undertaking upon trial of the firit they were chiefly wild olives which bear few hundred yards. A number of ex no fruit. The upper part was clofe pedients, such as trailing it on the covered with groves of the oxy.cedrus, ground, (all equally fatal to the instru- the Virginia, or berry-bearing cedar, in ment) were proposed. At last, as I the language of the country called Arze. was incomparably the strongest of the At last we gained the top of the mouncompany, as well as the most interested, tain, upon which is fituated a fmall 1, and a stranger Moor who had fol. village called Halai, the fuft we had lowed us, carried the head of it for seen lince our leaving Masuah. It is about four hundred yards over the most chiefly inhabited by poor fervants and difficult and steepest part of the moun. fhepherds keeping the flocks of men of tain, which before had been considered fubftance living in the town of Dixan. as impracticable by all.

“ The plain on the top of the moun 66 We carried it fteadily up the steep, tain Taranta was, in many places, fown eased the case gently over the big stones with wheat, which was then ready to be on which, from time to time, we rested cut down, though the harvest was not it; and, to the wonder of them all, yet begun. The grain was clean, and placed the head of the three-foot quad- of a good colour, but inferior in fize to rant, with its double case, in safety far that of Egypt. It did not, however, above the stony parts of the mountain. grow thick, nor was the talk above At Yasine's request we again under- fourteen inches high. The water is took the next most difficult task, which very bad on the top of Taranta, being was to carry the iron foot of the quad- only what remains of the rain in the rant in a single deal cale, not fo heavy, hollows of the rocks, and in pits preindeed, nor so liable to injury, but still pared for it.” what had been pronounced impossible to Tigré is the first Abyffinian province carry up fo feep and rugged a moun- which Mr. Bruce traverses; it is one

and refusing then the faint offers folid rock, having but a few spots about of those that stood gazing below, ex

Adowa where wheat will grow; and cusing themselves by foretelling an im- here, says our author, they have anmediate and certain miscarriage, we nually three harvests. The next reftplaced the second case about ten yards ing-place of confequence is Axum,

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