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fo that they are very subject to warp the dung of a cow in his left. He in heat, or become too pliable and then says, May this never enter, foft in wet weather. Notwithstand- nor this ever come out, if he docs ing these disadvantages, the report not do what he promises;” that is, of their cruelty made such an im- may the grass never enter the cow's preflion upon the Abyflinians, that, mouth to feed it, or may she die be

their first engagements, they fore it is discharged. Matrimonial rarely stood firmly the Galla's first vows, moreover, are very simple; onfet. Befides this, the shrill and he wears to his bride that he Mall very barbarous noile they are al give her meat and drink while live ways used to make at the momenting, and bury her when dead. they charge, used to terrify the Polygamy is allowed among them, horfes and riders, so that a flight but the men are commonly content generally followed the attack made with one wife. Such, indeed, is by Galla horse.

their moderation in this respect, that The women are said to be very it is the women that solicit the men fruitful. They do not confine them- to increase the number of their selves even a day after labour, but wives. The love of their children wash and return to their work im seems to get a speedy ascendency mediately. They plow, low, and over paffion and pleasure, and is a reap. The cattle tread out the corn, noble part of the character of these but the men are the herdsmen, and favages that ought not to be forgot. take charge of the catile in the A young woman, having a child or fields.

two by her husband, intreats and fuBoth sexes are something less than licits him that he would take anothe middle size, exceedingly light ther wife, when the names to him and agile. Both, but especially the all the beautiful girls of her acmen, plait their hair with the bowels quaintance, especially those that the and guts

of oxen, which they wear thinks likeliest to have large familikewise, like belts, twiited round lies. After the husband has made their middle; and these, as they his choice, the goes to the tent of the putrify, occafion a terrible itench. young woman, and fits behind it in Both copiously anoint their heads a fupplicant posture, till the has exand bodies with butter or melted cited the attention of the family grease, which is continually raining within. She then, with an audible' from them, and which indicates that voice, declares who fhe is; that the they came from a country hotter 'is daughter of such a one; that her than that which they now possess. husband has all the qualifications They greatly resemble the Hotten- for making a woman happy; that tots in this filthy taste of drets. She has only two children by him; The rest of their body is naked; a and, as her family is so small, the piece of skin only covers them be- comes to folicit their daughter for fore; and they wear a goat's skin her husband's wife, that their famion their shoulders, in the shape of lies may be joined together, and be a woman's handkerchief or tippet. strong; and that her children, from

The Galla sometimes marry the their being few in number, may not Abyslinian women, but the issue of fall a prey to their enemies in the those marriages are incapable of all day of battle ; for the Galla always employment. Their form of marriage fight in families, whether against one is as follows: the bridegroom, stand- another, or against other enemies. ing before the parents of the bride, When the has thus obtained a holds grass in his right hand, and wife for her husband, she carries her home, puts her to bed with her hus- days. All that time the husband re. band, where, having left her, the mains at home in possession of his new fearts with the bride's relations. bride; at the end of which he gives There the children of the first mar- a feast, when the firft wife is seated riage are produced, and the men of by her husband, and the young one the bride's family put cach their serves the whole company. The first hands upon these children's heads, wife from this day keeps her preand afterwards take the oath in the cedence; and the second is treated usual manner, to live and die with by the first wife like a grown-up them as their own offspring. The daughter. I believe it would be very children, then, after this species of long before the love of their families adoption, go to their relations, and would introduce this custom among visit them for the space of seven the young women of Britain.

home,

PHILOSOPHICAL HISTORY.

PLANET SATURN.

CONCLUDED

HERSCHEL'S OBSERVATIONS ONThe kept so long in view after the

appa

rent contact. The time of hanging FROM P. 286.

upon the disk, in the seventh satele

lite, has actually amounted to twenty ROM the ring and satellites minutes. Now, as its quick motion

,

thoughts to the planet, its belts, and an arch of near fix degrees, we find, its figure. Accordingly, Dr. Herf- that this would denote a refra&ion chel enumerates the belts which he of about two seconds, provided the observed from April 9, 1775, to Sep- encroaching of light had no share in tember 1780; and says that he found the effect. By an observation of them generally in equatorial fitua- the fixth satellite, the refraction of tions ; but now and then they were Saturn's atinosphere amounts to otherwise. From all which, fays nearly the fame quantity ; for this he, two conclusions may be drawn. fatellite remained about fourteen or The first, which relates to the changes fitteen minutes longer in view than in the appearance of the belts, is, it should have done ; and as it moves that Saturn has probably a very about 23 degrees in that time, and confiderable atmosphere, in which its orbit is larger than that of the these changes take place; just as the seventh, the difference is inconsideralterations in the belts of Jupiter able. What has been said will sufbave been shewn, with great proba- fice to fhew, that very probably bility, to be in his atmosphere. Saturn has an atmosphere of a conThis has also been confirmed by siderable density. other observations: thus, in occul- The next inference we may draw tations of Saturn's satellites, I have from the appearance of the belts on found them to hang to the disk a Saturn is, that this planet turns long while before they would vanish. upon an axis which is perpendicular And though we ought to make some to the ring. The arrangement of allowance for the encroachment of the belts, during the course of fourlight, whereby a satellite is seen to teen years that I have observed them, Teach up to the disk sooner than it has always followed the direction of actually does, yet, without a confi- the ring, which is what I have derable refraction, it could hardly be called being equatorial. Thus, as

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the ring opened, the belts began to

also infer the real dia, advance towards the fouth ; and to meter of Saturn from these mea.

shew an incurvature answering to the fures, which are perhaps more to be . projection of an equatorial line, or depended upon than any that have

to a parallel of the fame. When hitherto been given. But as in my the ring closed up, they returned journal I have measures that were towards the north; and are now, repeatedly taken these ten years past, while the ring pafles over the center, not only of the diameter of Saturn, exactly ranging with the shadow of it but of the ring, and its opening, on the body; generally one on each whereby its inclination may be fide, with a white belt close to it. known; as well as of the distance of

Saturn is considerably flattened at the fourth, and fifth, and other fathe poles ; the axis of the planet is tellites, which will be of great use perpendicular to the plane of the in ascertaining the quantity of matring; and the equatorial diameter ter contained in the planet, I reserve is to the polar one nearly as eleven a full investigation of these things to ten.

for another opportunity.

SELECT BIOGRAPHY.

OF

MEMOIRS

His first plan for the purpose, was THE LATE

MR. LEDYARD, A that of embarking in a vessel which CELEBRATED TRAVELLER. was preparing to fail, on a voyage [From the Proceedings of the Association of commercial adventure, to Nootka

for promoting the Discovery of the in- Sound, on the western coast of Ameterior Parts of Africa.]

rica; and with this view, he ex. MR

R. Ledyard was an American pended in sea stores the greatest part

by birth, and seemed from of the money which his chief bene. his youth to have felt an invincible factor, fir Joseph Banks, had liberal.' desire to make himself acquainted ly supplied. But the scheme being with unknown or imperfectly dif- frustrated by the rapacity of a cus. covered regions of the globe. For tom-house officer, who had seized several

years

he had lived with the and detained the vefsel for reasons Indians of America, had studied which, on legal inquiry, proved to their manners, and had practifed in be frivolous, he determined to tratheir school the means of obtaining vel over land to Kamtschatka, froin their protection, and of recommende whence to the western coast of Ame-, ing himself to the favour of savages. rica the paffage is extremely short, In the humble situation of a corporal With no more than ten guineas in of marines, to which he submitted his purse, which was all that he had rather than relinquith his pursuit, left, he crofled the British Channel he had made, with captain Cook, to Oftend, and, by the way of Denthe voyage of the world, and feel- mark and the Sound, proceeded to ing, on his return, an anxious desire the capital of Sweden; from whence, of penetrating from the north west- as it was winter, he attempted to ern coast, which Cook had partly traverse to the gulph of Bothnia on explored, to the eastern coast, with the ice, in order to reach Kamtwhich he hinself was perfectly fa- schatka by the shortest way; but miliar, he determined to traverse the finding, when he came to the middle vast continent, from the Pacific to of the sea, that the water was pot the Atlantic Ocean.

frozen, he returned to Stockholm, VOL. II.

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and, taking his course northward, Such was his situation when, in walked into the arctic circle, and, consequence of fufpicions not hipafling round the head of the gulph, therto explained, or resentments for descended, on its' eastern fide, to which no reason is afligned, he was Petersburgh.

seized, in the emipress's name, by There he was soon noticed as two Rullian soldiers, who placed an extraordinary man.-Without him in a Nedge, and conveying him, stockings or shoes, and in too much in the depth of winter, through the poverty to provide himself with deserts of the northern Tartary, left either, he received and accepted an him at last on the frontiers of the invitation to dine with the Portu- Polish dominions. As they parted guese ambassador. To this invita- they told him, that if he returned to tion it was probably owing that he Russia he would certainly be hanged; was able to obtain the sum of twenty but that if he chose to go back to guineas for a bill on fir Joseph England, they willied him a pleasant Banks, which he confessed he had no journey. authority to draw, but which, in In the midst of poverty, covered confideration of the business that he with rags, infested with the ufual had undertaken, and of the progress accompaniment of such clothing, that he had made, fir Jofeph, he worn with continued hardship, exbelieved, would not be unwilling to haufted by disease, without friends, pay.

To the ambassador's interest without credit, unknown, and full it might also be owing that he ob- of misery, he found his way to Kotained permission to accompany a ningiberg.--There, in the hour of detachment of stores which the em- his utmost distress, "he resolves once press had ordered to be sent to more to have rècourse to his old beYakutz, for the use of Mr. Billings, nefactor ; and he fuckily found a an Englishman, at that time in her person who was willing to take his fervice.

draft for five guineas on the president Thus accommodated, he travelled of the Royal Society. eastward through Siberia, fix thou- With this affiitance, he arrived in sand miles to Yakutz, where he was England, and immediately waited kindly received by Mr. Billings, on fir Jofeph Banks, who told'him, whom he remembered on board cap- knowing his temper, that he betain Cook's ship in the fituation of lieved he could recommend him to the aftronomer's. fervant, but to an adventure almost as perilous as whom the empress had now én. the one from which he had returned; trusted the schemes of northern dif- and then communicated to him the covery.

wishes of the Allociation for discoverFrom Yakutz, he proceeded to ing the infand countries of Africa. Oczakow, on the coast of the Kamt- Ledyard replied, that he had fchatka sea ;' from whence he meant always determined to traverse the to have passed over to that peninsula, continent of Africa as soon as he had and to have embarked on the eastern explored the interior of North Amefide in one of the Ruffian vessels rića ; and, as fir Jofeph had offered that trade to the western 'Thores of him a' letter of introduction, he' came America' ; but, finding that the na- directly to the'writer of these me. vigation was completely obstructed moirs. Before I had learnt from by the ice, he returned again to the note the name and bufnefs of Yakutz in order to wait for the con- my vifitor, I was struck with the clufion of the winter.

manliness of his perfon, the breadth

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of his chest, the openness -of his On this grand adventure, Mr. countenance, and the inquietude of Ledyard left London on the 30th his eye. I opened the map of Africa of June 1788, and reached. Cairo before him, and tracing a line from on the 19th of August; whence he Cairo to Sennar, and from thence tranfiritred such accounts to his westward in the latitude and fup- employers, as plainly shewed he posed direction of the Niger, I told was a traveller of observation and him, that was his route, by which I reflection, endowed with a foul for was anxious that Africa might, if discovery, and formed for atchievepoffible, be explored. He said, he ments of hardihood and peril. He Thould think himself fingularly for. had promised his next communicatunate to be entrusted with the ad- tion from Sennar, about six hundred venture. I asked him, when he miles south of Cairo; but death difwould set out ? " To-morrow morn- appointed the hopes which were en ing!" was his answer.

tertained of his projected journey.

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BRUCE'S TRAVELS. CONTINUED

by their importunity that the husband

А FROM P. 309.

súffers himself to be overcome.

second wife is courted for him by the TH

HE importance of this work, will, first, in nearly the same manner as

we hope, fufficiently apologize among the Galla. for the great attention we have bestowed The Shangalla of both sexes, while on it, and for the many and long ex. single, go entirely naked: the married tracts we have made. Though our men, indeed, have a very slender coverauthor is certainly guilty of amplifica- ing about their waist, and married tion--and though inconsistencies, and women the same. Young men and contradi&tions, sometimes appear— we young women, till long past the age of have no doubt but the outlines are puberty, are totally uncovered, and in formed on the basis of truth; and that constant conversation and habits with Mr. Bruce really visited those distant each other, in woods and solitudes, free regions which he has described. from constraint, and without any pu

Although the Shangalla live in nishment annexed to the transgression, separate tribes, cr nations, yet these Yet criminal commerce is much less nations are again subdivided into fami- frequent among them than in the fame lies, who are governed by their own number chosen among Christian na. head, or chief, and of a number of these tions, where the powerful prejudices of the nation is composed, who concur in éducation give great advantage to one all that regards the measures of defence lex'in subduing their passions, and, where and offence against their common ene- the consequences of gratification, which my the Abyffinian and Arab. When- always involve some kind of punishever an expedition is undertaken by a ment, keep within bounds the desires of nation of Shangálla, either against their the other: enemies, the Arabs on the northi, or ** No one can doubt, but that the those who are equally their enemies, constant habit of seeing, people of all, the Abyssinians on the south, fuppofe ages naked at all times, in the ordinary the nation or tribe to be the Baafa, each transactions and necessities of life, family attacks and defends by itself, must greatly check unchastę propenand theirs is the spoil or plunder who fities. take it.

A woman, upon bearing a child “The mothers, sensible of the disad- or two, at ten or eleven years old, sees vantage of a small family, therefore her breast fall immediately down to feek

to multiply and increase it by the near her knees. Her.common manner only means in their power; and it is of suckling her children is by carrying

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