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the cattle, in an inclosure, at a small hunger. These bandages are likewire distance from the house; they immedie a general remedy amongst them, in alately seized their weapons, and running most all cases, binding the head or any to the spot, found a lion had broken other suffering part, and supposing that through the fence, and was making pain is to be expelled by violent prefterrible havoc among the oxen. It iure ; having been often prefent on was only necessary to enter the inclosure, these oecasions, I have ever observed fire and kill the animal, who had no that when the operation was finished, chance of escape; but neither her fons, the patient appeared eased; strange as flaves, or Hottentots, had sufficient this may appear, it would not be so gecourage to attempt it; this undaunted nerally adopted, did it not, in some woman, therefore, entered alone, and meafure, answer the intended purpose.” armed with a mukket, approached the . Some of M. Vaillant's men having Scene of confufion; the obfcurity of the escaped the pursuit of several lions, on night prevented her seeing the furious notice given them by a dog, he takes bealt 'till she was close by him; the occasion to speak of the superiority of immediately fired her musket, but was that animal over every other. “ It fo unfortunate as only to wound the ani- would be difficult to express how very mal, who rushed on her in an instant. fearful the boldeft dog is of a lion, and
“ The screams of the unfortunate it is easy, during the night, to discover mother brought the fons to her affift- by his countenance, what fpecies of ance. Furious desperate -- distraeted wild beast is near. If a lion, the dog,
they fell on the tremendous animal without ftirring, begins to howl fear. and killed him'(though too late) on the fully, and experiencing the greatest unmangled body of their parent. easiness, creeps towards the human fpe
“ Exclusive of the deep wounds the cies, and caressing him, seems to demand had received in the throat, and different protection. The other domestic aniparts of the body, the lion had bit off mals are not less agitated, all rising, one of her hands at the wrist.-- Aflift. none attempting to Sleep. The oxen ance was ineffectual; she died the fame lowing in an under melancholy tone; night, amidst the vain lamentations and horses paw and suffer great agitation ; regret of her children and servants." the goats, likewise, thew their alarm,
The Hottentot method of balancing and ihe sheep, pressed one against anothe effects of hunger, is truly curious, ther, form an immoveable mass-Man and well worth attention! “ I could alone, proud and languine, feizes his never make my people comprehend that weapon, and palpitating with impatie it was prudent to reserve something for ence, sighs to meet his victim. another day. We Mall hunt, (they “ My Hottentot Klaas, in returning faid) or we shall feep,'--for sleep is to from hunting, brought an eagle which them a capital resource in times of need, he had killed; it was of a species unand I never passed any of the dry or known to me, and undescribed by any sterile countries, where game is scarce, author ; I recompensed him, and gave without finding whole hoords asleep in him likewise a double quantity of their kraals, which is a certain assurance tobacco; not that I was more generous of their being in a miserable situation; to Klaas on this occasion than I fhould but what is surprising, (and which I have been to another, though I preferred should not have affirmed buton repeated him to the rest, but I wined to excite, experience) they sleep at will, by this in my people, a desire of making discomeans deceiving, or at least alleviating, veries. the most pressing calls of nature. “ This bird was extremely black,
“ They have, notwithstanding, their and seemed to resemble the vulture as hours of wakefulness, which even cus-, much as the eagle, though different in tom cannot conquer ; but they then some instances. Hunger changes the make use of an expedient to prevent eagle into a vulture, that is to say, when Neep, which will scarcely appear proba. diitressed for food it will feed on putrible, though strictly true: they bind the fied carrion. It is a vulgar error, that ftomach tight with a leather girdle, by this bird onlý sublists by preying on this means supporting or diminishing others; for when I caused the offal of
animals we had killed to be spread about, together their little stock of necessaries, to attract carnivorous birds, eagles, as where they live together as long as well as others, profited by the carnage. harmony lubfifts between them : for
" I here ask pardon of the ancient should any difference arise, which is and modern poets, for thus degrading not likely to fubfide, they make no the nature of this noble king of birds ; scruple of separation, but part with for I must call it degrading, to see this as little ceremony as they met; and favourite bird of Jove feeding on the each one, free to form other conscattered remains of infected carrion.” nections, seeks elsewhere a more agree
Our author closes his first volume by able partner. describing a visit which he received “ Justice certainly prescribes that the from a hoord of Gonaquais, who be- effects of the married pair in these ir. haved in a most friendly manner, bring. stances Mould be equally divided; but ing M. Vaillant a variety of presents, should the husband, in his quality of particularly milk in baskets : these master, insist on retaining the whole, the baskets are fabricated with reeds, and so wife never fails to find those who will closely interwoven, that they hold wa- affert and defend her right; her family ţer. In return for these acts of civility, interests itself, nor are the friends of our author presented the chief with le- the man idle, so that sometimes the veral pounds of tobacco, which he di. whole hoord is in a ferment; in the vided among his people, keeping.only a end they come to blows, and, as in all common mare for himself. Among other places, the conquerors give laws these people was a beautiful female, to the vanquished. The mother always jvhom M. Vaillant named Narina, and has the care of the younger children, to whom he seeins to have been very especially if they are girls; while the particularly attached.
boys who are able to follow their Our author begins his second volume faiher, are sure to belong to him. with giving some account of the Gona. These disagreements I must again obquais Hottentots; their dress, amuse- ferve, are very rare; and it is equally ments, and customs : he paid them a worthy of remark, that they have no .visit, and was much pleased with the known law or established custom, to fedulous attention which the young which they can refer for the termination men bestow on the old ones, when con- of their differences." fined by age or difease; and from several Among those Hottentots who are other similar circumftançes, takes occa- far distant from the colonists, conjugal fion to call them “good savages ?" fidelity is held more sacred than among
Most of our readers have dqubtless the polished offsprings of refinement. Some remembrance of a filthy custom, “ Though polygamy is not repugnant ascribed by all our geographical writers to the customs of the Hottentots, it is to the Hottentots, at their marriage by no means common among them ; ceremony; the priest being said to they may take as many wives as they þetow publicly a urinary stream on the please, but whether from a love of bride and bridegroom, in presence of peace, or any other motive, that numall the assembled friends. Our au ber seldoin exceeds one. Women are thor, however, completely refutes this never known to cohabit with two men; assertion : “ the formalities of these Nature, that would ever have a father marriages,” says hę, consist in the able to ascertain his own offspring, promises made by each party, to live has wisely planted in the heart of a together as long as they may find it female Gonaquais, an invincible horror .convenient: the engagement made, the for such infamous prostitution. "Nay, young couple, from that moment, are so disgusting is it to these people, that man and wife. They then kill some a husband on the knowledge of the Sheep, fometimes an ox, to celebrate most trilling infidelity of his wife, this little holiday; the parents on both might kill her without fear of incurring fides furnish the young couple with the reproach of the hoord.” Some cattle, they immediately apply With ideas of honour, such as these, themselves to the construction of a hut, the reader will the more easily be dif. forming an inclufure, and in getting poted to credit our author's refutation
of an assertion made by Kolben and coast, where the Grosvenor Indiaman others, That the Hottentots indulge was supposed to be wrecked; there in connexions of an incestuous nature. being several rivers to pass, particuM. Vaillant vehemently denies the larly a large one, for which our aucharge; when he hinted the matter to thor was by no means provided. It these people, “ Do you,” said they, was his intention to have reached the “ take us for brutes !” Indeed, our residence of Pharoo king of Caffraria ; author is warm in their praises; and but this monarch, it seems, has only a we must do him the justice to say, that hut like his subjects, and frequently he never reasons but froin facts. “ A changes his situation. However, he confiderable hoord of the Kaminou. had an opportunity of gathering much Kais came to visit the camp, with that information relating to these people, frank air of confidence which is the from the parties which he met; and, in characteristic of men who have not been particular, found that their notions of rendered suspicious by the deceit or in- conjugal fidelity, were not so strict as juries of their fellow-creatures. those of the Hottentots. Polygamy
“ Constrained to be frugal in the use is customary among the Caffrees, their of my provisions, it was not possible to marriages are even more simple than regale every one with brandy, the com- those of the Hottentots; the parents of pany was too numerous, and I could the bridegroom being always content not without imprudence appear gene- with his choice ; the friends of the rous ; I presented a glass to the chief, bride are rather more difficult, but feland to those among them, who, by dom refuse their consent; after which their figure, or ftill more by their age, they rejoice, drink and dance for weeks appeared the most respectable: but to together, according to the wealth of the what means will not beneficence have families; but these feasts are never held recourse! how ingenious is the in find- but on the first espousals. ing opportunities to demonstrate her “ I am unacquainted with the dispoexistence! What was my astonilhment, fition of the Caffrees respecting love after having observed that each kept and jealousy; but believe they only his liquor in his glass, to see them apo feel the latter sensation in regard to proach their comrades who had not re their countrymen ; voluntarily giving ceived any, and distribute it from mouth up their women for a small consideration to mouth! I must confess I was in- to the first white that expresses an inchanted by this unexpected and affect- clination for them.--Hans more than ing stroke of native generosity., Is once informed me that those at the there a heart so void of feeling, that it camp were at my service; and to say evould remain untouched by such a the truth, they used every possible at. scene? or eyes that would not have traction to entice me, even in the prefurnished tears of sensibility ? Trans- sence of their husbands, who perhaps ported with admiration, l embraced were fcandalized at my want of conthe chief, and those who like him had plaisance, and the coolness with which distributed my gift to their surrounding I received these advances." friends."
Natural history will be highly beneThe whole of the oth Chapter is em fited by the travels of M. Vaillant ; inployed in an investigation of the Hot- deed, its improvement was the principal tentot language; to the end of which object of his perilous expedition. A 'ourauthor has lubjoined a pretty copious new circumstance relative to the ostrich; vocabulary.
ought not to be omitted. “ A female M. Vaillant left his camp and wag- ostrich rose from her nelt, which was gons on the borders of Caffiaria ; and the largest I had ever seen, containing with a part of his attendants, pene. thirty-two eggs; twelve more being trated into the country, keeping to the distributed at some distance, each in a south. He travelled in this way about little cavity by itself. a month, meeting occasionally with de “ I could not conceive that one feserted huts, and fometimes with small male could cover so many: they were parties of Caffrees : from whom he of an unequal size, and, on examination, learnt the impossibility of reaching the I found that nine of them were much
less than the rest. This peculiarity his attendants; but found much reinterested me, and I ordered the oxen to luctance in parting from Klaas, his bé unyoked at about a quarter of a principal man. league distance from the rest; I then The translator, at the end of this concealed myself in a thicket, from volume, informs us, that the s' Second whence I could overlook the place, and Part of these curious and entertaining yet remain within gun-fhot.
travels, containing the author's farther “ I had not watched long before the adventures on the coast of Africa, is female returned, and sat on the eggs. preparing for the press.” When it During the rest of the day, (which I appears, we hall give our readers the passed in the thicket) three more came result. to the same nest, covering it alternately, each continued fitting for the space of a
TRAVELS TO DISCOVER THE SOURCE quarter of an hour, and then gave place
OF THE NILE, IN 1768, to 1773. to another, who, while waiting, fat
VOLS. 4to. BY JAMES BRUCE, close by the side of her it was to succeed: a circumstance which made me
OF KINNAIRD, ESQ: F. R. S.
BINSONS. 1790.. sl. 55. conjecture that in cold or rainy nights they fit by pairs, or perhaps more. IT being now sixteen years since the The sun was almost down; the male Public had reason to expect the partibird approached, (these cquaily with culars of Mr. Bruce's journey into the females affist in hatching the eggs). Abyffinia, many have been inclined to I instantly shot him, but the report of doubt that this gentleman had never my gun scared the others, who in their reached the source of the Nile; and fright broke several of them. I now that many other of his assertions were drew near, and saw with regret that the exaggerated. This, however, was by young ostriches were just ready to quit no means the general opinion; and the shells, being perfectly covered with whatever of suspicion may hitherto have down. The male I had shot, had not operated, is now effectually done away a single good white feather, all being by the publication before us.
It conspoiled and dirty. I chose fome black tains a Dedication to the King; and an ones, which appeared the best, and left Introduction, stating the motives on the place, sending some of my Hotten- which these travels were undertaken. tots to fetch the thirteen dispersed eggs, But this we must necessarily pass over; charging them not to touch the others, as we mean to give our readers a comas I was curious to learn whether the plete view of the Work, sometimes females would return in the night. copying the most interesting passages in I rose, and went to the nest at day- the exact words of the author. break, but found only fome scattered The discovery of the source of the Mells remaining, which plainly denoted Nile was a subject of frequent conversathat I had prepared a feast for the tion between Mr. Bruce and his friends; jackals, or perhaps for the hyæna. but it was always mentioned to him
“This particularity of female ostriches with a kind of diffidence, as if to be exassisting each other for the incubation of pected from a more experienced trathe same nest, is I think calculated to veller. Whether this was but another awaken the attention of the naturalists; way of exciting him to the attempt, he and not being a general rule, proves does not presume to say; but his heart that circumstances fometimes determine in that instant did him the justice to the actions of these creatures, regulate fuggest, that this, too, was either to be their customs, and strengthen their na- atchieved by him, or to remain, as it had tural instinct, by giving them a know- done for these last two thousand years, ledge not generally beltowed; for is it a defiance to all travellers, and an opnot probable, that they may associate to probrium to geography. be the more powerful, and better able Fortune, however, seemed apparently to defend their young?"
to point out Mr. Bruce for the underIn April, M. Vaillant arrived safely taking: for at the very instant, Mr. at the Cape, without meeting any very Alpinwall, very cruelly and ignomiremarkable occurrence. He discharged niously treated by the dey of Algiers,
had resigned his confullhip, and Mr. After a favourable voyage, he arrived Ford, a merchant, formerly the dey's at Tunis, and, having delivered his let. acquaintance, was named in his place. ters from the bey, and obtained permis, Mr. Ford was appointed, and dying a bon to visit the couatry in whatever difew days after, the consulship. became rection he should please, he set out on
Lord Halifax pressed Mr. ķis inland journey through the king. Bruce to accept of this, as containing doms of Algiers and Tunis. all sort of conveniencies for making the From Dugga he continued the upper proposed expedition.
road to Keff, through the pleasant plains He had all his life applied unwearied. inhabited by the Welled Yagoube. ly to drawing, the practice of mathe- He then proceeded to Hydra, a frontier matics, and especially that part necessary place between the two kingdoms of to astronomy. The transit of Venus Algiers and Tunis, as Keff is also. It was at hand. It was certainly known is inhabited by a tribe of Arabs, whose that it would be visible once at Algiers, chief is a marabout, or faint; thele and there was great reafon to expect it Arabs are immenfely rich, paying no might betwice. He furnished himself tribute either to Tunis or Algiers. with a large apparatus of instruments, The pretence for this exemption is a the completest of their kind for the ob- very singular one. By the institution of fervation. It was a pleasure to Mr. their founder, they are obliged to live Bruce to know, that it was not from a
lions Hella for their daily food, as folitary desert, but from his own house far as they can procure it. at Algiers, he could deliberately take Having proceeded to the north-east as measures to place himself in the list of far as Tuberfoke, he returned to Dugga, men of science of all nations, who were and from thence to Tunis. His next then preparing for the same fcientific journey through Tunis, was by Zowan, purpose.
a high mountain, where is a large aqueThus prepared, he fet out for Italy, duct which formerly carried its water through France; and on his arrival at to Carthage. Rome, he received orders to proceed to Having continued his journey along Naples, there to wait his majesty's fur- the coast to Susa, through a fine country ther cominands. Having stopped a planted with olive trees, he came again short time there, he received orders to
to Tunis. praceed to take possession of his consula He then took leave of the bey, and, hip. He returned without loss of time with the acknowledgments usual on to Rome, and thence to Leghorn; fuch occalions, again set out from where, having embarked on board the Tunis, on a very ferious journey in; Montreal man of war, he arrived at deed, over the desert to Tripoli, the Algiers.
first part of which was to Gabs, and After Mr. Bruce had spent a year at from thence to the iland of Gerba. Algiers, constant conversation with the Being arrived at Tripoli, he sent an matives whilft abroad, and with his ma- English servant from thence to Smyrna nuscripts within doors, bad qualified with his books, drawings, and superhim to appear in any part of the conti- numerary instruments, retaining only dient without the help of an interpreter. extracts from such authors as might be
Business of a private nature having at jnecessary for him in the Pentapolis, or this time obliged Mr. Bruce to take a other parts of the Cyrenaicum. He voyage to Mahon, he failed from then crofled the gulf of Sy drı, formerly Algiers, after having taken leave of the known by the name of the Syrtis Madey, who furnished him with che necef- jor, and arrived at Bengazi, the ancient sary passports, and also gave him re Berenice, built by Ptolemy Philadelcommendatory letters to the bey of phus. Tunis and Tripoli. Being disappointed
Mr. Bruce encompassed a great part in his views at Mahon, he failed in a of the Pentapolis, visited the ruins of Small vesel from that port, and, having Arsinoe, and received neither infult nar a fair wind, in a short time made the injury. Finding nothing, at Arlinge coalt of Africa, and landed at Bona, a nor Barca, he continued his journey to confiderable town.
Ras Sem, the petrified city, concerning