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of Lublaw as a retreat for them į but by some judgment may be formed from
the inprudence of the officer who was the following extract.
to affist him, and who preniaturely di. “ From Berenowsky we departed on
yulged the plan, it proved abortive, and the 6th, and arrived very late in the
the count was again feized and sent tó night at Ilirga, a village composed of
general Apraxin. On his way to that about fifteen houses, inhabited by exiles;
general, he was however rescued by a among whom I recognized an Hunga-
party of the confederates; and after rian, who informed me, that he had been
a variety of gallant actions performed major of one of the regiments of Hussars
by him, and great vicissitudes of fore in the Russian service, commanded by
tune, he was overpowered by num- general Horvath ; and that he had the
bers, and taken prifoner a third time misfortune to be banished for requesting
by the Russians, on the 20th of May his dismission, in order to return into

his own country. He assured me, that The cruelties which he suffered from he was a gentleman of the family of the barbarous Ruflians are almost in- Orosz. As I ran no risk in conversing credible; the furgeon was not permitted with this unfortunate person in the to dress his wounds; he was loaded Hungarian language, which was unwith irons; and he passed twenty-two derstood by no one present but him and days with eighty companions, in a myself, I asked him many questions, dreadful fubterraneous dungeon, with and among others, how it happened out light or air, and in which the dead that fo great a number of exiles, re-. were left to putrify among the living. duced to the most extreme misery, had No constitution could long resist such not yet made some attempts to efcape; hardships; ; more than five-sixths of the to which he answered, that a confiderable prisoners died; and the count suffered number of their companions had already under a dreadful fever and delirium. attempted to escape towards Persia, but The Russian commanders were not only having been met by the Nogais Tartars, destitute of all feeling, but fome of them they were all Nain, and that this event were actual thieves. While a prisoner had intimidated the others, and preat Cazan, a confpiracy was formed by a vented them from following their exnumber of the Russian nobility to thake ample.". off the cruel and arbitrary yoke of the A spirit of humanity appeared to prefent czarina, and overtures were prevail among the people of the north, made to the Polin prisoners to join in proportion to their distance from the them; the prisoners affected rather a seat of despotism. In the course of his neutral line of conduct; but one of the journey to Kamchatka, the count mer difcontented lords turning informer, with several signal instances of kindimpeached his associates and the pri- ness: at Tomłzky, a dealer in furs offoners also. By a singular accident, fered to affift him in escaping to China, count Benyowsky was enabled to ef. and to accompany him thither; and cape, and inade his way to Petersburgh, when he declined the offer, froin the where he engaged to embark for Hol- state of his wounds, the generous l'arland; but by the perfidy of the Dutch tar dismissed him loaded with presents. captain he was betrayed. He was loaded' At Jakutízk he met with a qurgeon, with irons ; and after repeated exami- who was fent thither from Petersburgh, nations, he was prevailed on to fign an with a salary of one thousand roubles engagement never to serve againt the' but considering this only as a species of Russians, on a promise of being fet at exile, he proposed to the count to atliberty: This promilé, however, was tempt their escape in a small vesel to not fulfilled ; on the contrary, he was China or Japan; and the count, on the immediately remanded to prison, and other hand, very heartily entered inta baniled to Kamchatka.

the measure. In the single province of Tobolczy in 6. The manner of travelling here, "*! Siberia, it appears there are upwards of fays the count de Beniyowsky, “on twenty-two thousand exiles, who sube ledges drawn by elks was very agreeGift chiefly by hunting and fishing. Of able to us. The swiftness and agility the state of these unfortunate persons, with which these animals run; can frardły


be conceived, and their manner of fub- which we must depend upon oarfelvet listing is still more surprising: an hand- for our maintenance. ful of moss mixed with urine, enables 2. That each person would rethem to support the fatigue of three or ceive from the chancery, a musquet and four days.

a lance, with one pound of powder, « On the third of September we four pounds of lead, a hatcher, several passed the river Tola, and continued knives, and other instruments and care our journey without interruption thus penters tools, with which we might far, excepting a difference which hap- build cabins, and that we were at lie pened among our conductors, during berty to choose our situations at the die the time our camp was pitched on the stance of one league from the town; banks of this river, where they made a but that we should be bound to pay in Stop for the purpose of gambling, an furs, during the first year, each one occupation which they had strenuously hundred roubles, in return for these followed ever since our departure from advantages. Jakutszk. One of the Cossacks having 3. That every one must work at Jost all his provisions in play against the the corvee one day in the week for the chief, thought proper to indulge him. service of government, and that we felf' in fome disrespectful expressions, might not absent ourselves from our upon which the commander ordered the houles for twenty-four hours without Cossacks to tie him up and give him one the permission of the governor. hundred lashes with the whip. Instead, 4. That each exile should bring to however, of executing the orders of the chancery fix sables skins, fifty rabtheir commander, the Cossacks took the bits skins, two foxes skins, and twentypart of the culprit, and after having four ermines per annum. Itripped their officer naked, entertained “ After this information the secretary him with more than three hundred dismissed our guards, and cauled prostripes; an operation which, though we visions for three days to be immedi. þore no part in it, nevertheless afforded ately distributed, the whole confitting us fome diversion."

of nine pounds of dried fish. We Their project of escape was dashed by then quitted the chancery, and went the death of Mr. Hoffman, the furgeon, directly to the magazine to receive our whom they had left behind at Jakutszk, arms and utensils, which were carefully among whose papers fome hints of the delivered to us according to our choice, design were found, which were sent in- for the store-keeper permitted us to closed to the governor of Ochoczk, by choose in consequence of our having their conductor. This packet the count promised him some furs. It was with and his companions determined to seize, the greatest pleasure that I again beheld and to substitute in its place a letter to myself armed ; and my companions rethe governor, recommending them para ceived equal satisfaction from the same ticularly to his favour. An opportu, circumstance. When we came out of nity foon presented, when they contrived the magazine we perceived twenty exto 'intoxicate their conductors with iles, who had brought some nedges brandy, and to alter the dispatches. drawn by dogs to affiit in carrying our Their stratagem fucceeded, and pro- charge, and who offered us the use of cured for them a very agreeable recep- their cabins until we Mould liave built tion at Ochoczk, whence they embarked our own. We accepted their invitation, for Kamchatka, and arrived at Bol. and departed towards their home. Their sharezk the capital of that country, on repeated marks of civility were exceedthe ad of December 1770.

ingly fatiguing to us who were in a The following extract will explain state of extreme hunger, but at length, the terms upon which the exiles were about three in the afiernoon, we arrived allowed their liberty, and will throw at their habitations, which formed a some light upon the nature of this fpe- small village composed of eight cabins, cies of banishment.

and the same number of balagans, or “ 1. That we should be set at liberty magazines. In the center of the vil. on the following day, and provided lage we perceived a long square buildwith fubfiftence for three days, after , ing, which our new companions in,


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formed us was their public hall of to think that those parts of the globe meeting."

which were unexplored, inight give now In addition to the above they found, information, and rectify former errors;

1. That the ordinances of the looking on that man as supremely czar Peter enacted, that no exile could happy, who 'Mould have the courage poffefs property; and that in confe to trace them to their source. The quence of this edict the foldiers of the interior parts of Africa appeared, for garrison frequently entered the houses that purpose, a Peru. It was a virgin of the exiles, and carried away what- land.' ever they pleased, against which depre Delighted, beyond expreffion, with dation the exiles had no remedy.

this idea, M. Vaillant let out, from 2. That in cafe an exile nould Paris, on the 17th of July 1780, for have been so ralh as to strike a citizen Holland; where he found it expedient or foldier, though upon provocation, to form a close friendship with the treahe was condemned to die of hunger.

surer of the Dutch East India Company, 3. That on account of their be- and to whom he communicated his ining declared exiles from civil society, tentions; which fortunately meeting every faithful subject was prohibited the approbation of this gentleman, he from receiving them into their houses. rendered our traveller every posible

“ That their lives being granted them service. Thus encouraged, he took a for no other purpose than to implore passage to the Cape of Good Hope, in the mercy of God and the remiffion of a vessel which was to touch there in its their fins, they could be employed only way to Ceylon; and, after escaping the in the meanest works to gain their daily close pursuit of an English privateer, fubfiftence.”

he landed safely at the place of his de[To be continued.]

ftination. The Dutch governor, at this time, was fearful of being attacked ; he therefore ordered the ships in the

bay to repair to that of Saldanha: here, HOPE INTO THE INTERIOR PARTS

notwithstanding, they were encountered OF AFRICA. BY MONS. VAILLANT;

by Johnstone's squadron; and the ship, WITH ELEGANT PLATES.

which had our author's property on

board, was blown up by the captain. THESE travels were made in the “ I had,” says M. Vaillant, who, from years 1780, 1981, 1782, 1783, 1784, more, faw the consagration, “ the cruel and 1785, by. Mont. Vaillant. This mortification of seeing my collections, gentleman was born at Paraınbarino, my fortune, my projects, and all my on the left shore of the river of Surinam; hopes, rise to the middle regions, and and, his parents being particularly fond evaporate in fmoke." of Natural History, their son caught an M. Vaillant, however, was enabled to earneft, indeed ardent, inclination for pursue his project, without waiting for the same pursuit; which his situation the assistance of his European friends, enabled him to gratify. “ Placed,” by means of the beneficence of Mr. says he, “ under the burning climate of Boers, the fiscal at the Cape, to whom the torrid zone, five degrees north of he had been recommended. the line, this region, yet enveloped in During his residence at Saldanha, he the mift of time, conceals, if I may to made frequent excursions. express it, the focus where Nature forces time I went to Schaapen Inand, a kind her exceptions to general rules.” He of hollow sound, which had something first conceived the desire of visiting the dreadful in it, struck my ear. I fpake interior parts of Africa, at. Paris, at of this to the captain, [the commander which city he arrived in 1777, in com at Saldanha] he answered, that if I pany with his parents; who had now had the finallest inclination that waj,' jesided in Europe about fourteen years, we would pay it a visit; for that he part of which time they (pent in Hols himself should like to see the Danish land and Germany. The contradic tomb. The next morning he gave ortions which our author had oblerved in ders accordingly, and we let off on this books of Natural History, induced him expedition. VOL. II,


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I 2S.


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“ In proportion, as we approached pendicularly on its feet, with a laughe this place, the noise excited our curi- able air of gravity; and, what render's ofity, the more fo, as the sea breaking its appearance ftill more ridiculous, the with violence against the rocks (which wings, entirely devoid of feathers, hang form a kind of rampare round this negligently by their fides, and are of no island) feemed to re-echo the hollow use, except in fwimming. As we adbuzzing, the cause of which we could vanced towards the middle of the isle, not poflibly divine. At length we ar we encountered innumerable troops of rived, I cannot say we landed, for the them stalking along erect. Thefe creaearth was covered with water, and the cures did not by any means derange surf was so violent, that we were every themselves on our appearance, but moment covered with it.

crowded particularly about the above With great difficulty and danger mentioned monument, in such a manwe skimbed up the rocks, and gained ner as seemed to forbid our approach ; the level plain. Never did a more ex every avenue was obstructed by then. traordinary spectacle present itself to mor- Nature had added to the simple tomb tal eye! There arose from the whole of this poor Danish captain, what the surface of the idle, an impenetrable imagination of the poet, and the chiffel cloud, which formed, at about forty of the artist, could not possibly have or fifty feet above our heads, an im: reached. The best seulptured fereech menfe canopy, or rather sky of birds, owl on our most fuperb mausoleum has of all forms, and of all colours : cor not so hideous, so melancholy an aspect morants, sea-gulls, swallows, pelicans, as the manchot : the moumful notes of all the feathered inhabitants of the air, this bird, mingled with the cries of the who frequent this part of Africa, secm- fea calf, impress the mind with forrow, ed assembled in this place; while all and form the heart to tenderness. For their various croakings mingled toge- fome time I fixed my eyes on this last ther, and modified according to their afylum of an unfortunate voyager, and different kinds, formed music, that I offered the tribute of a figh to his was every moment obliged to stop my manes.” ears in order to diminish the din, and After returning from Saldanha Bay, afford myself fome relaxation.

our author spent three months at the 66 The alarm was the more generał Cape, in order to make every possible among these innumerable legions of preparation for his intended journey. birds, as we had principally to do with But this time was partly spent in drawfemales; it was precisely the season of ing such observations as appeared worth their breeding, and they had their nests, preserving at that place. their eggs, and their young ones to de “ The

beer they brew at the Cape is. fend. They attacked us like enraged much esteemed'; but they place a very harpies, and actually deafened us with high value on that which is brought abeir cries. Sometimes they fought or from Europe ; its price fluctuates from full wing, even rushing with violence twelve to twenty-four sous the bottle : against us; they seemed regardless of there is a great demand here for liquors our thot, and nothing was capable of in general. dispersing them ; nor could we make a « On entering a house, you are al. ftep without crulhing either eggs or ways presented with a sopi, that is to young ones under our feet. The earth fay, with a glass of arrack, Geneva, was absolutely covered with them. or perhaps French brandy. Geneva,

“ The caverns and crevices of the however, is the common morning dram. rocks were inhabited by phocales and Before they fer down to table, the etimors, a sort of fea calves and sea lions. quette is to offer a sopi of white wine, We killed, among others, one of the in which wormwood or aloes have been latter fort, of an enormous fize. Ateeped, to create an appetite. At table

The most trifling shelter furnishes they drink beer or wine indiscriminately. a retreat for the manchots, who abound After the defert, the ladies retire to above all others. This bird, which is different apartment, they then bring in about two feet high, does not carry his pipes and tobacco, with a recruit of body like other birds, but walks per- wine for the men; mean time the ladies


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are Terved with coffee, rhenish, and mo- he was glad he had committed the
selle. They then form themselves into crime, that he well knew the death ata
card parties, while the men continue to sending the commission of it, which he
drink and finoke, and if any interesting, ardently wished for, as it would return
or witty subject is started among them, him to his native country. I am amazed
it is sure to furnish a pretext for a few such an error does not cause greater mis-
more bumpers. This is their usual førtunes.
manner of living, with this difference, “ The Creole slaves at the Cape are
that those in indifferent circumstances molt esteemed; they are sold at double
drink their own wine, but in this par- the price of the others; and if they
ticular, the vanity of the inhabitants know any business, their price is exor-
as often very ridiculous; one day as I bitant. A cook will fall from eight to
avas walking with Mr. Boers, he made twelve hundred sixdollars, and others
me observe a man feated at the door in proportion to their talents. They are
of his house, who seeing we were near ever nearly dretsed, but walk barefoot,
him, began calling to his tave with a as a mark of lavery. At the Cape
loud voice, to bring him some red wine, there is none of that insolent train
though the fiscal assured me, he had not called footmen, luxury and pride not
a lingle bottle at his command, and that having yer introduced this useless lum-
moft likely he had not drank of it ten

ber of the anti-chambers of the great. times in his life; when I had passed A stranger is furprized on his arhim some little way, I turned and law rival at the Cape, to see a multitude of zhat it was beer his llave had brought flaves as fair as Europeans; but astonishhim.

ment ceases when it is known the young
“ For twelve leagues round the Cape female negroes have generally a lover
the colonists do not employ Hottentots, among the foldiers of the garrison,
rather buying negroes who are not so with whom they generally pass the
lazy, and whom they can more safely Sunday; the interest of the matter
trust. The Hottentots, careless and makes him overlook the morals of his
inconstant by nature, often go away laves, he profiting by their licentious
on the approach of hard labour, and conduct.”
leave their master's in embarrallinent; The following account, given by our
the negroes desert also, but vain is their author, of his travelling apparatus, will

efforts for liberty, they are soon retaken, be found acceptable.
and sent to the bailiff of the canton, I had got every thing in readiness
from whom the prosecutor reclaims for the journey; my baggage was con-
them for a small fine, after they have fiderable; for in the firit ardour which
received some trifling correction; nor had transported my imagination beyond
is there any part of the world where its ordinary course, I had set no bounds
the flaves are treated with such huma. to my travels, but resolved to prosecute
nity as at the Cape.

them to the utmost possible extent, and “ The negroes of Mosambique and wished above all things not to be conMadagascar are regarded as the best strained to return for want of indirworkmen, and most affectionate to their pensible necessaries. I knew too that malters; when they are landed at the my return might not be equally in Cape, they usually tell from a hundred my power with the departure; I had and twenty to a hundred and fifty therefore taken care not to neglect even piasters a head.

those things which were not absolutely “ The Indians are more employed necessary, but which might be servicein houshold work in the town; there able in a number of unforeseen circumare also Malayans, who are the most stances, and I was even afraid of forfubtle and dangerous of Naves. Affal- getting something, the want of which finating their master or inistress is with I might have occasion to regret. them a common crime; during the five “ The three months I had passed years I passed in Africa, I saw many at the Cape, since my expedition to instances of it. They go to execution the Bay of Saldanha, had been fully with the greatest indifference. I heard employed in these necessary preparaone of these wretches {ay to Mr. Bacis,' tions.

2 2

♡ I had

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