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be, it is certain that they were al- The first watches were made at ways used to announce the festivals Nuremberg in 1500, by Peter Hell, in honour of Ofiris. Amongst the and called " Nuremburg eggs," on Hebrews, the high priest in grand account of their oval form. The ceremonies wore a kind of tunic, fame year George Purbach, a maornamented with small golden bells. thematician of Vienna, employed a At Athens the priests of Proferpine watch that pointed to seconds, for and Cybele used them during their astronomical observations. facrifices, and in some measure they The art of making perukes was made a part of their mysteries. Bells invented at Paris, about the end of were known also among the Per- the reign of Lewis XIII. and people frans, the Greeks, and the Romans. then gave over the use of calottes Pope Sabinian, and St. Paulin of ornamented with a double row of Nola, introduced them into the hair, quite straight or frizzed. The church, to call the faithful to divine abbé la Riviere first set the example; worship, and to distinguish the ca- his peruke weighed two pounds. nonical hours, but it does not ap- These head-dreffes were heavy, and pear that large bells were used be- of an enormous fize, until 1680, fore the fixth century. In 610 the when the Sieur Ervais devised a mearmy of Clotaire, who were besieging thod of curling the hair. - Perukes Sens, were fo frightened by the then became real ornaments, and noise of the bells of the church of seemed to banish the marks of old St. Stephen, which Loup, bishop of age. Orleans, ordered to be rung, that Nonius Marcellus refers the ori. they raised the fiege, and betook gin of New-year's gifts among the themselves to flight. About the Romans to Tatius, king of the Sabeginning of the following century, bines, who reigned at Rome conbells were baptised; for Alcuin, jointly with Romulus, and who havpreceptor to Charlemain, confiders ing considered as a good omen, a this ceremony as much older than present of some branches cut in a the year 770.

wood consecrated to Strenia, the godThe Romans invented lotteries, dess of strength, which he received to enliven their Saturnalia. This on the first day of the new year, aufestival began by the distribution of thorised this custom afterwards, and tickets which gained some prize. gave to these presents the name of Augustus made lotteries which con- Štrenæ. However this may be, the fisted of things of little value, but Romans on that day celebrated a Nero established some for the peo- festival in honour of Janus, and paid ple, in which a thousand tickets their respects at the same time to were distributed daily, and several of Juno; but they did not pass it in those who were favoured by fortune idleness, left they should become ingot rich by them. Heliogabalus dolent during the rest of the year, invented some very singular: the. They sent presents to one another of prizes were either of great value or figs, dates, honey, &c. to shew their of none at all; one gained a prize friends that they wished for a happy of fix slaves, and another of fix ħies; and agreeable life. Clients, that is fome got valuable vases, and others to say, those who were under the vases of common earth. A lottery protection of the great, carried preof this kind exhibited an excellent sents of this kind to their patrons, picture of the inequality with which adding to them a small piece of Fortune distributes her favours, filver,


Antimony, that remedy so cele- before were interred in the highbrated, was discovered by a German ways, and ancient tombs are fiil to monk, named Basil Valentine, who, be feen on the roads leading to searching for the philofopher's stone, Rome. Hence these words, fo often and having thrown to the hogś what repeated in epitaphs, Șta viatorremained after some of his experi- Scop traveller. ments, observed, that those who In 1474, the physicians and lurAvallowed it, after being violently geons of Paris represented to Louis purged, became much tatter. He Xl. that several people of distinction took it into his head to make a trial were afflicted with the stone, and that of it upon some of his brother monks; it would be of the highest utility to but, as the dose was too firong, they anatomy to examine, in a living fuball died. Hence comes the name of ject, that part of the human body antimoine in French, which has been which is the seat of this disorder. given to chis mineral substance. They therefore requeted his ma

The custom of saying “God bless jesty, that he would order a person, you” to those who sneeze, is said to named Franc-Archer, who had been have originated from pope Gregory, subject to this malady, and who was furnamed the Great, during the time condemned to be hanged, to be deof an epidemical disorder, which livered into their hands. This becarried people off in a fit of sneezing. ing granted, the first operation of Soine, however, pretend that this cutting for the stone was performed custom is much older, and that it publicly at Paris, in the burying was known to the Greeks and the ground of St. Severin. The criRomans long before the christian aninal was completely cured in the

fpace of a fortnight, and obtained, Cards were invented under the besides his pardon, a considerable reign of Charles VI. king of France, reward. We cannot here help obto amuse him during the intervals of serving, that this is a striking inthat disorder which conducted him stance of the vicissitudes of life,

since, to be cured of his disorder, it Burying grounds were not efta- was necessary that this unhappy man blished until the year 200. People should be condemned to the gallows.


to the grave.


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thereupon writing himself Cromwell, SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF

alias Williams, who was in such fas OLIVER CROMWELL, [From Letters written a few Years since.] the dignity of knighthood for his

vour with the king, that he received LIVER's extraction, by his heroic behaviour at a tilting, in 32

father's side, was from Sir R. Henry VIII. Williams, knight, a gentleman of He had also the great abbey of note in the court of Henry VIII. Ramsay, the nunnery at Hinchinand son to Morgan ap Williams, a broke, with the priories of Sawtry Welchman, by a filter of Thomas and Huntington, given to him upon lord Cromwell, earl of Eflex; who, the disposal of the monaitery-lands; being preferred by his uncle to the all which he left unto Sir Henry service of king Henry, was, for that Cromwell, knight, his son and heir, cause, called Cromwell-Sir Richard who left illuc, Sir Oliver Cromwell,



made knight of the Bath at the co- putation amongst them, as a blessed ronation of king James; and Ro- convert, in whom they much gloried. bert Cromwell, a younger son; And having better natural parts than which Robert, though he was, by most of that fect, and confidence the countenance of his elder brother, enough to put himself forth on any made a justice of peace, in Hunting- fit occasion, he was made choice of tonshire, had but a small estate ; but by those who were ever studious to much of his support came from a undermine the regal authority, to be brewhouse, in Huntington, which their orator at Huntington, unto was chiefly managed by his wife, the king's commiffioners of fewers, who was fiiter to Sir Robert Steward, there, in oppofition to his majesty's of the city of Ely, knight, and by commendable design of draining the her he had issue our famous Oliver, fens; in which business, he gained Itiled Protector.

fo much credit with the party, that In his youth, he was for some foon' after, when he was obliged, time bred up in the university of through necessity, to quit a country Cambridge, where he made no great farm, which he held at St. Ives, and proficiency in any kind of learning; to take a mean lodging at Cambridge, but then and afterwards associating he was chosen burgess, for that corhimself with drinking and rude com- poration, in that unhappy parliapany, (being of a rough and bluf. ment of forty, by these fons of factering difpofition) he had the name tion, wherein hé beftirred linself of a Royster amongst those that knew with as much violence and heat as hin; and by his extravagance, fo any factious bankrupt did in that wasted his patrimony, that he applied destructive convention ; being well to his uncle, Sir R. Steward, to Yup- aware that general embroilment ply his wants; and when he could' of the kingdom, by an intestine war, not prevail with him, by fair means, might be of advantage to fuch he endeavoured, by law, to deprive necessitous' and desperate people ; him of his estate, by reprefenting whereupon, in a short time, he did him as a person not capable of ma- obtain his long-defired ends : for, naging it. And when he did not being one of those who put

themfucceed in this attempt, he designed felves in arms against the king, he to go to New England; but observe was made a captain of horse in the ing that that place was chiefly in- earl of Essex's regiment, and afterhabited by those factious spirits, who wards lieutenant-general to the earl had opposed the church discipline, of Manchester ; in which service, he knew that none would be wel- by his care and affiduity in the macome guests there, but those who nagement of his men, he was raifed adopted the like principles. On this higher in the army; whére, foon account he forthwith quitted his old discerning the general humour of . companions, and betook himself to his soldiers, and that many of them the acquaintance of the pretended were poffeffed with conceited revc. holy tribe, that he might meet with lations--some expecting a general a more favourable reception by their reign of Christ here on earth, fancy. recommendation; and that he might ing themselves the men who were gain the esteem of his friends, he to make way for his coming; and most formally canted in their de. to thai purpose, that they were to mure language and affected tone, destroy the wicked, and poffefs their and frequented the sermons of the estates-- he chiefly applied himself to fierceit Boutefeu's. "And thus, in a the humour of thote deiperate fahort time, he gained a very high re- natics; and by his fubtle arts in



praying, preaching, groaning, and so much did he pretend to revelahowling amongst them,, got himself tions and inspirations, that when no less credit than Mahomet of old any weighty matter was propounded did with his followers ; and fo, by to him, he usually retired for a degrees, ascended those steps of com- quarter of an hour, or more, and mand and power, which raised him at declared what was revealed to him. last to the highest pitch of sovereignty. The following fingular account

The stream at this time carried is extracted from the preceding aumultitudes, fo violently, this way, thority. ---Notwithstanding the that the foldiers fell to preaching in body of Oliver was artificially emmany places : fix of them in one bowelled, and embalmed with aroday exercising their gifts in that matic odours, wrapt also in a fix-fold kind at Whitehall , insomuch coarse cloth, and put in a sheet of that grand impostor Cromwell sub. lead, with a wooden coffin over it, tilly observing the bent of the tide, yet did it in a Njort time fo strangely afeended the pulpit there himself, ferment, that it burst all in pieces, pretending that he was called up and became fo noisom, that they by the spirit of God; and standing were inmediately necessiated to com. a good while with his eyes lifted up, mit it to the earth, and 10 celebrate (as it were in a trance) his head his funeral with an empty coffin ; inclining to one fide, he fetched which folemnity was performed, many deep groans ; spent one hour from Somerset house, in the Strand, in prayer, and near two in his ser- unto king Henry the Seventh's chamon; in which prayer his humility pel, at Westminster, with that granwas such, that in imitation of Mo. deur of state, upon the 23d ot Nofes, he desired God to take off his vember following, that it did equalize shoulders the government of this the greatest and most glorious of our mighty people of England, as being kings, amongst which they laid the too heavy for him to bear. And corpse of this infamous regicide.




pleased; particularly the queen. JANUARY

- The 20th, Shirley's comedy of ARLY in this month, the The Gamefters, was revived at Co

Italian opera cominenced at vent Garden theatre, and was reMr. Colman's cheatre in the Hay. ceived with great applause. The market *, with the new opera of characters are strongly coloured, NINETTE, which, in its compofi- and truly comic: the incidents are {tion, has not much to attract at- laughable, and tolerably probable ; tention but the music, in fome the language is lively, fraught with parts, is of the best quality. A wit, and some humour. This play new theatre is about to be érected

was altered and revived by Garrick, in Leicester square.

in 1758, when he took the character , The 11th, their majesties again of Wiiding. It was afterwards repaid a visit to Covent Garden thca- vived at the same theatre in 1972, tre.' The play was The Way of the Mr. King performing Jack Wilding; World. The audience reccived the and Miis Younge, Mrs. Wilding, king in their accustomed mode of The fame characters were in the hearty congratulation ;, at which the fame hands on the prefent occafion ; royal family were, as usual, much and it is needless to say, that their

* For an account of the destruction of merit was as great, and their apthe Italian theatre, lee page 344, Vol. I. plause as general, as before. VOL, II,


The dramatic news, this month, so little estimation in the opinion of of Drury Lane is trifling indeed. the world, that it is seriously doubtThe Two Gentlemen of Verona have ed, if the immortal Shakespeare had been revived; a play which holds any thing to do with its composition.





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N rich refulgence rob'd, the year

Gaul of her sceptred honour fhorn,

Her lacerated lilies torn,
Profufive pours bright beams around,

Vainly lifts up her wav'ring eye,
On high-wrought Windsor's holy

To all-delusive Liberty.

She tears her King's best rights away, Not now, Time's wizard

behold And madly plants her civic Bay;

Each cloister'd nook she next ex-
A cluster'd range of Barons bold;
Notnow, 'mongst steeds, the buckler'd plores,

And gives to Demagogues her shores. Darts, as of yore, nocturnal day,

Her letter'd source with poison teems, When Edward to the turney led

Ruld by each ruffian's mystic dreams. The Knights that rival Europe bied.

Not thus, our ile's exalted hour, Yet still beneath the fretted roof,

Calls forth the Poet's plausive pow'r, Where war-won banners wave aloof,

To hail a Patriot Monarch's part, In gorgeous garb fair dames aspire,

Who opes his virtuous pattern wide, Spread with light sweep their tisfued

And show'rs down wealth, and bliss, and trains,

art, Shoot from fóft orbs attractive fire,

And glories in the public pride. . And lure to love the peopled plains.

His thunders shake the Eastern world, The steel-clad champion's pond'rous

Till Indus bow the baffled head, plume,

O'er Austria's grasping realms his rage is The sword's gigantic stroke is o'er,

hurl'd, Yet nobler now is Albion's alter'd doom, And Russia hears the found, and, shudd'ring,

finks with dread. To lift the loyal lay, and Brunswick's Star adore.


Swift rising from his pearly cave, Valt are the themes of Britain's boast, Old Ocean cleaves the briny wave, Immortal Alfred ruld her coalt;

His brows by coral wreathes comFor Rufus' fall a nation's tear,

prest, Deplor'd the miscrcant's erring spear. While ledgy honours load his brçaft.. Sublime was valiant Henry's faie,

Raptur'd he views this cong'rivg plain,
Sublime Eliza's sumptuous state.

And yields the falces of the main.
Nor long did Richard's boar-like rage How chang’d! fince ers the Latin
Defile his country's pictur'd page.

The two contending Rofes shoot

Defac'd the Druid's hallow'd hoard,
With stronger hold their mingled soot. And taught their scythed cars to fly,
But not alone for elder days,

Scar'd at his Eagle's burning cyc. Shall flow the tide of regal praise,

For now in ev'ry dale divine, Our bounteous GEORGE, from ills re- Where riot nature and the Nine, mov'd,

From heart-feltjoy the Pealant pours, Has quench'd the flame which burnt Without one l'ad enquiring groan, the land;

The voted portion of his fores, By richer rectitude belov'd,

Glad that the lefler share's his own. He gives, with willing force, command. Pleas'd with their lot, in fond surprise, The fubjeet race who wail'd their stroke, The rustic Band exulting fing,

When England's Sun awhile was ler, Confess the wisdom of TRADUC'D Ex. Again find glory in their filken yoke,

CISE, Nor telt of Tudor's line, nor proud Plan. And swell with CHARLOTTE's worth, the tagenet.



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