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ever distinguish the supporters of a with the constitution of the kinggood caute; and perceiving that dom ; in contequence of which the fome violent ineasures were about to king annulled the resolutions of the be adopted for the purpose of in- commons as unconftitutional. He timidation, they bound themselves ordered all deliberations relating to by a solemn oath to pursue their general affairs and to taxes, to be in deliberations, and to preserve the common between the three orders ; stricteft union among themselves, but all discussions relative to the until the conftirution of the king- conftitution to be deliberated by each dom should be ettablished on a folid order separately. He likewise preand permanent batis.

served the privileges and veto of the On the twenty-third of June, the clergy in all matters of religion. king having previoufly made known After these preliminary regulations, his intention of going to the hall, followed a prohibition to make any the commons, mixed with the greatest change in the laws, taxes, or other part of the clergy, were allembled parts of adminiftration or legislation, in the anti-chamber by nine o'clock. during the fitting of the states; and The apartment not being sufficiently an exprefs reservation to the king, of capacious to contaita the whole num- all exclusive power and authority ber, many of the members remained over the armies and police. To renwithout, where the murmurs were der these orders more palatable, the loud and the impatience was general. king permitted the states to establish In the interval, part of the clergy, the liberty of the press, and to proand all the nobility, entered at op- vide for the suppression of lettres de posite doors, and took their seats in cachet. When the keeper of the the hall; where they were at last seals had gone through the whole of joined by the commons, whom they the articles, the king concluded his received standing and uncovered. speech by what he termed a commu

The king, being placed on the nication of bis will; which was, that throne, made a speech; in which he no tax should in future be levied observed, that though the states-ge- without the consent of the states; neral had been assembled more than that neither old nor new imposts - two months, they had not even ad- should be in force longer than from juited the preliminaries of their one sessions of the states to the next; operations; that inttead of that har- that he would never make any loan mony which should arise from the without consent of the states, ex- love of their country, the most fatal cept in case of necessity, war, &c. divisions had ensued, and the seeds and then the loan Mould not exceed of alarm been universally diffused; one hundred millions of livres; that that he came, as the common father the states should examine the acof his people, to dissipate thote dan- counts both of receipts and expengerous divisions, to recal to their ditures; that the expences of each menory the true spirit of the con- department should be fixed and in. ftitution, and to resist the infidi- variable; and finally, that the creous attempts which had been aimed ditors of the late should be put on againf it.

When he had fiuilhed the faith of the public. his speech, the keeper of the feals The king then departed, after orread a royal declaration, containing, dering every one to retire and to thirty-five articles; the first of meet again the next day, in the which enforced the distinction of or- chamber of orders. A shout of Vive ders (contended for by the nobles le Roi! was heard from the nobles, and clergy) as eflentially connected and the majority of the clergy; but


the commons observed a profound fi- The utmost confusion now prelence; nor could they bc prevailed on vailed, both at Paris and Versailles. to quit the hall; wherc,in conjunction The spirited conduct of the comwith about fitty of the clergy, they mons had rouzed the people, and on immediately proceeded to discuss the the night of this memorable day, merits of the king's speech and de- an immense multitude of all ranks claration. Four times did the king afsembled at nine o'clock; and being fend an officer to order them, on informed, that the king had dismified their allegiance, to adjourn ; and as M. Neckar, they forced an entrance often did they deny, in the most into the inner court of the palace decisive manner, his authority to at Versailles, and with loud exclacommand their feparation ; till, by mations, accompanied by menaces, their firmness, they at length carried infifted that he thould continue mitheir point. M. le Camus, one of piiter. The alarm in the palace the members for Paris, then moved, was inexpressibly great; the princes, That the National A fembly do perhit the count d'Artois in particular, in all its preceding resolutions; and called to arms : but when the troops this fpirited motion was unanimoufly were colleéted, and ordered to fire, carried. Another was made by the they unanimously refused to draw a count de Mirabeau, for the purpose trigger on their countrymen, though of securing the personal liberty of beneath the very windows of the the members, their freedom of opi- palace. nion, and their right to investigate On the succeeding day, M. Neckar and censure all kind of abuses and appearing in his usual station with obitacles to the public welfare and the king, it was supposed that the liberty. This was likewise carried cabinet had adopted a different line by a majority of four hundred and of conduct, and meant to comply forty-nine voices.

with the wishes of the people. The But the most important and poli- commons continued their deliberatic resolution passed by the states, tions, and were joined by the duke was that of an address to the king, of Orleans, at the head of more than that the pay of the national troops of forty of the principal nobility, and France should be raised to the fame two hundred of the clergy, who subfum as that of the foreign troops in fcribed the oath which the commons the French service; viz. from four had previously taken, and fols and a half (two-pence farthing unanimous assent to the several reEnglish) per diem, to fix fols and a folutions they had paffed. Their half (three-pence farthing). By the example was fpeedily followed by adoption of this fagacious measure, the remainder of the two first orders; they effectually secured the favour which important accession of strength of the soldiery; and removed the rendered the victory of the commons only barrier which could possibly be complete, and enabled them to puropposed to their patriotic exertions fue their measures with vigour and in the cause of freedom. If the effect. king complied with their request, The king, in the mean time, apthe troops would ascribe the whole pears to have been in an aukward merit of it to them; and, if he refuled predicament; which, confidering it, they would naturally thank them the native imbecillity of his mind, for the attempt, and afix an odium was rather calculated to excite pity, where it was their interest it should than to rouze indignation. On be aflixed. The event fully justified one side, strenuously exhorted by their conduct.

Neckar, and such of his minifters


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as favoured the popular cause, to were prepared to oppose their parcomply, with a good grace, with fage, they gave up their detign, and those desires which they wisely fore- went no farther than the Place de faw he wouid not long be able to Louis Quinze, which they found relift; and, on the other, incessant- guarded by fome regiments of draly urged by the queen, the count goons, hutíars, and royal Germans, d'Artois, and other rigid supporters under the command of the prince of despotism, to affert the dignity of Lambesc. A kirmith here ensued, his crown, and not to suffer the during which the populace were smallest diininution of his preroga- joined by the regiment of French tives. The perfuation of the latter, guards ; (who were probably actuhowever, prevailed; and while a fy- ated rather by the hope of gain, Item of moderation was adopted in than by any motives of patriotism) : appearance, a secret plan was laid but it was ipeedily terminated, with for diffolving the national assembly, the loss of a few lives on either fide. or, at least, for rendering it wholly In the evening, the people again affubfervient to the will of the fove- sembled in the Rue St. Honorè, where reign.

they broke open the fhops of all the During these transactions, the fer- armourers and cutlers, and seized all mentation increased in the metropo- the arms they contained; they likelis, where the riots of the populace wise stopped all patiengers who were afforded a specious pretext for the able to bear arms, and compelled collection of troops.

When such a them to join the throng. During number, therefore, had affembled the night, the toll-houses were plunin the vicinity of Verlailles, as were dered and burnt. The alarm-beils deemed fufficient to over-awe the de- were rung at the town house, the cisions of the states, and to support cathedral, and at all the parish the measures of the court, the king, churches; while every inhabitant of on the eleventh of July, at the in- Paris took up arms in order to opstigation of his artful confort and his pose the troops, now posted at the imperious brother, dismisfed M, gates, and momentarily expected to Neckar, ordering him to depart the enter the city. On the following kingdom without the smalleit delay: day (Monday the thirteenth of Junc) the rest of the ministry were also the people fcarched the country for obliged to resign their places; and corn, and brought to market what were succeeded by men, whose prin- they had found. On that day also ciples were known to be friendly to the burgesies disarned the rabble, the favourite doctrine of passive obe- and they regularly enrolled themdience.

selves in voluntary corps, at the Intelligence of Neckar’s dismillion churches of their respective parishes, did not reach the capital till the next to the amount of forty-eight thoumorning, when it excited a general fand effective men, who were fupconfternation throughout the city; plied with arms from the arsenal, the inhabitants assembled in tumul- the hospital of invalids, and the tuous throngs, and lamented the de. barracks of the French guards, parture of the minister, as the fure which were now in their poffeffion. prefage of their own destruction. As soon as the news of the comHaving armed themselves with such motions in Paris, occasioned by the weapons as they could find, they dismitiion of Neckar, reached the at length determined to proceed to national afiembly, it was refolved Versailles ; but hearing that all the to send a deputation to the king, roads were occupied by troops, who to express their deep regret for the


loss of that minister, and to request intereft upon it, no power has a his majetty's permission to send some right to give to the nation the intaof their members to Paris, to endea. mous name of bankrupt, no power vour to appease the tumults. But has a right to violate the public the king replied, that he was the faith, under any form, or in any fole judge of the propriety of those Mape whatever; that this affembly measures which he had chosen to do persist in its former resolutions adopt, and in which he Mould not of the seventeenth, twentieth, and content to make the smallest altera. twenty-third of June laft; and, tion; that the care of his capital finally, that there resolutions be was a trust of too great importance communicated to his majesly, and to be delegated to any one; that addressed to the ministers whom the their presence in Paris could not be nation has just loft, and that they be attended with any good, but was ab• printed for the inforınation of the solutely requisire at Versailles. public.

In consequence of this answer, the These proceedings were by no national assembly immediately came mcans calculated to calm those com. to the following spirited and deci- motions which were now encreasing five resolutions That this assembly, in every part of the kingdom ; the speaking the language and expref- fpirit of the people was roused, and fing the sentiments of the nation, do the states perceived that this was the declare, that M. Neckar, and the moment of decision : if suffered to other ministers who have been re. cscape, it right never return. Cermoved, carry with them the esteem tain of support from the people, and regret of the nation; that this whose cause was so intimately blendassembly, dreading the fatal confe- ed with their own, that a separation quences which his majetty's answer of interests was impossible; they may produce, must infiit on the re- boldly determined to renovate the moval of the troops.

collected, in an ancient constitution of the country, extraordinary manner, in the vici- or, rather, to terminate the reign of nity of Paris and Versailles, and despotism, and establish a new goupon the establishment of armed bo-vernment, founded on the broad dies of citizens; that the commu- balis of universal freedom. The nication between this assembly and kiny, stimulated by the queen, and his majesty, ought to be direct, and her party, which we may venture not through any medium whatever; to call (without, however, daring that all persons employed in civil to include the sacred person of mior military capacities, are responsible jesty, in our censure) as profligate for every act done by them contrary and despotic a junto as ever

erdisgraced to the rights of the nation, and the even a French court, conftantiy riotresolutions of this assembly ; that the ing in licentiousness, yet determined actual ministers, and the advisers of foes to liberty;--the king, thus pow. his majetty, of whatever rank or erfully urged, resolved to oppose condition they may be, are person- the claims of his subjects, and to ally responsible for the present cala. preserve that exercite' of arbitrary mities, and for those that may be power, which education-if not exthe consequences of them; that the perience--had taught him to believe, national affembly do declare, that was the suinnit of a monarch’s felithe national debt having been put city. With this view, the command under the safeguard of the honour of the troops had been given to and good faith of the nation, and mareschal Broglio, an old officer, the people being willing to pay the trained, from his infancy, in the THEY YORK Bilo IERARY



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