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will be terminated with disgrace. der the immediate protection of the The united forces of Prussia and Po- Imperial Chamber of Wetzlar, land, will probably be engaged in whose province it is to defend from active hostilities; while Great Bri- invafion the rights of the different tain and Holland keep the other princes of the empire. In consepowers of Europe in awe.

quence of a decree of this chamber, We cannot dismiss this subject, the king of Prussia marched ten without observing, that the earnest thousand troops into the country of anxiety evinced by the Pruflian mo. Liege; but initead of supporting the narch to preserve, or rather to efla cause of the bishop, by affording his blish, the balance of power, fo ef- fanction to tyranny and oppression, fential to the welfare and felicity of he nobly thewed himself the friend Europe, on a broad and solid basis, of liberty, by offering his mediation able to elude the inares of envy, and between the contending parties, and to withstand the attacks of ambition, declaring his fole design to be the exbibits his character in a moft fa- legal restoration of the ancient convourable point of view. Indeed, fitution. the whole tenour of his conduct, A revolution more extensive and fince his accession to the throne, perfect, has taken place, in the course has proved him a consummate poli- of the present year, in the Austrian tician ; but his are not the dark po. Netherlands; which, from the ereclitics of Charles the Fifth-that tion of a new power in the political narrow and confined system, found. scale of Europe, formidable from its ed on fufpicion, cherished by deceit, local situation, the fertility of its and enforced with despotism;~'tis foil, and its commercial resources, the more open and liberal policy of becomes an object of greater imthat emperor's manly competitor, portance, and therefore claims a Francis the First. This has been larger share of our attention. fufficiently exemplified in his eman The rich provinces of the Austria cipation of the Dutch (conjointly an Low Countries, owed their first with England) from the daring and ånnexation to the empire to the mar. dangerous attempts of an aristocra- riage of Mary, daughter and fole -tic junto, and in his recent treat- heiress of Charles the Bold, with ment of the inhabitants of Liege. Maximilian, son of the emperor

The small principality of Liege, Frederic the Third; from whom having caught that spirit of liberty they descended, first, to Philip the for which the present age is so justly Handsome, archduke of Austria, fon renowned, deinanded, with a firm- to Maximilian, and from him to ness the more respectable, from being Charles the Fifth, who assumed the tempered with moderation, the full government of Flanders in the year restoration of those rights and privi- one thousand five hundred and fifleges, of which their ancestry had teen, which he annexed to the embeen illegally deprived by the regu- pire, on his accession to the Imperial lation of one thousand fix hundred throne, at the coinnencement of the and eighty-four. This was refused subsequent year. It is needless to by their epifcopal prince; who, being trace the state of these provinces educated in arbitrary principles, and under their different monarchs; fufimpresfed with those tyrannicalideas, fice it to observe, that their ancient which distinguished the catholic pre- rights and privileges were secured lates of the early ages, fled from to them; and every emperor, at his a throne which freedom had render- coronation, was obliged to take an ed uneasy, and placed himself un- oath to preferve them in their full

extent,

1

extent. The states of the provinces, obedience to his commands. Theftates composed of deputies from the of all the provinces, said that weak nobles, the clergy, and the citizens, and arbitrary monarch, must submit regulated all matters of finance, and implicitly to the payment of the subevery thing which appertained to fidies, both those that are in arrcar, municipal government. Things were and those which are current. The in this situation, when in the year companies of burgesses, their milione thousand feven 'hundred and tary exercises, uniforms, cockades, eighty-fix, the emperor thought pro- and all other marks of party lpirir, per, without consulting the Itates, to as well as all other illegal associamake several material changes in the tions and meetings, Mall be forthadministration of justice, and to fup- with abolished; and in defect of prefs a great number of convents of troops, each magistrate shall take both sexes. The latter, as might the most effectual measures for the naturally be supposed, inflamed the support of the police, and of good minds of the clergy; while the for, order. The convents fupprefled premer produced some serious remon- vious to the first of April laft (one françes on the part of the laity; thousand feven hundred and eightyThese remonftrances being treated seven) fall remain fupprefled for with contempt by the court of Vi- ever ;, and the nominations that may enna, the states had recourse to their have been made since that period to ancient mode of defending their pri- the vacant abbeys, shall be null, and vileges from invasion, by refusing to produce no effect in favour of the levy the subsidies, which the ex. religious persons so appointed. All pences of the war with the Turks the persons in office, whom they had compelled the emperor to de. have presumed to displace, must be mand. Jofeph, however, unused to restored; with the exception of the restraint, and unwilling to fubmit to intendants and members of the new contradiction, determined to enforce tribunals of justice: these two topics bis orders ; and with that view ape being of the number of those on pointed intendants to the different which I am disposed to liften to my provinces, for the purpose of col. ftates, and to commune with them, lecting the imposts, without the con- -In a word, there must not remain currence of the states. This was a the smallest veftige of any thing violent exertion of arbitrary power, comınitted contrary to my orders and a flagrant violation of those prie and intentions, My dignity renders vileges which he had folemnly sworn all these preliminary re-establih. to maintain. Hence the murmurs ments absolutely necessary. The of difcontent became louder and emperor farther added, that in case louder; remonftrances were repeat of a perseverance to disobey his ored; and deputies were at length dif- ders, on the part of the states, he patched, by the states, to Vienna, to should employ all thofe means, which represent the nature of their grieve were abundantly in his power, to enances, confirm the justice of their force them. complaints, and point out the re It was not probable, that such drets they required. But the em- language should conciliate the afperor, initead of listening to their fections of his offended subjects: the petition with that calmness and deputies, accordingly, remonstrated moderation, which its importance on its severity, and attempted to certainly demanded, employed the effe&t some alteration in the sentiimperious language of despotism, in-, ments of the emperor. But all their fisting on the most passive and implicit efforts proved fruitless, and the in,

habitants

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babitants of the Low Countries, yet them, in virtue of my fall and love-
unable to oppose tyranay by force, rèign power. To this object I have em-
were reduced to the neceffity of a powered my government-general to
tem porary submission. The empe- afford you any military affistance in
ror, meanwhile, fent a fresh supply enforcing the supplies, thould it be
of croops to the Netherlands, and found necessary. I promise myself
appointed general Dalton commander that you will pay implicit respect,
in chiet, with very extensive and ex as you ought to do, to my fovereiga
traordinary powers. The year eighty- commands, as they are founded on
eight passed in murmurs and remon a thorough knowledge of the cale;
strances, but to feeble and ineffectuat, nor suffer yourselves to be led away
that the emperor was thought to by objects foreign to your duty;
have gained his point; and the Bra- and farther, that you will not give
banters were deemed deftitute either countenance to thofe indiscreet per-'
of spirit or power, to promote their fons, who, by an obstinate resistance,
liberation from the shackles of de- and a criminal conduct, have in-
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curred my displeasure; nor embarThe present year, however, was rafs the exercise of my rights, and destined to exhibit a very differ- the prerogatives of niy crown. I ent scene, and to correct fo erro- have, moreover, ordered my governneous an opinion. A general am- ment-general to carry into full force nesty had been recently granted by the laws I have ordained, and to the emperor, at the instigation of spare no methods to put them into the his ministers, who feem to have been speedieft execution, without minding better acquainted with the temper (in regard to any of my subjects of his subjects in the Low Countries who may dispute them) the common than himself. But the impulition of forms of law, which were only made new taxes, for the support of the "for ordinary cafes. At the same Turkish war, having encouraged the time, I acquaint you, that I have states once more to relift their col. broken and annulled thote clauses lection, till the infringements on their and conditions by which famc of ancient constitution Mould be wholly the courts have exceptions, and new removed; the emperor revoked his modified my orders; not doubting amnesty, and by a rigorous edi&t of but you will think with me, that if the seventh of January, renewed his my dignity and my rights require. I foriner tyrannical comin

mands, which mould take some effectual measures produced a fpirited address from the to destroy for ever that odious diffirst orders of the fate on the twen- grace, which, for the honour of the ty-ninth of the same month. In con- nation, I could with to lofc the resequence of this, the emperor sent 'a membrance of, it is even for its reply, to his minifter plenipotentiary, intereit, as well as mine, that I should who communicated its contents to purify the constitution, in many inthe states on the second of March. Itances obscure and inexcuseable, It exhibits a curious instance of de- and fix it upon a proper basis. I spotic pride, and thews Jofeph in cannot give you a stronger proof his true light-mighty in words, of my clemency, nor of my real afbut in deeds infigniñcant. The fol- fection, than in communicating my lowing extract will amply justify our intentions, which, after what has affertion. “ Without having any happened, I was fully authorised to farther controversy in respect to rail- do by my sovereign power alone. I ing the supplies, I order you to pro- must likewise acquaint you, that cced, without delay, to the granting the mitigation of the rigorous parts

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of my dispatch of the seventh of publish, in the usual form, als edicts, January last, only holds good so regulations, &c. proceeding from long as every order of my citizens the sovereign, which are not directly observe the implicit respect that is in opposition to the Joyeuse Entrée*. due to me; and if there should still —To this final determination of the be found refractory persons, who emperor, the states refused their afshould be guilty of the least act of sent; alleging, that the innovationsit fedition, injurious to my authority, tended to establish, would be such as I have given positive orders to my by their oaths they were bound to government-general to act against refift. The government-general, those culprits without observing the therefore, proceeded, in pursuance usual forms of law, which, in all

such of the emperor's orders, to issue a circumstances, are to be rendered sub- proclamation, by which the council fervient to the necesity of the case.of Brabant was diffolved, and the

Thus fpake the despot; and never Foyeuse Entrée (the magna charta surely was the tyrant's plea of necessi- of Brabant) revoked ! Matters were ty urged in a more tyrannical manner! now brought to an issue between the To this peremptory declaration there contending parties; the emperor was no reply; the only alternative claimed the right of exercising arbiwas passive obedience, or determined trary power; and the people resolved resistance. The former was according- to defend their privileges, as men and ly adopted in appearance, while pre- citizens. The heads of the patriotic parations for the latter were secretly party withdrew themselves from a making. An extraordinary meeting country, where every engine of deof the states was held, in the mean spotism was now employed to quench time, by the emperor's command, the generous flame of liberty, which on the eighteenth of June; at which began to burst forth with autonithhis ultimatum was made known to ing effulgence. In the month of the two first orders of the state, by September, all the members of the the following propofitions.--1. That état noble, the archbishop of Mecbthe usual subsidy should be continued lin, as head of the clergy, and several for ever in regard to the ordinary deputies of the ticrs état, repaired to impofts.—2. That the tiers état, or Breda, where the duke d’Aremberg, third estate, should be re-established, and M. Vander Noot (the Washingand enjoy its ancient privileges, so ton of the Netherlands!) were waitthat fifteen provincial towns should ing to receive them; and, having fit and vote in the assembly, instead constituted a regular assembly of the of the three chief cities, as at pre- Mates, they had recourse to a more sent.--3. That in all deliberations decisive measure than they had hion public affairs, each order should therto ventured to adopt. They have a separate voice, so that two voted a remonstrance to the empeorders, forming a majority, should ror, in which they lamented the fad be able to act without the con- neceflity of affembling as a banished fent of the third. -- And, lastly, legislature; stated the rights and That to prevent the council of privileges which the province of Brabant from acting hereafter in Brabant had enjoyed from the moft opposition to the royal authority, remote times, confirmed and extendthey should be obliged to seal and ed by a long succession of sovereigns;

* The Joyeuse Entrée, or Joyful. Entry, by the prince on the occasion of his making is a charter of liberty confirmed to the a public entry into his capital, to the great fubjects of Brabant, by one of their sove- joy of his people. The charter began with reigns; and it is diftinguished by that ap- the words, “ The Foyful Entry." pellation, because the charter was granted

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reminded him of the solemn oaths, gress. This detachment, confifting
by which he himself was bound to of about four thousand chosen troops,
maintain and defend them; described came in light of a small body of
the wanton and oppreflive infractions, patriots, on the twenty-leventh of
the illegal and shameless fubverfion October, whom they pursued to the
of their constirution; and concluded gates of Turnhout, a small town,
with a declaration, thai, inberiting about cight miles to the north of
the loyalty and the spirit of their the Scheld. After some relittance,
ancestors, though they were ready the gates were forced, but the Bra-
to facrifice their lives and fortunes banters maintained a running fight,
for the giory of their monarch, they in order to draw Schroeder to the
were not prepared for a dattardly market-place; where a dreadful fire
and perfidious surrender of rights of artillery and mulquetry, from the
which they exercited in trust tor tops and windows of the houics,
their fellow-citizens and their potte was inmediately opened upon him,
rity. They therefore earnestly ade and produced a terrible carnage.
jured his inajelty, by an immediate The Iinperialists, unable to main.
revocation of his illegal edičts, and tain this dangerous post, very speedily
re-instatement of the province in its retreated, though not till they had
rights, to absolve thiem from the sustained a considerable loss, which
cruel necessity, which the most fa- they attempted to retaliate by a cruel
cred duty mult impose, of an appeal attack on defenceless old men, wo•
to God and their swords. This re- men, and children. This import-
monttrance was forwarded to Vienna, ant advantage was attended with
where it experienced that reception the most happy consequences ; it
which the known pertinacity of the animated the patriots to farther ex-
emperor gave but too just reason to crtions, by affording the well-founded
expect. At Bruffels, in the mean hope of future success. The extensive
time, the severelt inquisition was city of Ghent, with its strong cita-
eitablished by general Dalton—who del, were taken, after a desperate
proved himself truly worthy of the and bloody resistance ; Bruges fur-
confidence reposed in him by his rendered next, and at length general
tyrannical master-aided by count Dalton was compelled to evacuate
Trauttmandorff; the peaceful ha- Brufiels, in a manner highly dir-
bitations of quiet citizens were vin. graceful both to his courage and
lated ; all letters were opened; and conduct.
the prisons were speedily filled with The emperor, at length conscious
those who were either proved, or of his error, when too late to correct
fufpected, to favour the cause of it, descended, from the threatening
freedom. This conduct convinced despot, to the humble supplicant :
the patriots, that they must now ac more liberal terms were now offered
complish byforce, what remonftrance than bad, at first, been required ;
had failed to effect; they accordingly but the patriots, deriving wisdom
took up arms, and commenced hoiti- from experience, were sensible of
liries, by the attack of Lillo and the madness of trusting to the pro-
Lifenshock, two sinall forts on the mises of a man, whom the more sa-
frontiers of Dutch Brabant, which cred obligations of an oath had
they furprised, but were obliged to proved inadequate to restrain from
abandon on the approach of a de- the gratification of a restless ambia
tachment of the Imperial army, une tion, and the exertion of unprinci-
der the command of count Schroeder, pled rapacity. The die was catt;
sent by Dalton to impede their pro. and the Brabançons proceeded to a
VOL. II.

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