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a matter of fact of which my own to speak of this unhappy prince as a eyes were witnefies, and saying, great faint, and a martyr ? This is that if intrepidity and undaunted- what they constantly do, especially ness may be reckoned any parts of on the thirtieth of January. King courage, no man in the feet better Charles is upon this folemnity often deserved the name of courageous, compared to our Lord Jesus Christ, or behaved himself with more gal- both in respect of the holiness of his lantry, than he did.”

life, and the greatness and injustice And yet this very duke of York, of his sufferings; and it is a wonder when become king of Great Britain they do not add something concernand Ireland, could demean himself ing the merits of his death also. fo far as to defert his friends and But blessed saint, and royal martyr, his troops after the battle of the are as humble titles as any Boyne, at a period when his army thought worthy of him. might have been recruited with “ Now this may, at first view, cafe, and when affairs were in well appear to be a very strange such a situation in Great Britain *, phænomenon. For king Charles through the cabals of the profligate was really a man black with guilt, great, that a little steadiness and a and laden with iniquity,” (Isaiah moderate exertion of personal cou. i. 4.) as appears by his crimes berage, must have insured him an easy fore mếntioned. He lived a tyrant; restoration.

and it was the oppression and vio

lence of his reign, that brought him Mr. EDITOR,

to his untimely and violent end at

laft. Now what of saintship or inarAs the Conductor of a Magazine, whose

Ground-work is Truth, and I'mparti- tyrdom is there in all this? What ality, I send you the following Enquiry, of saintship is there in encouraging by Dr. Mayhew, into the mysterious people to profane the Lord's-day? Doctrine of the Saintship and Mar- What of faintship in falsehood and TYRDOM of King Charles the First.

perjury? What of saintship in re

peated robberies and depredations ? SAINTSHIP AND CHARACTER

What of faintship in throwing real faints and glorious patriots into

gaols ? What of saintship in overDr. Mayhew, in his " Discourse turning an excellent civil conftitue concerning Unlimited Submission tion, and proudly grasping at an iland Non-resistance to the Higher legal and monstrous power? What Powers," proceeds

of saintship in the murder of thou“ The last query mentioned, was, fands of innocent people, and inwhy those of the episcopal clergy, volving a nation in all the calamities who are very high in the principles of a civil war? And what of marof ecclesiastical authority, continue tyrdom is there in a man's bringing,

* This affertion supposes that the ac- sell was under an engagement to restore count of court-intrigues, brought forward King James, at the very time when he de. by Mr. M'Pherson, and by Sir John Dal- feated the French fleet. One would think rymple, is grounded on facts. This is, that the charge of in palpable an inconit is true, a painful supposition, but the de- fistency inight have been easily overturned; grading story has never been controverted but no pen has ftirred' on the occasion. by any descendants from the noble families, Nor has any one attempied to defend John, whosé ancestors it covers' with indelible duke of Marlborough, from the charge of disgrace. Among other paradoxical af having betrayed the expedition against Bief, firmations, in the books alluded. to, the in May 1694!!!! most friking perhaps, is, that admiral Rur. Vol. II.

B

2.

ON THE

OF CHARLES I.

an

an immature and violent death up- ness, archbishop Laud, and the bion himself, by being wicked over- flops of his stamp, in all their church much ?' (Ecclef. vii. 17.) Is there tyranny and diabolical cruelties. In any such thing as grace without return to his kindness and indulgence goodness? as being a follower of in which respects, they caused many Christ, without following him as of the pulpits throughout the nation being his difciple, without Icarning to ring with the divine, absolute, of himn to be just and beneficent ? or, and indefeasible right of kings ; as faintship without fanctity? If with the praises of Chailes and his not, I fear it will be hard to prove reign; and with the damnable sin of this man a faint. And verily one resisting the Lord's anointed, let him would be apt to suspect, that that do what he would. So that not church must be but poorly stocked Chriít, but Charles, was commonly with faints and martyrs, which is preached to the people. In plain forced to adopt fuch enormous fin- English, there seems to have been ñers into her kalendar, in order to an impious bargain struck up befwell the number.

tween the sceptre and the surplice, “ But to unravel this mystery of for enslaving both the bodies and (nonfenfe as well as of) iniquity, souls of men. The king appeared which has already worked for a long to be willing that the clergy should time amongst us (2 Theff. ii. 7.); do what they would, -set up a monor, at least, to give the most proba- strous hierarchy, like that of Rome, ble folution of it; it is to be remem- -a' monstrous inquisition, like that bered, that king Charles, this bur- of Spain and Portugal, or any lesque upon faintship and martyr- thing else, which their own pride, doin, though so great an oppreffor, and the devil's malice, could prompe was a true friend to the church; them to : provided always, that the so true a friend to her, that he was clergy would be tools to the crown ; very well affected to the Roman ca- that they would make the people betholics ; and would probably have lieve, that kings had God's authobeen willing to unite Lambeth and rity for breaking God's law; that Rome. This appears by his mar- they had a commission from heaven rying a true daughter of that true to feize the estates and lives of their mother of harlots; which he did subjects at pleasure ; and that it with a dispensation from the pope, was a damnable fin to resist them, that supreme bishop ; to whom, even when they did such things as when he wrote, he gave the title of deserved more than damnation, Most Holy Father. His queen was This appears to be the true key for extremely bigoted to all the follies explaining the mysterious doétrine and fuperftitions, and to the hierar- of king Charles's faintship and marchy of Rome; and had a prodigious tyrdom. He was a faint, not beascendency over hin all his life. It cause he was in his life a good inan, was, in part, owing to this, that he but a good churchman; not because probably abetted the massacre of the he was a lover of holiness, but the protestants in Ireland ; that he affilt- hierarchy ; not because he was a ed in extirpating the French pro- friend to Christ, but the craft. And testants at Rochelle; that he all he was a martyr in his death, not along encouraged papists, and po- because he bravely suffered death in pihly-affected clergymen, in pre- the cause of truth and righteousness, ference to all other persons, and ihat but because he died an enemy to liho upheld that moniter of wicked-berty and the rights of conscience."

ANEC

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ANECDOTE

where they were affembled, to talk OF A YOUNG ITALIAN PRINCE.

with them to their annoyance or

disturbance, a writ lay de leprofo IN the reign of Charles II. an

amovendo." Italian envoy informed his majesty, that a voung prince in Italy, having writ is for thofe lepers who appear

What follows is remarkable. The married beneath himself, had retired

to the light of all men that they are into England, and that his friends lepers, by their voice and fores, the requeited he might be searched for, putrefaction of their flesh, and by and sent back as soon as pollible.

the smell of them. And so late as The prince hearing of it, made the reign of Edward the Sixth mulbimself known to the king, ac

titudes of lepers seem to have been quainting him that he lived twenty" in England; for in : Edward VI. five miles from town, in a country

c. 3. in which directions are given retreat, with bis beloved Jacintha; for carrying the poor to the places and if his majesty would attord them where they were born, &c. we read kis protection, he should be happier the following clause :-“ Provided there, than in the poteltion of a always that all leprous and poor croin.

bed-rid creatures may, at their liThe king put a stop to any further berty, remain and continue in such searches of the envoy, and the houses appointed for lepers or bedenamoured prince lived unknown rid people as they now lie in." with his Jacintha till their deaths, which happened witbiu fix months

ANECDOTE of one another.

OF SIR ISAAC NEWTON.

SINGULAR FACTS

THE late Dr. Stukeley, one day RELATIVE TO LEPROUS PATIENTS. by appointment, paid a visit to Sir {From Hutchinson’s History, &c. of Dur. Itaac Newton. The servant said he ham.)

was in his ftudy. No one was perTHE leprosy was much more mitted to dillurb him there; but as common in this part of the globe it was near his dinner-time, the visiformerly than at present, and, per- tor sat down to wait for him. In a haps, near half the hospitals that thort time, a boiled chicken, under were in England were for lepers. a cover, was brought in for dinner. At the five gates of Norwich were An hour pailed, and Sir Isaac did five houles of this sort ; and lepers not appear. The doctor then ate were fo numerous in the twelfth the fowl; and covering up the empcentury, that by a decree in the ty dithi, desired the servant to get Lateran Council, under pope Alex. another drefled for his master. Beander 111. 1179, they were fore that was ready, the great man powered to erect churches for them. came down. He apologized for his {elves, and to have their own mi- delay, and addedam" Give me but nisters (lepers, we may fuppose) to leave to take my short dinner, and I officiate in them. This shews at Mail be at your service. I am faonce how infectious and offensive tigued and faint.” Saying this, he their distemper was; and on this listed up the cover, and, without account, in England, " where a any emotion, turned about to Stukeman was a leper, and dwelling in a 'ley with a smile" See,” he says, town, and would come into the “ what we studious people are !--I church, or among his neighbours, forgot that I had dined."

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CHARACTERISTIC MANNERS AND CUSTOMS.

ORIGIN OF CERTAIN INVENTIONS

AND CUSTOMS.

.

the time of Theodofius, these people

always burnt their dead. n1,

The use of coffee was not known tions, has experienced all the in Europe till the fixteenth century. caprices of fashion. The Greeks The tree which produces it, grows preserved it until the reign of Alex. in great abundance in the kingdom ander, and the Romans till towards of Yemen. For the cultivation of the year of Rome 454. Scipio it we are indebted to the Dutch, Africanus introduced the custom of who carried it from Moka to BaMaving every day, and a long series tavia, and thence to Holland. The of emperors conformed to it; but properties of coffee were discovered, Adrian resumed it again, and his as is faid, by the prior of an Arabian example was followed by his fuc- monastery, who having observed that cessors till Constantine. It appeared càttle did not seep when they eat again under Heraclius, and all the certain small beans, tried the effects Greek emperors wore beards. The of them upon his monks, to prevent Goths and the Franks had only them from falling asleep in the choir whiskers. Clodion ordered his sub- during night. jects to let their beards grow, that Among the Romans, at the end they might be distinguithed from of December, during the Saturpalia, the Romans. The ancient philo- children drew lots with beans to fee sophers wore long beards. The who would be King; and this cusecclefiaftics of the east always had tom was borrowed from that pracbeards, but the clergy of the west tised at Athens for the election of used a razor. There are some coun- magistrates. Hence, perhaps, is the tries where a long beard serves to origin of our drawing for King and express grief, and there are others Queen on Twelfth Night. where the want of a beard is a mark Coaches, as well as all other kinds of mourning.

of carriages which have been fince The Egyptians are said to have made in imitation of them, were inbeen the inventors of beer, in the vented by the French, and the use year 1212 before the Christian æra. of them is of a modern date. Under They named it the Pelufian liquor, Francis 1. there were only two because it was first made at Pelufium, coaches; that of the queen, and a city near the mouth of the Nile. that of Diana, natural daughter of

The brutality and savage fury of Henry II. The kings of France, the Barbarians, who, after a battle, before they used these machines, took from their graves such of their travelled on horseback; the prin enemies as had perified, that they cesses were carried in 'litters, and might infult and strip them, intro- ladics rode behind their fquires, duced

among the ancients 'the cuf- The magiftrates, who went to the tom of burning dead bodies. The palace on mules, opposed the

e luxury Greeks adopted it long before the of coaches as much as they could, Trojan war; and Sylla, fearing that In 1563 they petitioned Charles IX. the Romans would treat him in the to forbid them in the city, and preç fame manner as he had treated Caius served their ancient customs till the Marius, ordered, when dying, that commencement of the feventeenth his body should be placed on a fu- century. The number of coaches neral pile. From that epoch, tiļl began then to encrease. The firit lord at court who had one, was John Lent. There are still some monade Laval de Bois-Dauphin, and se- steries where the monks expire upon veral others followed his example. alhes. The Greeks and the Romans, Nevertheless, about the middle of who were accuítomed to bụrn their the last century, there were no more dead, and to collect the ashes in than three or four coaches in Paris; urns, gave rise to that elegant exat present there are above fifteen pression of the poets, “ che allies of thousand, without including hack. the dead." ney coaches, and ihose which are The ancient Gauls considered let for hire. A person of the name long hair as a mark of honour and of Sauvage, who lived in the treet liberty; but Cæsar, made them lay it of St. Martin, at the hotel of St. aside as foon as he had subdued them. Fiacre, first formed the idea of efta- Ecclefiafticş rendered homage to blifhing public carriages, which God by cutting their hair fhort, and made the name of fiacre be applied imagined that in doing this they both to the carriage and the driver * gave him a proof of their spiritual In 1650 Francis Villerme obtained fervitude, and of their perfect subthe exclusive privilege of letting out mission to his will. People formerly for hire all kinds of chaises ; and fe. swore by their hair; and to cut off ven years after one was granted for this badge of dignity from any one, hackney coaches to Mr. Givri. The was to devote him to ignominy, success of this enterprize excited Those who entered into a conspiracy, many other individuals to folicit the were obliged to cut off each other's fame favour, and carriages were foon hair. It was a piece of refined poseen in all the quarters of Paris. liteness among the French to pull Some historians, and especially those out a hair when they met a friend, of Italy, give the name of coach to and to present it to him. In the the principal Itandard of an army, eighth century, great lords. caufed which was fixed to a pole erected in the first hair of their children to be a chariot covered with purple. This cut by thofe for whom they enter. is said to have been the invention tained the greatest esteem, and by of Heribert, archbishop of Milan, this ceremony they became their about the year 1124. The emperor spiritual sponsors. About the year Otho IV. and several kings of Hun- 1116, long hair was considered as a gary, employed carriages of the same luxury, and a mark of effe minacy. kind.

lord * FIĄCRE, in French, signifies both a + Hence called All-Wednesday. coach and a hackney coachman.

Eighty years after, whoever wore Alhes among several nations were long hair was, by a canon, excluded a mark of grief and repentance. The from entering the church; and on Hebrews covered their heads with Christmas-day at mass, Godfroy, them in the time of public calami- bishop of Amiens, refused at St. ties, and the people of Niniveh ex. Oiner, in presence of Robert, earl piated their faults with fackcloth of Flanders, the offerings of those and alhes. In the primitive church, who had preserved their hair. Franthe bishop marked with alles the cis I. wore his hair fhort, on account forehead of a finner who began his of a wound which he had received penitence, and hence came the prac. in his head; his courtiers followed tice enjoined by the council of Be- his example, and the people imineventum, in 1091, of going to tated the courtiers. receive soine on the Wednesday The invention of bells is attributed which precedes the first Sunday of to the Egyptians: however this may

be,

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