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more powerful influence of exam- defeated the Turks in almost every ple.
engagement. The most distinguishBut though the Turks, thus en- ed and the most important action of forced, seemed better able to relift the whole campaign, was ihe cap. the attacks of the enemy, than in ture of Belgrade, which facilitated the preceding campaign, all their the entrance of the Imperial troops efforts were to ill-directed
or fo on the dominions of the enemy, feebly urged, that the progress of and secured them a retreat in cale of the Imperial ariny has been every
disaster. To this was owing the where rapid and successful. . This subsequent conquests of Bucharett, relaxation of vigour and judgment Gladova, and the whole district of appears, too, the more extraordi. Servia, as far as Orsova; the fiege nary, as the death of the grand of which, fince converted into a fignior made way for the succeifion blockade, has closed the campaign. ot a youthful sultan, who, eager to
No action occurred worthy of noretrieve the credit, and support the tice between the Russians and Śwedes; power, of the nation, breathed no. the campaign being trifled away in thing but war, and exerted his ut- kirmishes by sea and land, neither mott endeavours to inspire his troops conducted with fpirit, juagment, nor with the same spirit of enthufialin decilion. as glows within his own botom. But while the Imperialallies were
After the capture of Oczakow, pursuing their conquests with such the Russians opened the campaign, astonishing rapidity, the jealousy of by defeating a body of the enemy different powers was naturally'ex at Galacz, from whence they pro- cited by those symptoms of inordi, ceeded to take poffeffion of the left nate ambition, which seemed to in, fhore of the Danube, as far as the crease in proportion to the progress mouth of that river. The subsequent of their arıns. The neighbouring opposition they experienced, was potentates began to entertain appretrifling; town after town surrender- henfions, not inore serious than just; ed; and, till the fiege of Bender, and the Prussian monarch was the they appeared rather as an arıny of first to determine on a steady, allies passing unmolested through a though as yet imperceptible, op friendly territory, than as a body position no thote eccroachments, of hostile troops marching through which, by threatening destruction an enemy's country. At length, to the balance of power, seemed that important fortress was taken, calculated to fubvert, by degrees, and its capture was succeeded by the the liberties of Europe. For the fall of Akerman ; two events of the more effectual promotion of his highest consequence to thieir future schemes, evidently founded on the operations.
foundeit principles of a liberal poThe emperor, in the mean time, licy, he perceived the necessity of displayed equal activity, and met securing some powerful allies, who with equal success. Though we do might guard himn from the aitacks not incline to believe all the won- of any potentate, who Mould inderful accounts of the foreign ga- cline to fecond the ambitious prozettes, which relate that battles well. jects of the Imperialists. With this conrefted, and maintained with vis view, he wisely fixed on Great Brigour
many hours, have been won tain and Holland, as the best able, with little or no lois, yet the event both from furce and ficuation, to af. sufficiently justifies the claim of vic- ford him the requisite protection; tory, and proves that the Germans and a triple alliance was, in conse
quence, concluded between the three are disposed of. The women are powers, whose united arms, fup.' fagacious, and full of political enported by Sweden and the Porte, thusiasm; and are intriguing in af. may boldly bid defiance to all the fairs of government, while their huf. rest of Europe. But as these itares bands are getting drunk. were at a considerable distance from, This national character, the jufhis doginions, he judged it prudent tice of which we have no reason to strengthen the alliance by the ac- to doubt, is probably owing to the ceffion of a fourth power, fo fituated defects in the government, which as to be able, in case of emergency, have a greater influence over the to afford him immediate affistance : minds and manners of a people, that power was Poland; a kingdoin, than the generality of mankind are the instability of whose government, able to perceive, or willing to adwhich united all the evils of an mit. Be that as it may, the king elective monarchy with those of an of Pruffia forefaw, that unless such overbearing aristocracy, has conti- alterations took place in the governnually produced intestine divisions, ment of Poland, as would give it ftaand enticed the encroachments of bility, its alliance must prove rather foreign potentates.
an object of apprehenfion than deThe late king of Pruffia, Fre- fire. For this purpose, he ordered deric the Second, observed, that his ambassador to communicate his Poland was a perpetual anarchy wishes to the members of the diet, in which the great families, di- and to make an offer of procuring vided by separate and opposite in- their emancipation from the defpotic terests, facrificed the public good influence of Russia, which had long to their private and selfish views, obtained in the councils of Poland. never uniting but in the cruel Though the king and his principal oppreffion of their subjects, whom adherents were hostile to the interthey treated rather as beasts of bur- ference of Pruffia, the opposite party den, than as human beings. The prevailed; in consequence of which Poles, said the royal author, are the constitution is about to experivain, haughty in prosperity, abject_ence fome important changes; the and cringing in adversity. They army is ordered to be augmented to will suffer nothing to operate as an one hundred thousand men; and the obstacle to their accumulation of kingdom is, at length, by the exerwealth, which, when acquired, they tions of Frederic the Third, on the will lavish with a puerile prodigality: point of acquiring that degree of Frivolous, and destitute of folid consequence among the nations of judgment, they are always ready to Europe, to which its situation and readupt a party with precipitation, fources juftly entitle it. and to abandon it without reason or Thus, with Russia and the Emreflection; and by this inconsistency pire,' the rapidity of conqueft, far of conduct, they involve themselves from accelerating the attainment of in the most distressing embarrafl- their projects, has only served to ments. They have laws; but, for remove them farther from the goal want of coercive justice, they are in- of their defires. The opposition adequate to command either respect raised againft them by the vigilance or 'obedience. The party of the of Pruffia, is so truly formidable, king acquires a temporary weight, that their progress must be effectually when a confiderable number of va- checked; and, if we mar venture a cant employments are to be filled, conjecture founded on prefent apbut lofes ground the moment they pearances, a war begun in injustice,
will be terminated with disgrace. der the immediate protection of the The united forces of Prussia and Po- Imperial Chamber of Wetzlar, land, will probably be engaged in whose province it is to defend from active hostilities; while Great Bri- invafion the rights of the different tain and Holland keep the other princes of the empire. In consepowers of Europe in awe.
quence of a decree of this chamber, We cannot dismiss this subject, the king of Prussia marched ten without observing, that the earnest thousand troops into the country of anxiety evinced by the Prussian mo. Liege; but initead of supporting the narch to preserve, or rather to cita- cause of the bifhop, by affording his blish, the balance of power, so ef- fanction to tyranny and oppreffion, sential to the welfare and felicity of he nobly shewed himtelf the friend Europe, on a broad and solid bafis, of liberty, by offering his mediation able to elude the inares of envy, and between the contending parties, and to withstand the attacks of ambition, declaring his fole defign to be the exhibits his character in a most fa- legal restoration of the ancient convourable point of view. Indeed, fitution. the whole tenour of his conduct, A revolution more extensive and fince his acceflion to the throne, perfect, has taken place, in the course has proved him a consummate poli- of the present year, in the Austrian tician; but his are not the dark po- Netherlands; which, from the ereclitics of Charles the Fifth-that tion of a new power in the political narrow and confined system, found. scale of Europe, formidable from its ed on fufpicion, cherished by deceit, local situation, the fertility of its and enforced with despotism ;-'tis foil, and its commercial resources, the more open and liberal policy of becomes an object of greater imthat emperor's' manly competitor, portance, and therefore claims a Francis the First. This has been larger share of our attention. fufficiently exemplified in his eman- The rich provinces of the Austricipation of the Dutch (conjointly an Low Countries, owed their first with England) from the daring and annexation to the empire to the mar. dangerous attempts of an ariitocra- riage of Mary, daughter and fole tic junto, and in his recent treat- heiress of Charles the Bold, with ment of the inhabitants of Liege. Maximilian, son of the emperor
The small principality of Liege, Frederic the Third, from whom having caught that fpirit of liberty they descended, first, to Philip the for which the present age is so justly Handsome, archduke of Austria, son renowned, deinanded, with a firin- to Maximilian, and from him to ness the more respectable, from being Charles the Fifth, who assumed the tempered with moderation, the full government of Flanders in the year restoration of those rights and privi, one thousand five hundred and fifleges, of which their ancestry had teen, which he annexed to the eme been illegally deprived by the regu- pire, on his accession to the Imperial lation of one thousand fix hundred throne, at the coinmencement of the and eighty-four. This was refused subsequent year. It is needless to by their episcopal prince; who, being trace the state of these provinces educated in arbitrary principles, and under their different monarchs ; fufimpreffed with those tyrannicalideas, fice it to observe, that their ancient which distinguished the catholic pre- rights and privileges were secured lates of the early ages, fed from to them; and every emperor, at his à throne which freedom had render- coronation, was obliged to take an ed uneasy, and placed himself un- oath to preserve them in their full
extent. The states of the provinces, obedience to his commands. Theftates composed of deputies from the of all the provinces, said that weak nobles, the clergy, and the citizens, and arbitrary monarch, muft fubmit regulated all matters of finance, and implicitly to the payment of the subevery thing which appertained to fidies, both those that are in arrcar, municipal government. Things were and those which are current. The in this situation, when in the year companies of burgesses, their milie one thousand seven hundred and tary exercises, uniforms, cockades, eighty-fix, the emperor thought pro- and all other marks of party fpirit, per, without consulting the states, to as well as all other illegal associamake several material changes in the tions and meetings, shall be forthadminiftration of justice, and to sup- with abolished; and in defect of prefs a great number of convents of troops, each magistrate shall take both sexes. The latter, as might the most effectual measures for the naturally be supposed, inflamed the support of the police, and of good minds of the clergy; while the form order. The convents fupprefled premer produced some serious remon- vious to the first of April last (one frances on the part of the laity; thousand leven hundred and eightyThese remonftrances being treated seven) Naall remain fupprefled for with contempt by the court of Vi- ever; and the nominations that may enna, the states had recourse to their have been made fince that period to ancient mode of defending their pri- the vacant abbeys, shall be null, and vileges from invasion, by refusing to produce no effect in favour of the levy the subsidies, which the ex. religious persons so appointed. All pences of the war with the Turks the persons in office, whom they had compelled the emperor to de- have presumed to displace, must be mand. Joseph, however, unused to restored; with the exception of the restraint, and unwilling to submit to intendants and members of the new contradiction, determined to enforce tribunals of justice : these two topics bis orders ; and with that view ap. being of the number of those on pointed intendants to the different which I am disposed to liften to my provinces, for the purpose of col. states, and to commune with them, lecting the impofts, without the con- -In a word, there must not remain currence of the fates. This was a the smallest veftige of any thing violent exertion of arbitrary power, comınitted contrary to my orders and a flagrant violation of those prie and intentions. My dignity renders vileges which he had folemnly sworn all these preliminary re-ettablifh. to maintain. Hence the murmurs ments absolutely necessary. The of discontent became louder and emperor farther added, that in case louder; remonftrances were repeat of a perseverance to disabey his ored; and deputies were at length dif- ders, on the part of the states, he patched, by the states, to Vienna, to fhould employ all thofe means, which represent the nature of their grieve were abundantly in his power, to enances, confirm the justice of their force them. complaints, and point out the re- It was not probable, that such dress they required. But the em- language should conciliate the afperor, instead of listening to their fections of his offended subjects: the petition with that calmness and deputies, accordingly, remonstrated moderation, which its importance on its feverity, and attempted to certainly demanded, employed the effect fome alteration in the sentiimperious language of despotism, in-, ments of the emperor. But all their fisting on the most patsive and iinplicit efforts proved fruitless, and the in,
habitants of the Low Countries, yet them, in virtue of my fall and love unable to oppose tyranny by force, reign power. To this object I have emwere reduced to the neceffry of a powered my governmenc-general to temporary submission. The empe- afford you any military athtance in ror, meanwhile, lent a fresh supply enforcing the supplies, thould it be of croops to the Netherlands, and found necessary. I promise myself appointed general Dalton commander that you will pay implicit respect, in chief, with very extensive and ex- as you ought to do, to my fovereiga traordinary powers. The year eighty, commands, as they are founded on eight paffed in murmurs and remon- a thorough knowledge of the case ; strances, but to feeble and ineffectual, nor suffer yourselves to be led away that the emperor was thought to by objects foreign to your dury; have gained his point; and the Bra- and farther, that you will not give banters were deemed deftitute either countenance to those indiscreet perof spirit or power, to promote their fons, who, by an obstinate resistance, liberation from the shackles of de- and a criminal conduct, have infpotifm.
curred my displeasure; nor embarThe present year, however, was rass the exercise of my rights, and destined to exhibit a very differ- the prerogatives of my crown. I ent scene, and to correct so erro- have, moreover, ordered my governneous an opinion. A general am'ment-general to carry into full force nesty had been recently granted by the laws I have ordained, and to the emperor, at the instigation of spare no methods to put them into the his ministers, who seem to have been speedieft execution, without minding better acquainted with the temper (in regard to any of my subjects of his subjects in the Low Countries who may difpute them) the common than himself. But the impolition of forms of law, which were only made new taxes, for the support of the "for ordinary cases. At the same Turkish war, having encouraged the time, I acquaint you, that I have states once more to relift their col• broken and annulled thote clauses lection, till the infringements on their and conditions by which fame of ancient constitution Mould be wholly the courts have exceptions, and new removed; the emperor revoked his modified my orders; not doubting. amnesty, and by a rigorous edi&t of but you will think with me, that if the seventh of January, renewed his my dignity and my rights require I former tyrannical commands, which should take some effectual measures produced a fpirited address from the to destroy for ever that odious diffirst orders of the state on the twen- grace, which, for the honour of the ty-ninth of the same month. In con- nation, I could with to lofc the refequence of this, the emperor sent a membrance of, it is even for its own reply, to his minister plenipotentiary, intereit, as well as mine, that I should who communicated its contents to purify the constitution, in many inthe states on the second of March. Itances obscure and inexcuseable, It exhibits a curious instance of de- and fix it upon a proper basis. I fpotic pride, and Mews Joseph in cannot give you a stronger proof his true light-mighty in words, of my clemency, nor of my real afbut in deeds infignificant. The fol. feflion, than in communicating my lowing extract will amply justify our intentions, which, after what has affertion. “ Without having any happened, I was fully authorised to farther controversy in respect to rail. do by my sovereign pozver alone. I ing the supplies, I order you to pro- must likewise acquaint you, that ceed, without delay, to the granting the mitigation of the rigorous parts