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nation. He pretended to be inspired master ; Mr. Wadman, master's mate; by heavenly visions, which he affirmed Mr. Sommerville, the gunner; Mr. were then present to him. He also com- Trimlett, one of the midshipmen, and plained of the power of witchcraft, fix teamen, ten days after the left the with which he said he was tormented. Guardian, providentially inet with a On this account, he could not take his French merchantman, eighty leagues trial; but is committed to close cuf- from Cape Natal, who cariied trein tody till he either recovers, or is con- into the Cape of Good Hope; from ligned to a permanent place of safety. whence they were conveyed to St. He

lena in a French frigate called the FORTUNE,

Driade. There is great reason to fear A gentleman lately having occasion the other three boats were lost, as they to call in the neighbourhood of Caven- have not since been heard of. difh-square, took coach; on being ask The loss of the Guardian is of the ed by the coachman what he deemed highest detriment to the settlement at an unrealonable fare, he flew into a Butang Bay, as almost their existence passion, and, by an involuntary act, depended on the arrival of this lip, drew out of his waistcoat pocket a bit which had on board all the stores, of paper, which after having twisted cattle, provisions, and plants, intended about his finger, he threw into the for the relief of that place. It is fup. kennel, swearing he would not give posed, that only about thirteen out of him the value of that bit of paper near three hundred, were saved of this more than the usual fare. On his re- unfortunate crew. Among those loft, turn home, he missed a bank note of was Mr. Pitt, only son of lord Camel. considerable value, which he recollected ford. having put into his waistcoat pocket;

ACCIDENT. on inentioning the matter to his. fervant, he called to mind the above cir. A letter received from on board the cumstance, and, on going to the place, General Goddard, at Diamond Hare actually found the note in the kennel bour, dated 6th November 1989, has where he had thrown it.

the following particulars. The tygers

have been numerous about the thores SHIPWRECK.

here for several days paft; and much The Middlefex East Indiaman, just mischief is to be apprehended from arrived from China, brings the melan- them: one of the men belonging to choly news of the loss of his majesty's our lip was very near being killed fhip Guardian, of forty-four guns, on yesterday noon, by one of these anią her voyage to Botany Bay. She struck mals. A boat was dispatched with a on an island of ice on the 23d of De. fufficient number of men on board_to cember last, in latitude 44 fouth, and get wood; and while the people were longitude 4 r{ east of London; and al- working on fhore, one of them was though every exertion was used on the seized by a tyger, so very ferocious, part of the officers and seamen to save that he carried off the back part of the the ship, it was found impracticable. poor man's head and neck in an instant, On Christmas-day four boats, contain- besides making several large wounds in ing the greatest part of the crew, left his body with his teeth and claws: and the ship; but the commander, captain it is expected that he cannot survive Riou, rejected the entreaties of the rest this dreadful misfortune. When the of the officers, and insisted on remain- tyger was running off with this unfor. ing on board to the last moment. It is tunate man, he stretched out his hand, feared, that this gallant man has fallen and laid hold of a tree, which he held a facrifice to too nice a sense of his faft, while his companions fired at him; duty. One of the four boats, in which on which he immediately quitted his were the Rev. Mr. Crowther, the chap- prey: they were no fooner got into lain ; Mr. Richard Farquharson, the the boat, than two other tygers apo purfer; Mr. Thomas Clements, the peared.

A

GENERAL HISTORY

OF THE IMPORTANT

National Occurrences of the Year 1789.

INCLUDING, PARTICULARLY,

A DETAIL OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

Written purposely for this Wcik, by a great literary Character,

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Relative State of the Belligerent Powers which skirt the dominions of the

Campaigns of Eighty-Nine-Views of emperor, have long been regarded Prullia~Affairs of Liege-Revolution in by that monarch,, as an enviable obe Brabant-Revolution in France.

ject of acquifition, both from the DE FOR E we enter on the po. augmentation of revenue which they

litical history of the year one would necessarily produce, and from thousand seven hundred and eighty- the effectual barrier which their nine, it will be necessary to take a towns and forts would afford against review of the situation of foreign the dangerous incursions of such powers ; as well from the evident formidable neighbours. The em-. influence of the politics of the con- press, also, experienced an equal iinent over those of our own coun- anxiety, not only to secure to try, as from the potent considera- herself the quiet possession of the tion, that some of the European Crimea, the resignation of which itates have experienced a revolution she obtained at her last peace with fo rapid and extraordinary, as to the Turks, but to acquire a farther excite the wonder of the present extension of doinain, on the fide of age, and to form a distinguished Tartary. This inordinate desire of æra in the annals of general hif- the haughty Catharine to extend tory.

her territories, by means o fatal to It is not our intention to trace, population, when her kingdom afwith the precision of a journalist, fords such a scanty supply of inha'the progressive operations of the bel- bitants, must be considered as the ligerent powers, but merely to notice ne plus ultra of political madnels: the leading points, in such a man- but ambition, like avarice, is infaner, as to afford a clear and com- tiate ;-its eagerness to accumulate, prehensive idea of the advantages increates in proportior to the maga or disadvantages acquired or fuso nitude of its poffeffions. tained by the respective parties. The The efforts of thele united powers, motives which urged the Imperial during the campaign of eighty-eigbt, allies to engage in a war with the wore greatly inadequate to the exTurks, are too well known to re- pence of equipment. The Turks, with quire much expatiation. Those fer a greater portion of success, indeed, tile plains of European Turkey, than the vigour of their exertions VOL. II,

0

entitled

entitled them to expect, impeded the sand feven hundred and eighty-four, progress of the Imperial arms; the by the grand vizier, Hamid Chalib emperor was foiled in all his at. Pacha, aided by two French engitempts; and the campaign must have neers; which itill continues to flouproved equally pregnant with loss rich. But the Turks have not yet and difhonour, but for the inter- derived fufficient knowledge, from vention of one fortunate occurrence, these wise institutions, to display folely to be ascribed to chance : we any visible symptoms of improvemean,

the

capture of Oczakow, on ment in Dautical affairs. the seventeenth of December, occa Such was the relative situation of fioned by the fall of a bomb on the the belligerent powers at the compowder magazine, which caused such mencement of the present year: duan explosion as effected a practicable ring the winter, the most fórmidable breach in the walls, and gave the preparations were inade on all sides besiegers an opportunity, they had for renewing the contest with addilong fought for in vain, to take the tional vigour; the army of Ruflia place by affault. This event was was designed to be augmented to the more important, as it exposed the five hundred thousand men ; that Euxine to the naval power of Ruflia, of the emperor amounted to near which the Ottoman fleet was wholly two-thirds of the number ; the unable to oppose. For though the Turks received an immense accefignorance of the Turks has, in many fion of force from the inexhaustible refpects, been greatly exaggerated, hordes of Alia; and Sweden-their as well by the baron de Tott, as by only ally-exerted her utmost faculM. Savary → proofs of which have ties, to render her alliance effectual. been exhibited by M. de Peyffonel Thus prepared, it was natural to and the abbé Toderini; yet their suppose the ensuing campaign would ignorance of military and naval be obstinate and bloody at least, if tactics, is a matter of such notoriety not decisive ; and the eyes of all Euas not to admit of a doubt. Father rope were fixed on that theatre of Boscovich tells us, that in fome voy, war, in which more than a million of ages which he made in Ottoman vef- men were expected to be employed. fels, in the year one thousand seven The Turks had ever displayed a perhundred and seventy-two, he per- tinacity of courage, which had someceived the most incredible faults in times supplied the place of military their navigation; which occasioned skill, and had always rendered them the annual lofs of several hundreds formidable adversaries;while the fupeof ships in the Black Sea ; and the rior discipline of the Gerinan troops, baron de Toit remarks, that many inspired them with that confidence, of the Turks were, during his reli- which is fo essential to the attaindence among them, even ignorant ment of victory: The Ruffians, darof the use of ballaft. An academy, ing and robust, inured by the rigours indeed, for navigation, called Mu- of their native climate, to the patient hendis Khane, or the Chamber of endurance of hardships, which the Geometry, was instituted in the year troops of the south are unable to one thousand seven hundred and se. fupport, regarded their Asiatic foes venty-three, by Gafi Affam, high with a degree of contempt, which, admiral, under the auspices of the though fonetimes dangerous, is gefultan Muftapha the Third, and af- nerally beneficial: and the king of listed by M. de Tots; and another Siveden prepared to animate his fol. academy was erected for experimen- diers to uncommon exertion, as well tal navigation, in the year one thou- by the force of exhortation, as the

more

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more powerful influence of exam. defeated the Turks in almost every ple.

engagement. The most dillinguithe But though the Turks, thus en- ed and the most important action of forced, seemed better able to resist the whole campaign, was ihe cap. the attacks of the enemy, than in ture of Belgrade, which facilitated the preceding campaign, all their the entrance of the Imperial troops efforts were 10 ill-directed, or so on the dominions of the enemy, feebly urged, that the progress of and secured them a retreat in cale of the Iinperial army has been every ditafter. To this was owing the where rapid and successful. This subsequent conquests of Bucharett, relaxation of vigour and judgment Gladova, and the whole district of appears, too, the more extraordi- Servia, as far as Orsova; the fiege nary, as the death of the grand of which, fince converted into fignior made way for the succellion blockade, has closed the campaign. ot a youthful sultan, who, eager to

No action occurred worthy of noretrieve the credit, and support the tice between the Russians and Swedes; power, of the nation, breathed no. the campaign being trifled away in thing but war, and exerted his ut- skirmishes by sea and land, neither moit endeavours to inspire his troops conducted with fpirit, juagment, nor with the same fpirit of enthuhalin decilion. as glows within his own bolom. But while the Imperial allies were

After the capture of Oczakow, pursuing their conqueits with such the Russians opened the campaign, astonishing rapidity, the jealousy of by defeating a body of the enemy different powers was naturally ex, at Galacz, from whence they pro- cited by those symptoms of inordi, ceeded to take poffeßion of the left nate ambition, which seemed to infhore of the Danube, as far as the crease in proportion to the progress mouth of that river. The subsequent of their arins. The neighbouring opposition they experienced, was potentates began to entertain appretrifling; town after town surrender- henfions, not inore serious than just; ed; and, till the fiege of Bender, and the Prussian monarch was the they appeared rather as an arıny of first to determine on a steady, allies paffing, unmolested through a though as yet imperceptible, op: friendly territory, than as a body position to those eccroachinents, of hottile troops marching through which, by threatening destruction an enemy's country: At length, to the balance of power, seemed that important fortress was taken, calculated to fubvert, by degrees, and its capture was succeeded by the the liberties of Europe. For the fall of Akerman ; two events of the more effectual promotion of his higheft consequence to their future schemes, evidently founded on the operations.

foundeit principles of a liberal poThe emperor, in the mean time, licy, he perceived the necessity of displayed equal activiry, and met securing some powerful allies, who with equal success. Though we do might guard hin from the artacks not incline to believe all che won- of any potentate, who Mould inderful accounts of the foreign ga- cline t., fecond the ambitious prozettes, which relate that battles well. jects of the Imperialists. With this contested, and maintained with vio view', h.: wisely fixed on Great Brigour for many

hours, have been won tain and Holland, as the best able, with little or no lois, yet the event both from furce and situation, to af. fufficiently justifies the claim of vić- ford him the requisite protection; wry, and proves that the Germans and a triple alliance was, in confe

quence,

O 2

quence, concluded between the three are disposed of. The women are powers; whose united arms, fup. fagacious, and full of political esported by Sweden and the Porte, thufia[m; and are intriguing in afmay boldly bid defiance to all the fairs of government, while their hurrest of Europe. But as these stares bands are getting drunk. were at a confiderable distance from This nacional character, the jurhis dopinions, he judged it prudent tice of which we have no reason to strengthen the alliance by the ac- to doubt, is probably owing to the cession of a fourth power, fo situated defects in the government, which as to be able, in case of emergency, have a greater influence over the to afford him immediate assistance: minds and manners of a people, that power was Poland; a kingdom, than the generality of mankind are the instability of whose government, able to perceive, or willing to adwhich 'united all the evils of an mit. Be that as it may, the king elective monarchy with those of an of Pruffia forefaw, that unless fuch overbearing aristocracy, has conti- alterations took place in the governnually produced intestine divisions, ment of Poland, as would give it staand enticed the encroachments of bility, its alliance must prove rather foreign potentates.

an object of apprehenfion than deThe late king of Pruffia, Fre- fire. For this purpose, he ordered deric the Second, observed, that his ambassador to communicate his Poland was a perpetual anarchy; wishes to the members of the diet, in which the great families, 'di- and to make an offer of procuring vided by separate and oppofite in their emancipation from the despotic terests, sacrificed the public good influence of Russia, which had long to their private and selfish views, obtained in the councils of Poland. never uniting, but in the cruel Though the king and his principal oppression of their subje&ts, whom adherents were hostile to the interthey treated' rather as beasts of bur- ference of Prussia, the opposite party den, than as human beings. The prevailed ; in consequence of whichi Poles, said the royal author, are the constitution is about to experivain, haughty in prosperity, abject_ence fome important changes; the and cringing in adversity. They army is ordered to be augmented to will suffer nothing to operate ‘as an one hundred thoufand men; and the obstacle to their accumulation of kingdom is, at length, by the exerwealth, which, when acquired, they tions of Frederic the Third, on the will lavish with a puerile prodigality: point of acquiring that degree of Frivolous,' and 'destitute of solid consequence among the nations of judgment, they are always ready to Europe, to which its situation and readopt a party with precipitation, fources jultly entitle'it. and to abandon it without reason or Thus, with Russia and the Emreflection; and by this inconsistency pire, the rapidity of conqueft, far of conduct, they involve themselves from accelerating the attainment of in the most distressing embarrafl- their projects, has only served to ments. They have laws; but, for remove them farther from the goal want of coercive justice, they are in- of their defires. The opposition adequate to command either respect raised against them by the vigilance or obedience. The party of the of Pruffia, is so truly formidable, king acquires a temporary weight, that their progress must be effectually when a confiderable number of va- checked; and, if we mar venture a cant employments are to be filled, conjecture founded on present apbut lofes ground the moment they pearances, a war begun in injustice,

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