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21 That, as sin bath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign

through righteousness unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ our Lord.

PARAPHRASE. 21 much more abound e. That as sin had reigned, or showed

its mastery, in the death of the Israelites, who were under the law, so grace, in its turn, might reign, or show its mastery, by justifying them from all those many sins which they had committed, each whereof, by the law, brought death with it; and so bestowing on them the righteousness of faith, instate them in eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

NOTES. that this is not a mere groundless criticism, may appear from ver. 12 and 13, where St. Paul uses épastix, in these two different verses, with the distinction of the article and no article. €Grace might much more abound." The rest of mankind were in a state of death, only for one sin of one man. This the apostle is express in, not only in the foregoing verses, but elsewhere. But those, who were under the law, (which made each transgression they were guilty of mortal) were under the condemnation of death, not only for that one sin of another, but also for every one of their own sins. Now to make any one righteous to life, from many, and those bis own sins, besides that one that lay on hiin before, is greater grace than to bestow on him justification to life only from one sin, and that of another man. To forgive the penalty of many sins is a greater grace than to remit the penalty of one.




St. Paul having, in the foregoing chapter, very much magnified free grace, by showing that all men, having lost their lives by Adam's sin, were, by grace through Christ, restored to life again ; and also, as many of them as believed in Christ, were re-established in immortality by grace ; and that even the Jews, who, by their own trespasses against the law, had forfeited their lives over and over again, were also by grace restored to life, grace superabounding where sin abounded, he here obviates a wrong inference, which might be apt to mislead the convert Gentiles, viz. “ therefore let

us continue in sin, that grace may abound.” The contrary whereof he shows their very taking upon them the profession of Christianity required of them, by the very initiating ceremony of baptism, wherein they were typically buried with Christ, to teach them that they, as he did, ought to die to sin; and, as he rose to live to God, they should rise to a new life of obedience to God, and be no more slaves to sin, in an obedience and resignation of themselves to its commands. For, if their obedience were to sing they were vassals of sin, and would certainly receive the wages of that master, which was nothing but death ; but, if they obeyed righteousness, i. e. sincerely endeavoured after righteousness, though they did not attain it, sin should not have dominion over them by death, i. e. should not bring death upon them : because they were not under the law, which condemned them to death for every transgression, but under grace, which, by faith in Jesus Christ, justified them to eternal life from their many transgressions. And thus he shows the Gentiles not only the no necessity, but the advantage of their not being under the law.

TEXT. 1 What shall we say then ? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may

abound? 2 God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer

therein ?

PARAPHRASE. 1 What shall we say then ? Shall we continue in sin, that 2 grace may abound God forbid. How can it be that we

who, by our embracing Christianity, have renounced our

NOTE. 2 *“We," i. e. I, and all converts to Christianity. St. Paul, in this chapter,

shows it to be the profession and obligation of all Christians, even by their baptism, and the typical signification of it, to be “dead to sin, and alive to God," i. e. as he explains it, not to be any longer vassals to sin, in obeying our lusts, but to be servants to God, in a sincere purpose and endeavour of obeying him. For, whether under the law or under grace, whoever is a vassal to sin, i. e. indulges himself in a compliance with his sinful lusts, will receive the wages which sin pays, i. e. death. This he strongly represents here to the Gentile converts of Rome, (for it is to them he speaks in this chapter) that they might not mistake the state they were in, by being, not under the law, but under grace, of which, and the freedom and largeness of it, he had spoken so much and so highly in the foregoing chapter, to let them see that to be under grace was not a state of licence, but of exact obedience, in the intention and endeavour of every one under grace, though the performance they came short of it. This strict obedience, to the utmost reach of every one's aim and endeavours, he urges as necessary, because obedience to sin unavoidably produces death, and he urges as reasonable, for this very reason, that they were not under the law, but under grace.

Forasmuch as all the endeavours after righteousness, of

TEXT. 3 Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ

were baptized into his death ? 4 Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death; that, like

as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father,

even so we also should walk in newness of life. 5 For, if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death,

we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection : 6 Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body

of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin. 7 For he that is dead is freed from sin.

PARAPHRASE. former sinful courses, and have professed a death to sin, 3 should live any longer in it? For this I hope you are not

ignorant of, that we Christians, who by baptism were admitted

into the kingdom and church of Christ, were baptized into a 4. similitude of his death: We did own some kind of death by

being buried under water, which, being buried with him, i. e. in conformity to his burial, as a confession of our being dead, was to signify, that as Christ was raised up from the dead into a glorious life with his Father, even so we, being raised from our typical death and burial in baptism, should lead a new sort of life, wholly different from our former, in

some approaches towards that heavenly life that Christ is risen 5 to. For, if we have been ingrafted into him, in the similitude

of his death, we shall be also in a conformity to the life 6 which he is entered into by his resurrection : Knowing this,

that we are to live so, as if our old man, our wicked and corrupt fleshly selfo which we were before, were crucified with him, that the prevalency of our carnal sinful propensities,

which are from our bodies, might be destroyed, that henceng forth we should not serve sin", as vassals to it. For he that

NOTES. those who were under the law, were lost labour, since any one slip forfeited life : but the sincere endeavours after righteouspess of those who were under

grace were sure to succeed, to the attaining the gift of eternal life. 4 b Asd, in the Hellenistic Greek, sometimes signifies into, and so our translation

renders it, 2 Pet. i. 3. And, if it be not so taken here, the force of St. Paul's argument is lost, which is to show into what state of life we ought to be raised out of baptism, iu similitude and conformity to that state of life Christ was

raised into from the grave. 6 «See Gal. v. 24. Eph. iv. 22. Col. ii. 11. 1 Pet. iv. 1.

d It will conduce much to the understanding of St. Paul, in this and the two following chapters, if it be minded that these phrases, “to serve sin, to be servants of sin, sin to reign in our mortal bodies, to obey sin in the lusts of our bodies, to yield our members justruments of unrighteousness unto sin, or

TEXT. 8 Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also live

with him : 9 Knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dieth no more ;

death hath no more dominion over him. 10 For in that he died, he died unto sin once : but in that he liveth,

he liveth unto God. 11 Likewise, reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but

alive unto God, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

PARAPHRASE. is dead is set free from the vassalagee of sin, as a slave is 8 from the vassalage of his master. Now if we understand by

our being buried in baptism, that we died with Christ, we

cannot but think and believe that we should live a life con9 formable to his; Knowing that Christ, being raised from the

dead, returns no more to a mortal life; death hath no more 10 dominion over him, he is no more subject to death. For in

that he died, he died unto sin, i. e. upon the account of sin, once f for all : but his life, now after his resurrection, is a

life wholly appropriated to God, with which sin, or death, 11 shall never have any more to do, or come in reach of. In like

manner do you also make your reckoning, account yourselves

NOTES. servants of uncleanness, and to iniquity unto iniquity, to be freed from righteonsness, to walk, live, or be after the flesh, to be carnally minded,” all signify one and the same thing, viz, the giving ourselves up to the conduct of our sinful, carnal appetites, to allow any of them the command over us, and the conduct and prevalency in determining us. On the contrary, "that walking after the Spirit, or in newness of life, the crucifixion of the old man, the destruction of the body of sin, the deliverance from the body of death, to be freed from sin, to be dead to sin, alive unto God, to yield yourselves unto God, as those who are alive from the dead, yield your members servants of righteousness onto holiness, or instruments of righteousness unto God, to be servants of obedienee unto righteousness, made free from siu, servants of righteousness, to be after the Spirit, to be spiritually minded, to mortify the deeds of the body," do all signify a constant and steady purpose, and sincere endeavour to obey the law and will of God in every thing, these several expressions beiug used in several

places, as best serves the occasion, and illustrates the sense. 7 e The tenour of St. Paul's discourse here shows this to be the sense of this

verse; and to be assured that it is so, we need go no farther than ver. 11, 12, 13. He makes it his business in this chapter not to tell them what they certainly and unchaugeably are, but to exhort them to be what they ought and are engaged to be, by becoming Christians, viz. that they ought to emancipate themselves from the vassalage of sin ; not that they were so emancipated, with out any danger of return, for then he could not have said what he does, ver. 11, 12, 13, which supposes it in their power to continue in their obedience to

sin, or return to that vassalage, if they would. 10 i See Heb. is. 26–28. 1 Pet. iv. 1, 2.

TEXT. . 12 Let not sin, therefore, reign in your mortal body, that ye should

obey it in the lusts thereof. 13 Neither yield ye your members, as instruments of unrighteousness

unto sin : but yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead ; and your members as instruments of righteousness

unto God. 14 For sin shall not have dominion over you; for ye are not under the

law, but under grace.

PARAPHRASE. dead to sins, freed from that master; so as not to suffer yourselves any more to be commanded or employed by it, as if it were still your master ; but alive to God, i. e. that it

is your business now to live wholly for his service, and to his 12 glory ", through Jesus Christ our Lord. Permit not, there

fore, sin to reign over you by i your mortal bodies, which 13 you will do if

you obey your carnal lusts : Neither deliver up your members to sin, to be employed by sin, as instruments of iniquity, but deliver up yourselves unto God, as those who have got to a new life from among the dead', and choosing

him for your Lord and Master, yield your members to him, 14 as instruments of righteousness. For if you do so, sin shall

not have dominion over you ", you shall not be as its slaves,

NOTES. 11 “ Sin" is here spoken of as a person, a prosopopæia made use of, all through

this and the following chapter, which must be minded, if we will understand them right. The like exhortation upon the same ground, see 1 Pet. iv. 1–3. b See Gal. ii. 19. 2 Cor. v. 15. Rom. v. 4. The force of St. Paul's argument here seems to be this : in yonr baptism you are engaged into a likeness of Christ's death and resurrection. He once died to sin, so do you count yourselves dead to sio. He rose to life, wherein he lives wholly to God; so must your new life, after your resurrection from your typical burial in the water, be under the vassalage of sin no more, but you must live entirely to the service of God, to

whom you are devoted, in obedience to his will in all things. 12 i “ In your mortal bodies;” év, in the apostle's writings, often signifies, by. And

he here, as also in the following chapters, ver. 18 and 24, and elsewhere, placing the root of sin in the body, his sense seems to be, let pot sin reign over

you, by the lusts of your mortal bodies. 13 “Sinful lusts," at least those to which the Gentiles were most eminently eu

slaved, seem so much placed in the body and the members, that they are called “the members,” Col. iii. 5. l'Ex yoxpūv, “ from among the dead.” The Gentile world were dead in sins, Eph. ii. 1, 5. Col. ii. 13. Those, who were converted to the Gospel, were

raised to life from among those dead. 14 m “Sin shall not have dominion over yon," i. e. sin shall not be your absolute

master, to dispose of your members and faculties in its drudgery and service, as it pleases ; you shall not be under its control, in absolute subjection to it, but your own men that are alive, and at your own disposal, unless, by your own free. VOL. VIII.


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