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TEXT. 13 For such are false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming them

selves into the apostles of Christ. 14 And no marvel ; for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of

light. 15 Therefore it is no great thing if his ministers also be transformed,

as the ministers of righteousness: whose end shall be according to their works.

PARAPHRASE. pattern, and did nothing but what even I myself had done. 13 For these are false o apostles, deceitful labourers in the Gospel,

having put on the counterfeit shape and outside of apostles of 14 Christ : And no marvel; for Satan himself is sometimes 15 transformed into an angel of light. Therefore it is not

strange, if so be his ministers are disguised so as to appear ministers of the Gospel: whose end shall be according to their works.

NOTE. 13 • They had questioned St. Paul's apostleship, 1 Cor. ix. because of his not taking

maintenance of the Coriuthians. He here directly declares them to be po true apostles.


CHAPTER XI. 16-33.

CONTENTS. He goes on, in his justification, reflecting upon the carriage of the false apostle towards the Corinthians, ver. 16–21. He compares himself with the false apostle, in what he boasts of, as being à Hebrew, ver. 21, 22, or minister of Christ, ver. 23, and here St. Paul enlarges upon his labours and sufferings.

TEXT. 16 I say again, Let no man think me a fool; if otherwise, yet as a fool

receive me, that I may boast myself a little. 17 That which I speak, I speak it not after the Lord, but as it were

foolishly, in this confidence of boasting. 18 Seeing that many glory after the flesh, I will glory also. 19 For

ye suffer fools gladly, seeing ye yourselves are wise. 20 For ye suffer, if a man bring you into bondage, if a man devour you,

if a man take of you, if a man exalt himself, if a man smite you on

the face. 21 I speak, as concerning reproach, as though we had been weak: how

beit, whereinsoever any are bold, (I speak foolishly) I am bold also. 22 Are they Hebrews ? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are

they the seed of Abraham ? So am I.

PARAPHRASE. 16 I say again, Let no man think me a fool, that I speak so

much of myself: or, at least, if it be a folly in me, bear with

me as a fool, that I too, as well as others a, may boast myself 17 a little. That which I say on this occasion is not by com

mand from Christ, but, as it were, foolishly, in this matter of 18 boasting. Since many glory in their circumcision, or ex19 traction, I will glory also. For ye bear with fools easily", 20 being yourselves wise. For you bear with it, if a man bring

you into bondage®, i. e. domineer over you, and use you like his bondmen ; if he make a prey of you ; if he take, or extort presents, or a salary, from you; if he be elevated, and high,

amongst you; if he smite you on the face, i. e. treat you 21 contumeliously. I speak, according to the reproach has been

cast upon me, as if I were weak, i. e. destitute of what might support me in dignity and authority, equal to this false apostle;

as if I had not as fair pretences to power and profit amongst 22 you, as he. Is he an Hebrew', i. e. by language an Hebrew ?

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NOTES. 16 Vid. ver. 18. 18 b Vid. chap. xii. 11.

C“ After the flesh.” What this glorying " after the flesh" was, in particular

here, vid. ver. 22, viz. being a Jew by descent. 19 Spoken ironically, for their bearing with the insolence and covetousness of their

false apostle. 20 • The “ boudage" here meant, was subjection to the will of their false apostle,

as appears by the following particulars of this verse, and not subjection to the Jewish rites. For if that had been, St. Paul was so zealous against it, that he would have spoken more plainly and warmly, as we see in his epistle to the Galatians; and not have touched it thus, only by the by, slightly, in a doubtful expression. Besides, it is plain, no such thing was yet attempted openly; only

St. Paul was afraid of it; vid. ver. 3. 22 €“ Is he an Hebrew?” Having, in the foregoing verse, spoken in the singular

number, I have been fain to continue the same number here, though different from

TEXT. 23 Are they ministers of Christ? (I speak as a fool) I am more: in

labours, inore abundant, in stripes above measure, in prisons more

frequent, in deaths oft. 24 Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes save one. 25 Thrice was I beaten with rods, once was I stoned, thrice I suffered

shipwreck, a night and a day I have been in the deep; 26 In journeyings often, in perils of waters, in perils of robbers, in

perils by mine own countrymen, in perils by the heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils

among false brethren ; 27 In weariness and painfulness, in watchings often, in hunger and

thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness. 28 Besides those things that are without, that which cometh upon me

daily, the care of all the churches.

PARAPHRASE. So am I. Is he an Israelite, truly of the Jewish nation, and bred

up in that religion ? So am I. Is he of the seed of Abraham, really descended from him ? And not a proselyte, 23 of a foreign extraction ? So am I. Is he a minister of Jesus

Christ? (I speak in my foolish way of boasting) I am more so: in toilsome labours I surpass him: in stripes I am exceedingly

beyond him 8: in prisons I have been oftener; and in the 24 very jaws of death, more than once: Of the Jews I have, five 25 times, received forty stripes save one.

Thrice was I whipped with rods: once was I stoned: thrice shipwrecked: I have 26 passed a night and a day in the sea : In journeyings often: in

perils by water; in perils by robbers ; in perils by mine own countrymen; in perils from the heathen; in perils in the

city; in perils in the country; in perils at sea; in perils among 27 false brethren ; In toil and trouble, and sleepless nights, often;

in hunger and thirst; in fastings, often; in cold and naked28 ness.

Besides these troubles from without, the disturbance

NOTES that in the text, to avoid an inconsistency in the paraphrase, which could not but shock the reader. But this I would be understood to do, without imposing my opinion on any body, or pretending to change the text : but, as an expositor, to tell my reader that I think, though St. Paul says “ they,” he means but one; as often, when he says we," he means only himself, the reason whereof I

have given elsewhere. 23 6 'Ev tohnyaīs n epbadabriws, " in stripes above measure,” rather“ in stripes ex

ceeding." For these words, as the other particulars of this verse, ought to be taken comparatively, with reference to the false apostle, with whoni St. Paul is comparing himself, in the ministry of the Gospel. Unless this be understood so, there will seem to be a disagreeable tautology in the following verses; which, taking these words in a comparative sense, are proofs of his saying, “ In stripes I am exceedingly beyond him; for of the Jews five times,” &c.

TEXT. 29 Who is weak, and I am not weak? who is offended, and I burn not? 30 If I must needs glory, I will glory of the things which concern mine

infirmities. 31 The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is blessed for

evermore, knoweth that I lie not. 32 In Dainascus, the governor under Aretas the king kept the city of

the Damascenes, with a garrison desirous to apprehend me: 33 And through a window in a basket was I let down by the wall, and

escaped his hands.

PARAPHRASE. that comes daily upon me, from my concern for all the 29 churches. Who is a weak Christian, in danger, through

frailty or ignorance, to be misled, whose weakness I do not feel and suffer in, as if it were my own? Who is actually

misled, for whom my zeal and concern do not make me uneasy, 30 as if I had a fire in me? If I must be compelled to glory',

I will glory of those things which are of my weak and suffer31 ing side. The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who 32 is blessed for ever, knoweth that I lie not. In Damascus,

the governor, under Aretas the king, who kept the town with 33 a garrison, being desirous to apprehend me; I was through a

window let down in a basket, and escaped his hands.


NOTES. 30 h« Compelled.” Vid. chap. xii. 11.

By xauzão das, which is translated sometimes " to glory," and sometimes “ to boast,” the apostle all along, where he applies it to himself, means nothing, but the mentioning some commendable action of his, without varity or ostentation, but barely upon necessity, on the present occasion.




He makes good his apostleship, by the extraordinary visions and revelations which he had received.

TEXT. 1 It is not expedient for me, doubtless, to glory: I will come to

visions and revelations of the Lord. 2 I knew a man in Christ, above fourteen years ago, (whether in the

body, I cannot tell; or whether out of the body, I cannot tell: God

knoweth) such an one caught up to the third heaven. 3 And I knew such a man, (whether in the body, or out of the body,

I cannot tell: God knoweth) 4 How that he was caught up into paradise, and heard unspeakable

words, which it is not lawful for a man to utter. 5 Of such an one will I glory: yet of myself I will not glory, but in

mine infirmities. 6 For, though I would desire to glory, I shall not be a fool ; for I will

say the truth: but now I forbear, lest any man should think of me

above that which he seeth me to be, or that he heareth of me. 7 And, lest I should be exalted above measure, through the abundance

of the revelations, there was given to me a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet me, lest I should be exalted above measure.

PARAPHRASE. 1 If I must be forced to glory a for your sakes; (for me it is

not expedient) I will come to visions and revelations of the 2 Lord. ' I knew a man", by the power of Christ, above four

teen years ago, caught up into the third heaven, whether the

entire man, body and all, or out of the body in an ecstasy, 3 I know not; God knows. And I knew such an

one 6, whether in the body, or out of the body, I know not, God 4 knows, That he was caught up into paradise, and there heard 5 what is not in the power of man to utter. Of such an one I

will glory: but myself I will not mention with any boasting,

unless in things that carry the marks of weakness, and show 6 my sufferings. But if I should have a mind to glory in other

things, I might do it, without being a fool; for I would speak nothing but what is true, having matter in abundance o: but I

forbear, lest any one should think of me beyond what he sees 7 me, or hears commonly reported of me. And that I might

not be exalted above measure, by reason of the abundance of revelations that I had, there was given me a thorn in the flesh", the messenger of Satan to buffet me, that I might not be over

NOTES. 1 • Ei xarxão faro 8t7, “If I must glory,” is the reading of some copies, and is justified

by ver. 30, of the foregoing chapter, by the Vulgar translation, and by the Syriac, much to the same purpose; and suiting better with the context, renders

the sense clearer. 2, 3 • Modestly speaking of himself in the third person. 6 < Vid. ver. 7. 7.1 “ Thorn in the flesh :” what this was in particular, St. Paul having thought

fit to conceal it, is not casy for those who came after to discover, nor is it very material.

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