National Liberation Movements in Office: Forging Democracy with African Adjectives in Namibia
How does a liberation movement transform itself into a political party? What are the burdens and liabilities that come about when these movements integrate in the democratic process? The author tries to answer these questions analyzing SWAPO's war of independence against the South African apartheid regime and the changes it went through once the party won the first free elections in 1989. The authoritarian regime that emerged was the outcome of thirty years of exile in neighboring Zambia and Angola. The latter and the consequences of the earlier destruction of the African traditions, following the colonial intervention, gave way to a specific African version of democracy. Is this democracy going to develop into a full, all embracing system or it is going to end in democratic failure? The author looks deeply into the historical and political past of the Namibian process and gives an optimistic, upbeat account of an African democracy.
Democracy An African Relevant Conceptualization
Namibia A Modell Case of African Democratic Forma
SWAPO A Liberation Movements Internal and Exter
Exile SWAPO Leadership and Followers Explored
Inside Namibia The Challenges and Opportunities
accepted alliance Angola Anton Lubowski apartheid argues armed struggle army attack authoritarian became border camps Caprivi Cassinga chapter chief church civil society colonial Council created Cuba Cuban democracy democratic detainees elections ethnic groups eventually exile FAPLA fight FNLA forces FRELIMO German guerrilla Hage Geingob Hawala Herero Hidipo Hamutenya Ibid independence initial inside Namibia interview by author issue Kapuuo Katjavivi later liberation movements Luanda Lubango Lubowski Lusaka mibian military move Mozambique MPLA Mugabe Namibia's Liberation negotiations Nujoma organization Ovambo Ovamboland participation peace PLAN fighters president Pretoria prison refugees regime region RENAMO representative SADF Sam Nujoma says Shipanga South African South West Africa Southern Africa Soviet spies Steenkamp SWANU SWAPO abroad SWAPO inside SWAPO leaders SWAPO members Tanzania tape recording tion Tjongarero Toivo troops Union UNITA United Nations UNTAG wanted Windhoek Zambia Zimbabwe