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extremities became exposed to view, and were seen to greater advantage. They were less decomposed than those of the upper part, and the teeth and jaws, which were well preserved, denoted that they were the skeletons of adults but not of old men. They were both in a kneeling position. The reason why the skeletons were found in this extraordinary position it is impossible to determine; but he supposed the persons thus interred were either prisoners, slaves, or other subordinates, who had been slain or perhaps buried alive on the occasion of the funeral of some great or renowned personage, who was placed in the larger chamber at the end of the passage; and this view of the case is considerably strengthened by the fact that the total absence of arms, weapons, or vases, in the smaller chamber, denotes that the skeletons were those of persons who had occupied but a low condition in social life.
Let us be thankful that the dark days of barbarism are passed, and that we have the advantages of high civilization, and the unspeakable privileges and blessings of a pure Christianity.
THE LION AND DR. LIVINGSTONE. In no part of the world is that king of beasts, the Lion, so strong, and fierce, and daring, and plentiful, as in South Africa. In the thick jungle, or rocky glen, he generally crouches during the day, but at night he comes forth in search of food, and then all the wild creatures fly in terror at the sound of his roar, reverberating like thunder over the wild karroo, and the stony desert. Then, too, is heard the shrill cry of the jackals, that follow him to feast on the carcases of the animals he kills, and only deigns to take a portion of ; the mocking laugh of the hyena, and the bark of the dingoes, or wild dogs, that pursue the zebras and antelopes across the desert, and seldom fail to run them down. Though safe in their airy homes amid the branches, or far-up clefts of the rocks, the large apes, and smaller monkeys, chatter and scream with affright, when that hungry roar goes rolling over the waste, or swells up through the gorges of the mountains. The cameleopard stretches its slender neck forward, and strides along in a swift though awkward gallop ; the quagga utters its shrill neigh, sniffs the tainted air, and with flying mane and tail bounds off with a speed only equalled by that of the ostrich, that with short wings fluttering, and long legs stretched out to their utmost extent, seems to outstrip the wind. Even the rhinoceros, in its im. pervious hide, and armed with a horn that would rip up, in a moment, any assailant, trembles to hear that roar; and the mighty elephants, that have gone to slake their thirst at the sedgy pool, although not fearing an attack, stand aside to let their acknowledged monarch
THE LION AND DR. LIVINGSTONE.
pass down, and drink before them ; while the hippopotamus retires farther into the reeds and river-mud, and lies with only his enormous snout projecting from the water. He will feed on snakes and reptiles, as shown in our engraving. But the cattle in the kraals, as the native villages are called, are perhaps the most terrified of all at the approach of this, their deadly enemy. The Hottentot herdsman, awakened by their lowings of fear, feels his flesh creep as he thinks of friends and comrades borne off from beside the very watch-fires, to be found in the morning a few crunched bones and mangled remains, in the blood-stained thicket. The Dutch Boer, as well as the Kaffir chief, trembles for his most valuable possessions, his cattle, when he knows that a lion has approached the settlement or station; there must be no peace, no rest, until the unwelcome intruder be either killed, or driven away far into the desert.
Dr. Livingstone's friends, the Bakatla, were troubled by lions, which leaped into their cattle-pens by night, and had grown so bold, that they even sometimes attacked the herds by day. In their superstitious ignorance, the people believed that a neighbouring tribe had, by some spell of witchcraft, given them into the power of these fierce brutes; hence it was, perhaps, that their attacks upon the animals were faint and half-hearted, and therefore unsuccessful. It was only necessary to kill one of the troop that infested their village to induce the others to quit that part of the country, in accordance with the well-known habit of these creatures. But this they had not been able to accomplish; therefore it was that Livingstone went out with them in one of their hunts, to assist and give them courage.
They discovered their game on a small tree-covered hill; the circle of hunters, at first loosely formed around the spot, gradually closed up, and became compact as they advanced towards it. Mebalwe, a native schoolmaster, who was with Livingstone, seeing one of the lions sitting on a piece of rock within the ring, fired, but missed him, the ball striking the rock by the feet of the animal, which, biting first at the spot struck, bounded away, broke through the circle, and escaped, the natives not having the courage to stand close, and spear him in the attempt, as they should have done. The circle re-formed, having yet within it two other lions, at which the pieces could not be fired, lest some of the men on the opposite side should be hit. Again there was a bound and a roar, and yet again, and the natives scattered and fled, while the lions went forth free to continue their devastations. But they did not seem to have retreated far, for as the party was going round the end of a hill, on their way home to the village, there was one of the lordly brutes, sitting upon a piece of rock, as though he had purposely planted himself there to enjoy their defeat, and wish them " Good-day.” It was about thirty yards from Livingstone, who, raising his gun, fired both barrels into the little bush, behind which the creature stood. “He is shot! he is shot!”
the joyful cry, and the people are about to rush in, but their friend warns them, for he sees the tail raised in anger. He is just in the act of ramming down his bullets for another fire, when he hears a shout of terror, and sees the lion in the act of springing on him. He is conscious only of a blow that makes him reel and fall to the ground,
of two glaring eyes, and hot breath upon his face; a momentary anguish, as he is seized by the shoulder, and shaken as a rat by a terrier; then comes a stupor, which was afterwards described as a sort of drowsiness, in which there was no sense of pain, nor feeling of terror, although there was a perfect consciousness of all that was happening. This condition is compared to that of patients under the influence of chloroform; they see the operation, but do not feel the knife: and Livingstone thinks that this is probably the state of all animals when being killed by the carnivora, which he opines is a merciful provision of the Creator for lessening the pain of death. We are glad to hope that it may be so; if not, we may be sure that God does not inflict pain upon any of his creatures without some wise and good object.
Being thus conscious, as one in a trance might be, Livingstone knew that the lion had one paw on the back of his head, and, turning round to relieve himself of the pressure, he saw the creature's eyes directed to Mebalwe, who, at a distance of ten or fifteen yards, was aiming his gun at him. It missed fire in both barrels, and im. mediately the native teacher was attacked by the brute, and bitten in the thigh; another man, also, who attempted to spear the lion, was seized by the shoulder; but just then the bullets which he had received took effect, and, with a quiver through all his huge frame, the beast rolled over on his side, dead. All this occurred in a few moments; the death-blow had been inflicted by Livingstone before the lior swang upon him, in the blind fury of his dying
efforts. No less than eleven of his teeth had penetrated the flesh of the Doctor's arm, and crushed the bone ; it was long ere the wound was healed, and all thrcagh life the intrepid missionary bears the marks of this deadly encounter, and feels its effects in the injured limb. The tartan jacket which he had on, wiped, as he believed, the virus from the Lion's teeth, and so preserved him from much after-suffering, such as was experi inced by the others who were bitten, and had not this protection.
THE DRAGON FLY. In nature we may find many facts to illustrate, if not to explain, many of the mysteries surrounding our own lives. We know, for instance, that this is not the only state of existence for which we are intended. We are here but for a while, and then we are subject to what is called death. But what is death? It is only the process through which we pass to another state of existence. The mortal body falls into a state of dissolution; but the spirit, free from the burden of the flesh, passes away to another and higher life. To us there is much in this that is very mysterious. We are so constituted that it is impossible for us now to see into that spirit world. What it is, and what may be the mode of our existence there we cannot tell; all we know about it is what God has been pleased to reveal, and from his word we know, if through
grace we are only prepared, it will be to us a state very much higher, purer, and happier than this. Some men tell us that this cannot be, but God, as if to robuke their unbelief, gives us myriads of illustrations every season in which we may at least learn it is possible for creatures to undergo a change in which they rise from a lower to a higher state of existence. If our young friends would only become entomologists, and study the peculiarities and habits of the little insects that buzz about them from day to day, they
would find that nearly all of them have passed through various stages of existence before arriving at the perfect state. That which we now select in illustration of this is the Dragon Fly. These beautiful insects may be found in the neighbourhood of ponds and streams. As they are among the largest of the insect tribe, and their bodies long, and colours brilliant, they may be very easily known. The dragon fly originally comes from an egg which, with a number of others attached to each other in a cluster, is dropped by the mother into the water, where they sink to the bottom. After awhile, the young ones break the shell and separate. Here, then, we have this insect in the early stage of its existence living in the water. In form it is like a worm with six legs. The tail is furnished with a peculiar apparatus for drawing up and expelling the water, by means of which it supplies itself with oxygen, and propels itself forward at the same time. The lower lip is developed into a strangely jointed organ, which can be shot forward to the extent of nearly an inch, and by which it the more readily seizes its prey. It is gifted with a very greedy appetite, and therefore eagerly devours whatever grubs or worms may come within its reach. Ten or eleven months are spent in the preliminary stages of its existence in the water. If it were taken out and kept for any length of time it would perish; above it there is a world in which it is destined to live, for which in its present state it is utterly unfitted. Concerning the rarified atmosphere, and bright sunshine and beautiful flowers, and the freedom and joyousness of a winged existence, it knows nothing. But at length a time in its history comes when it is seized by a strange restlessness. It loses its relish for the pursuits in which it had hitherto spent its life. It can live no longer in the element by which it is surrounded, and yielding to an impulse to ascend, it climbs the stalk of some aquatic plant and emerges from the water. Having reached a sufficient elevation it pauses and takes a firm hold of the plant with its claws. On being closely observed it is now seen to quiver, as if in mortal agony. At length the skin of the back splits open, and the dragon fly protrudes its head, and ultimately succeeds in drawing out the whole body, leaving the old skin bebind. It still remains for a time upon the plant, shaking out its wings, until they gain strength and elasticity, when it launches away to the pursuits and enjoyments of the new life which it has begun.
Of dragon flies there are several kinds, but all are very beautiful. Their wings, which are four in number, are light and gauzy, being reticulated like network, and some of them are brilliantly tinted with all the colours of the rainbow. Their eyes are hard, but transparent, and very large, forming, indeed, the greater part of the head. They are strong of wing, and quite as ravenous in their new state of existence as in the old.
Now, if these creatures bad a degree of reason and intelligence, no doubt but this remarkable change they undergo would be to them quite as mysterious as death is to us. They would see the members of their families, one after another, going away from them into some mysterious region where they could not follow them, and those which had arrived at the winged state might skim the surface of the water in wbich they once dwelt, longing to communicate with their kindred and inform them of something of the delights they enjoy. But it is impossible. They are now as much unfitted for entering the water as they formerly were for flying in the air; therefore they must wait until they are joined by those they left behind. Thus, undoubtedly, it would be with them if