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respects the advantage is on the side of the one is as tiresome and insipid as the other poor,

The rich, who addict themselves to is sweet and soothing. The one, in general, indulgence, lose their relish. Their desires is the fate of the rich man, the other is the are dead. Their sensibilities are worn and fortune of the poor. I have heard it said, tired. Hence they lead a languid satiated that if the face of happiness can any where existence. Hardly any thing can amuse, be seen, it is in the summer evening of a or rouse, or gratify them. Whereas the country village; where, after the labours of poor man, if something extraordinary fall in the day, each man at his door, with his his way, comes to the repast with appetite; children, amongst his neighbours, feels his is pleased and refreshed; derives from his frame and his heart at rest, every thing usual course of moderation and temperance, about him pleased and pleasing, and a dea quickness of perception and delight which light and complacency in his sensations far the unrestrained voluptuary knows nothing beyond what either luxury or diversion can of. Habits of all kinds are much the same. afford. The rich want this; and they want Whatever is habitual, becomes smooth and what they must never have. indifferent, and nothing more. The luxuri- As to some other things which the poor ous receive no greater pleasures from their are disposed to envy in the condition of the dainties, than the peasant does from his rich, such as their state, their appearance, homely fare.—But here is the difference: the grandeur of their houses, dress, equipage, The peasant, whenever he goes abroad, finds, and attendance, they only envy the rich a feast

, whereas the epicure must be sump- these things because they do not know the tuously entertained to escape disgust. They rich. They have not opportunities of observwho spend every day in diversions, and ing, with what neglect and insensibility the they who go every day about their usual rich possess and regard these things thembusiness, pass their time much alike. At- selves. If they could see the great man in tending to what they are about, wanting his retirement, and in his actual manner of nothing, regretting nothing, they are both, life, they would find him, if pleased at all, whilst engaged, in a state of ease; but then, taking pleasure in some of those simple whatever suspends the pursuits of the man enjoyments which they can command as of diversicn, distresses him, whereas to the well as he. They would find him amongst labourer, or the man of business, every pause his children, in his husbandry, in his garden, is a recreation. And this is a vast advan- pursuing some rural diversion, or occupied tage which they possess who are trained and with some trifling exercise, which are all inured to a life of occupation, above the gratifications, as much within the power and man who sets up for a life of pleasure. reach of the poor man as of the rich ; or Variety is soon exhausted. Novelty itself rather more so. is no longer new. Amusements are become To learn the art of contentment, is only too familiar to delight, and he is in a situa- to learn what happiness actually consists in. tion in which he can never change but for Sensual pleasures add little to its substance. the worse.

Ease, if by that be meant exemption from Another article which the poor are apt labour, contributes nothing. One, however, to envy in the rich, is their ease. Now constant spring of satisfaction, and almost here they mistake the matter totally. They infallible support of cheerfulness and spirits, call inaction ease, whereas nothing is farther is the exercise of domestic affections; the from it. Rest is ease. That is true ; but presence of objects of tenderness and enno man can rest who has not worked. Rest dearment in our families, our kindred, our is the cessation of labour. It cannot there- friends. Now have the poor any thing to fore be enjoyed, or even tasted, except by complain of here ? Are they not surrounded those who have known fatigue. The rich by their relatives as generally as others ? see, and not without envy, the refreshment The poor man has his wife and children and pleasure which rest affords to the poor, about him; and what has the rich more? He and choose to wonder that they cannot find has the same enjoyment of their society, the the same enjoyment in being free from the same solicitude for their welfare, the same necessity of working at all. They do not pleasure in their good qualities, improveobserve that this enjoyment must be pur- ment, and success; their connection with chased by previous labour, and that he who him is as strict and intimate, their attachwill not pay the price cannot have the ment as strong, their gratitude as warm. 1 gratification. Being without work is one have no propensity to envy any one, least of thing; reposing from work is another. The all the rich and great; but if

were dis

posed to this weakness, the subject of my forward to, and is practicable, by great envy would be, a healthy young man, in numbers in a state of public order and full possession of his strength and faculties, quiet; it is absolutely impossible in any going forth in a morning to work for his other. wife and children, or bringing them home If, in comparing the different conditions his wages at night.

of social life, we bring religion into the But was difference of rank or fortune of account, the argument is still easier. Reli, more importance to personal happiness than gion smooths all inequa ties, because it it is, it would be ill purchased by any unfolds a prospect which makes all earthly sudden or violent change of condition. An distinctions nothing. And I do allow that alteration of circumstances, which breaks

up there are many cases of sickness, affliction, a man's habits of life, deprives him of his and distress, which Christianity alone can occupation, removes him from his acquaint- comfort. But in estimating the mere diverance, may be called an elevation of fortune, sities of station and civil condition, I have but hardly ever brings with it an addition not thought it necessary to introduce religion of enjoyment. They to whom accidents of into the inquiry at all; because I contend, this sort have happened, never found them that the man who murmurs and repines, to answer their expectations. After the first when he has nothing to murmur and repine hurry of the change is over, they are sur- about, but the mere want of independent prised to feel in themselves listlessness and property, is not only irreligious, but unreadejection, a consciousness of solitude, va- sonable, in his omplaint; and that he cancy, and restraint, in the place of cheer- would find, did he know the truth, and confulness, liberty, and ease. They try to make sider his case fairly, that a life of labour, up for what they have lost, sometimes by such, I mean, as is led by the labouring a beastly sottishness, sometimes by a foolish part of mankind in this country, has advandissipation, sometimes by a stupid sloth ; tages in it which compensate all its inconall which effects are only so many con- veniences. When compared with the life fessions, that changes of this sort were not of the rich, it is better in these important made for man. If any public disturbance respects : It supplies employment, it proshould produce, not an equality (for that is motes activity. It keeps the body in better not the proper name to give it), but a health, the mind more engaged, and, of jumble of ranks and professions amongst us, course, more quiet. It is more sensible of it is not only evident what the rich would ease, more susceptible of pleasure. It is lose, but there is also this further misfortune, attended with greater alacrity of spirits, a that what the rich lost the poor would not more constant cheerfulness and serenity of

gain. I (God knows) could not get my temper. It affords easier and more certain "livelihood by labour, nor would the labourer methods of sending children into the world find any solace or enjoyment in my studies. in situations suited to their habits and exIf we were to exchange conditions to-mor- pectations. It is free from many heavy row, all the effect would be, that we both anxieties which rich men feel; it is fraught should be more miserable, and the work of with many sources of delight which they both be worse done. Without debating, want. therefore, what might be very difficult to If to these reasons for contentment the decide, which of our two conditions was reflecting husbandman or artificer adds anobetter to begin with, one point is certain, ther very material one, that changes of that it is best for each to remain in his own. condition, which are attended with a breakThe change, and the only ch to be ing up and sacrifice of our ancient course desired, is that gradual and progressive and habit of living, never can be productive improvement of our circumstances which is of happiness, he will perceive, I trust, that the natural fruit of successful industry; to covet the stations or fortunes of the rich, when each year is something better than or so, however, to covet them, as to wish to the last; when we are enabled to add to seize them by force, or through the medium our little household one article after another of public uproar and confusion, is not only of new comfort or conveniency, as our wickedness, but folly, as mistaken in the profits increase, or our burden becomes less ; end as in the means; that it is not only and, what is best of all, when we can afford, to venture out to sea in a storm, but to as our strength declines, to relax our labours, venture for nothing: or divide our cares. This may be looked

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