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The ingratitude of Israel,


and God's mercy to them.

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k because they refused to, my repentings are kindled toge6 And the sword shall abide on his cities, and ther. shall consume his branches, and devour them, 9 I will not execute the fierceness of mine I because of their own counsels.*

anger, I will not return to destroy Ephraim 7 And my people are bent to mbacksliding for I am God, and not man; the Holy One from me:

though they called them to the in the midst of thee: and I will not enter into Most High, 2 none at all would exalt him.

the city. 81. How shall I give thee up, Ephraim ? 10 They shall walk after the LORD: 'he how shall I deliver thee, Israel ? how shall I shall roar like a lion: when he shall roar, make thee as P Admah ? how shall I set thee as then the children shall tremble * from the west.


k 2 Kings xvii. 13, 14.-~ Chapter 1. 6. —* About 728, they became tributaries to Salmaneser. Jer. iii. 6; viii. 5; Chap. iv. 16.

Chap. vii. 16. - Heb. together they exalted not. - Jer. ix. 7; Chap. vi. 4.

P Genesis xiv. 8; xix. 24, 25; Deut. xxix. 23; Amos iv. 11. 9 Deut. xxxii. 36; Isa. lxii. 15; Jer. xxxi. 20,-Num. xxiii. 19; Isaiah lv. 8, 9; Mal, ini. 6. s Isa. xxxi. 4 ; Jer. xxv 30; Joel iii. 16; Amos i. 2.- Zech. viii. 7.

thither, and many families perhaps effected it: see | ically described as contending with his justice, to note on chap. ix. 6. But it is here threatened, that show that he does not willingly destroy, or even the nation in a body should not be permitted so to afflict, or grieve, the children of men, Lam. iii. 33. escape. But the Assyrian shall be his king—They || How shall I make thee as Admah ? &c.—How shall shall be wholly in the power of the king of Assyria, | I give thee up to a perpetual desolation ? Admah and be carried away captive into his dominions; be- and Zeboim were two cities which were wholly decause they refused to return-Namely, to the truestroyed, together with Sodom and Gomorrah. My worship of God, and obedience to his laws, notwith-heart is turned within me-Or, upon me; so Horsley. standing the many calls, reproofs, admonitions, and My repentings are kindled together— Not that God exhortations given them by the prophets. Their ob- || is ever fluctuating or unresolved; but these are exatingry 'n do!atry is the cause of all the calamities | pressions after the manner of men, to show what secoming upon them. And the sword shall abide on | verity Israel had deserved, and yet how divine grace his cities His cities shall be destroyed by the con- would be glorified in sparing them. Thus God's queror's sword; and shall consume his branches, compassion toward sinners is elsewhere expressed The lesser towns and villages. Thus the word '73 | by the sounding, or yearning, of his bowels, Isa. lxiii. is expounded, in a marginal note of the Bishops' || 15; Jer. xxxi. 20; a metaphor taken from the natuBible. It often means the arms, or principal branch- || ral affection which parents have for their children. I es, of a great tree, and is twice translated staves, Ex. will not execute the fierceness of mine anger— I will xxvii. 6. In this place some interpreters render it not punish to the utmost strictness of justice; I will bars; and Abarbanel expounds it of the strong and not return to destroy Ephraim-I will not carry it valiant men of the nation, observing, that the chief so far as to make a second destruction of Ephraim; branches of the people in a kingdom are the valiant so as to cut off those who escaped the first infliction men. Rabbi Tanchum explains it of their children; of my punishments, and thereby wholly destroy the branches, as he observes, springing from their them. Conquerors, that plunder a conquered city, fathers. The word, however, also signifies lies, and is carry away the wealth of it, and, after some time, so rendered Isa. xvi. 6, and Jer. xlviii. 30. Bishop often return to burn it. God will not thus utterly Horsley translates it diviners, deriving it from 777, he destroy Israel. For I am God, and not manwas solitary, because they affected a solitary, ascetic || Therefore my compassions fail not; the Holy One life; a sense which he thinks, of all others, most appo- || in the midst of thee-A holy God, and in covenant, site to the context. He acknowledges, however, that though not with all, yet with many among you, and to render it branches, limbs, or bars, is admissible, and present with you to preserve a remnant to be my may very well suit the place.

faithful servants. And I will not enter into the city Verse 7. My people are bent to backsliding from - As an enraged enemy to destroy your cities, as I me-Many versions render this clause, Nevertheless, I did Sodom. my people are in suspense (or hesitate) about return- Verses 10, 11. They shall walk after the Lording to me; though they called them to the Most High || The remnant shall hearken to God's call, and shall -Though my prophets, and other pious persons, in- comply with his commands, when he shall convert vited and exhorted them to return to my worship and them by the powerful preaching of his gospel, and service ; none at all would exalt him—Scarce any | the efficacious influence of his grace. He shall roar would hearken and obey. The word him not being like a lion-- That is, he will show terrible signs of in the Hebrew, some versions read, None would raise his anger, and then they will fear and obey him. himself up, or advance; that is, come forward to God's voice is elsewhere compared to the roaring of obey and serve me.

a lion, because of the terror which accompanies it: Verses 8, 9. How shall I give thee up, Ephraim, || see the margin. The Chaldee says, The word of the To utter destruction ? God's mercy is here pathet-|| Lord shall roar as a lion, and the words may be in

The prophet bears an


honourable testimony for Judah.

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of Egypt, " and as a dove out of the about with lies, and the house of Island of Assyria : * and I will place them in rael with deceit : but Judah yet ruleth with their houses, saith the Lord.

God, and is faithful 3 with the saints.


" Isa. Ix. 8; Chap. vii. 11.- - Ezek. xxviii. 25, 26; xxxvii. || 21, 25.— 5 Chap. xii. 1.-30r, with the most holy.

terpreted of the powerful voice of the gospel, sent | Thus Bishop Horsley. These verses “contain a forth, and sounding all over the world, and calling | wonderful prophecy of the promulgation and prosinners to repentance. “ The most learned com- gress of the gospel, and the restoration of the race mentators agree,” says Bishop Horsley, “ that this of Israel. The first clause of the tenth verse states roaring of the lion is the sound of the gospel; and generally that they shall be brought to repentance. that the subject of this and the following verse is, its | In what follows, the circumstances and progress of promulgation and progress, the conversion of the the business are described. First, Jehovah shall Gentiles, and the final restoration of the Jews.roar; the roaring is unquestionably the sound of the

Clara et maxima voce predicabit evangelium,' With gospel. Jehovah himself shall roar; the sound shall a loud and most powerful voice shall he preach the begin to be uttered by the voice of the incarnate God gospel, says Piscator. And to the same effect Rivetus himself. The first effect shall be, that children shall and Bochart. As a lion, by its roaring, calls animals come fluttering from the west ; a new race of chilof its own kind to a participation of the prey ; sodren, converts of the Gentiles.” For, “it is remarkChrist, by the powerful voice of the gospel, shall callable, that the expression is neither their children, nor all nations to the fellowship of eternal life.—Livelye. my children, but simply children. The first would The preaching of the gospel, reaching the remotest limit the discourse to the natural Israel exclusively; corners of the earth, is frequently represented under the second would be nearly of the same effect, as it the image of the loudest sounds. And this loudness would express such as were already children at the of the sound alone might justify the figure of the time of the roaring. But the word children, put naroaring lion. But a greater propriety of the figure kedly, without either of these epithets, expresses will appear, if we recollect, that the first demonstra- | those who were neither of the natural Israel

, nor tions of mercy to the faithful will be, the judgments children at the time of the roaring, but were roused executed on the anti-christian persecutors; to whom | by that sound, and then became children, that is the sound of the gospel will be a sound of terror." | adopted children, by natural extraction Gentiles." When he shall roar, then the children shall tremble These shall come “chiefly from the western quarfrom the west—The word 17791, rendered, shall ters of the world, or what the Scriptures call the tremble, describes the motion which a bird makes west ; for no part, I think, of Asia Minor, Syria, or with its wings when it flies. Dr. Waterland renders Palestine, is reckoned a part of the east, in the lanit, shall come fluttering, and Bishop Horsley, shall guage of the Old Testament. Afterward the natural hurry. The primary sense of the passage may be, Israel shall hurry from all the regions of their disthat at this efficacious call of God, the remnant of persion, and be settled in their own dwellings. It is Israel, who shall be accounted his children, and heirs to be observed that the roaring is mentioned twice. of the promises made to their fathers, shall come in It will be most consistent with the style of the prohaste from the several places of their dispersions, and phets to take this as two roarings; and to refer the particularly from the western parts of the world, (see | hurrying of the children from the west to the first, Zech. viii. 7,) called the sea in the original, and ex- the hurrying from Egypt and Assyria to the second. pressed in Isaiah by the islands of the sea: see Isa. . The times of the two roarings are, the first and sexi. 11, and xxiv. 14. They shall tremble as a bird cond advent. The first brought children from the out of EgyptThat is, fly with haste, as above. As west; the renewed preaching of the gospel, at the a dove out of the land of Assyria-Great numbers second, will bring home the Jews. And perhaps this of the Jews were exiles in Egypt and Assyria ; and second sounding of the gospel may be, more remarktherefore, when the restoration of the Jews is spoken ably even than the first, a roaring of Jehovah in of, Egypt and Assyria are mentioned as countries person.” With this verse the chapter is closed in from whence a great number of them should return. the Hebrew text and the Syriac version, and the folAnd I will place them in their houses- I will bring lowing verse is given to the next chapter. But the them back to their own country and habitations, like division of the LXX., Vulgate, and Chaldee, which as the stork returns to her nest, and the dove to the our public translation follows, seems preferable. dove-cot. This prophecy may be considered as re- Verse 12. Ephraim compasseth me about with ceiving its completion in part when some of the 1s-lies-Ephraim and Israel are hypocrites; they proraelites, being recovered to the worship of the true mise much and perform nothing; they draw near to God, returned to Judea with the two tribes of Judah me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me. and Benjamin, brought back to their own land from But Judah yet ruleth with GodJudah kept close their captivity in Babylon. But the full accomplish-| to that kingly government which God had settled in ment of it will not take place till the latter days, when David's family, and faithfully observed those ordithe fulness of the Gentiles being brought in by the nances which God had given to his people, here preaching of the gospel, all Israel shall be saved. || termed saints, as they are also Dent. xxxiii. 3; and else

Ephraim and Judah


reproved for their sins.

where a holy nation, and peculiar people. This seems || shall be established with the holy ones." He consito relate to the times of Hezekiah, who restored the ders the expression, shall obtain dominion, &c., as pure worship of God in Judah ; at which time the a promissory allusion to a final restoration of the ten tribes were flagrantly wicked, and wholly addicted Jewish monarchy;" and the remaining clause, shall to an idolatrous worship. Instead of saints, Bishop | be established, &c., as signifying “ either the conHorsley reads, holy ones, and interprets the expres- stancy of Judah's fidelity to the Holy Ones, or the sion of the persons of the Trinity. His translation | firmness of the support which he shall receive from of the verse is, “ Ephraim hath compassed me about them.” And he thinks that “by the use of this plural with treachery, and the house of Israel with deceit. | word, Holy Ones, the prophecy clearly points to the But Judah shall yet obtain dominion with God, and conversion of the Jewish people to the Christian faith.”

CHAPTER XII. In this chapter, (1,) God reproves Ephraim and Judah for their sins, particularly their covenanting with the Assyrians, and

declares his resolution to punish them, 1,2 (2,) By his former mercies he exhorts them to repentance, 3-6. (3) He charges Ephraim with the sin of fraud, injustice, and ingratitude, as particularly provoking to God, and calling for wrath

and punishment, 7–14. 13. M. 372. EPHRAIM · feedeth on wind, and || Judah, and will 'punish Jacop ac- 4; M: 3279.

followeth after the east wind : hecording to his ways; according to daily increaseth lies and desolation; band they | his doings will he recompense him. do make a covenant with the Assyrians, and 3 | He took his brother by the heel in the coil is carried into Egypt.

womb, and by his strength he ? had' power 2 d The Lord hath also a controversy with || with God ;

a Chapter viii. 7.—2 Kings xvii. 4; Chapter v. 13; vii. 11.

© Isa. xxx. 6; lvii. 9. - Chap. iv. 1; Mic. vi. 2.

1 Heb. visit upon.- Gen. xxv. 26. — -2 Heb. was a prince, or,

behaved himself princely. - Gen. xxxiii. 21.


his subjects; for which God's judgments are here Verses 1, 2. Ephraim feedeth on windFlatters threatened, and the invasion of Sennacherib was himself with vain, delusive hopes, of receiving ef- | actually inflicted, 2 Kings xviii. 13, &c. fectual support from the alliances which he forms. Verse 3. He took his brother by the heel in the It is a proverbial expression to signify labour in womb-From the mentioning of Jacob in the forevain, or pursuing such measures as will bring dam- going verse, the prophet takes occasion to put his age rather than benefit. And followeth the east posterity in mind of the particular favours God had wind-Pernicious, destructive counsels and courses. bestowed upon him; partly with a view to encourThe east wiyd was peculiarly parching and noxious, || age them to imitate him in endeavouring to obtain blasting the fruits of the earth; thence it denotes de- | the like blessings, and partly to convince them of solation and destruction. He daily increaseth— their ingratitude and degeneracy from him. His Hebrew, 777', multiplieth, lies and desolation-Or, | taking his brother by the heel, signified his striving, falsehood and destruction; so Horsley: that is, in by a divine instinct, for the birthright and blessing. multiplying his falsehood, he multiplies the causes Even before his birth he reached forth his hand to of his own destruction. And they do make a cove-catch hold of it, as it were, and if possible to prenant with the Assyrians, and oil is carried into vent his brother. It denoted, also, that he should EgyplHere is an example given of their false- prevail at last, gain his point, and in process of hood, or deceit: while they were in covenant with time become greater than his brother. And this the Assyrians, having engaged themselves to be prognostic of his prevalence and superiority was tributaries to them, they were secretly and perfid- the effect of God's will and power, and not of Jaiously seeking to make an alliance with the Egyp-cob's, who was not then in a capacity of acting of tians, and for that purpose sent oil as a present to himself: see note on Gen. xxv. 26. It is justly obthe king of Egypt, endeavouring to persuade him served here, by Bishop Horsley, that his "taking to assist them in shaking off the yoke of the king his brother by the heel is not mentioned in disof Assyria: see the margin. The land of Judah paragement of the patriarch. On the contrary, the apounded with excellent oil, which was much want- whole of these two verses is a commemoration of ed in Egypt. The Lord hath also a controversy | God's kindness for the ancestor of the Israemes, with Judah-Though Hezekiah had abolished idol- on which the prophet founds an animated exhortaatry, and restored God's worship in the temple, || tion to them, to turn to that God from whom they 2 Chron. xxix. 3, and xxxi. 1, yet there were much might expect so much favour. By his strength he hypocrisy and great corruption in the manners of || had power with God, &c.— This alludes to his

An exhortation


to repentance

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4 Yea, he had power over the an- 5 Even the LORD God of hosts; the A. M. 3279.

gel, and prevailed: he wept, and made LORD is his memorial. supplication unto him: he found him in Beth- 6 Therefore, turn thou to thy God: keep mercy el, and there he spake with us;

and judgment, and wait on thy God continually.

3 Gen. xxviii. 12, 19; xxxv. 9, 10, 15.- - Exod. iii. 15.

i Chap. xiv. 1; Mic. vi. 8.-Psa. xxxvii. 7.

wrestling with the angel, as recorded Gen. xxxii. faith also wrestled: and first, in such an immediate That bodily strength, wherewith he was endued by danger, he comforted himself that he had been orGod, and enabled to wrestle with this heavenly dered by God to return into the land of Canaan (to being, was a token of the strength of his faith, and which country, in obedience to God, he was now of the fervency of his spirit in prayer. This is journeying.] Then with his whole heart he laid mentioned here by the prophet, as another instance hold on the promise made him by the Lord in of God's favour to Jacob. He not only, when an Beth-el, where he was fully assured of the divine infant in the womb, was enabled to perform the protection. When therefore he was in distress, and emblematical action just mentioned; but, in his assaulted by an unknown enemy with all his might, adult age, he was endued with such supernatural | although he used his own strength, yet he contended strength of mind and body, that he was enabled to more strenuously by faith, beholding the promise, continue wrestling till he obtained the blessing. and concluding with certainty that God, according The prophet, in this clause, alludes to those words to his word, would be present with him in so great of his, I will not let thee go except thou bless me; a danger, and would save him. And with this faith, intimating the strength of his faith, and prevalency | [so to speak,] he prevailed over God; for although of his prayers with God. The words, He had | Christ tried Jacob in this conflict, nevertheless he power with God, and those that follow, He had could do nothing against, or contrary to, his word

, power over the angel, are equivalent; and plainly on which Jacob relied.” Jacob's supplication and prove that this person, who assumed a human tears, here mentioned, probably refer to those earnest shape, was really God, that is, the Son of God, and prayers which he poured out to God, as is recorded the angel of the covenant, by whom all the divine || Gen. xxxii. 9–11. The conflict here spoken of, in appearances recorded in the Old Testament were which Jacob had power with God, ended in an asperformed; the affairs of the church being ordered surance that his prayers were answered. He found by him from the beginning. This subject is learn- l him in Beth-el-This refers to God's appearing 10 edly handled by Dr. Allix in his Judgment of the Jacob after the former vision, as is related Gen. Jewish Church, against the Unitarians, chap. xiii.- xxxv. 9, 14, when God renewed his promise of xv., by Archbishop Tenison in his Discourses of giving the land of Canaan to his posterity. The Idolatry, chap. xiv., and by Bishop Bull in his De- prophet takes particular notice of the place where fence of the Nicene Faith.

God appeared to him: as if he had said, He appearVerses 4, 5. He had power over the angel-Call- || ed in that very place where you worship a golden ed God, verse 3, and Jehovah, God of hosts, verse 5, calf as your god! And there he spake with us namely, God by nature and essence, and an angel Who were then in Jacob's loins. The Alexandrian by office and voluntary undertaking. He wept and copy, however, of the LXX. reads, There he spake made supplication unto him-He prayed with tears with him; as if the expression alluded to the above, from a sense of his own unworthiness, and with mentioned passage, where God is said to have talked earnestness for the mercy he desired. Jacob's wrest- || with Jacob. But the present Hebrew reading conling with the angel was, as has been just intimated, tains a very important meaning, signifying, that God not only a corporal conflict, but likewise a spiritual | did not only speak to him there, but likewise did, by one; from bodily wrestling he betook himself to so doing, instruct his posterity to the latest generaspiritual weapons; he poured forth tears with ear- tion. Certainly the things spoken concerned Janest supplications and prayers, and strove, not so cob's posterity, as much, or more, than himself

. much for victory, as for a blessing: the only way | Even the Lord God of hostsHe that appeared and for a feeble, impotent creature, to prevail over his | spake, who promised the blessing, and commanded Creator. The observations of Luther, upon this the reformation at Beth-el, was Jehovah, the eternal extraordinary conflict between Jacob and the person and unchangeable God; who can perform his procalled the angel, are so excellent, that the intelligent | mise, and execute his threat; who is a most terrible reader will be glad to be presented here with a enemy, and a most desirable friend. The Lord is translation of them. “Different views are wont to his memorialThat is, the name Jehorah is God's be entertained concerning the nature of this wrest-memorial ; his appropriate, perpetual, incommuni ling. But the history shows that Jacob had come cable name, expressing his essence; the name by int) imminent danger of his life, and was assaulted which he will be known and remembered to all by an unknown antagonist with his whole power. I generations; the name which especially distinguishHe therefore himself also exerted his bodily | es him from all false gods, and sets forth his glory strength to the utmost against this antagonist, that more than any other name whatsoever: see note on he might defend his life. Nevertheless, he did not | Exod. iii. 14. contend only with the strength of his body; his Verse 6. Therefore turn thou to thy God—Thou

The sin and


ingratitude of Ephraim.

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7 T He is 3a merchant, 'the ba- || the land of Egypt will yet make 4. M. 3279.

lances of deceit are in his hand : thee to dwell in tabernacles, as in the he loveth to * oppress.

days of the solemn feasts. 8 And Ephraim said, " Yet I am become 10 p I have also spoken by the prophets, and I rich, I have found me out substance: 5 in all my have multiplied visions, and used similitudes, labours they shall find none iniquity in me' by the ministry of the prophets. 6 that were sin.

11 . Is there iniquity in Gilead ? surely they 9 And I that am the LORD thy God from | are vanity: they sacrifice bullocks in Gilgal ;

3 Or, Canaan; Ezek. xvi. 3. - Prov. xi. 1 ; Amos viii. 5. • Or, deceive.m Zech. xi. 5; Rev. ii. 17. -5 Or, all ту

labours suffice me not, he shall have punishment of iniquity in whom is sin.

6 Hebrew, which. -- Chapter xiii. 4.- Lev. xxiii. 42, 43; Neh. viii. 17; Zech. xiv. 16.—P 2 Kings xvii. 13.

-? Heb. by the hand. -9 Chapter v. 1; vi. 8. - Chapter iv. 15; ix. 15; Amos iv. 4 ; v.5.

therefore, O Israel, encouraged by the memory of He loveth to oppress- The Hebrew rather signifies, God's love to thy progenitor, and by the example He loveth to defraud; to use the arts of cozenage. which thou hast in him, of the efficacy of weeping | And Ephraim saidRather, Nevertheless Ephraim and supplication, turn to thy God in penitence and said, I am become richI have gotten riches, howprayer, and in the (practice of] works of righteous- ever, by my cunning and deceit, and as that is the ness.”—Horsley. Leave your idolatries and all case, I have no need to concern myself; for, so I your sins. Jacob worshipped God alone, do you have but riches, none will ask how I came by them. so; he cast all idols out of his family, do you so In this description of Ephraim, we may see but too too; be Jacob's children herein. Keep mercy and like a picture of many in our times; for riches are judgment—Show kindness to all who need it, and too generally and too much the pursuit of mankind, do wrong to none; but, with justice in all your and are generally too much prized; so that if men dealings, in judicatures, and public offices, render | have but riches, they think they have every thing to all their due. And wait on thy God continually that is to be desired. Bishop Horsley presents us -In public worship, and private duties, serve and with a different interpretation of this verse, thus: trust in God alone: let not idols have either sacri- Nevertheless, Ephraim shall say, that is, the time fice, prayer, praise, or trust from you, and let your will come when Ephraim will repent, and say, Alhope and worship be ever continued.

though I became rich, I acquired to myself [only] Verses 7, 8. He is a merchant, &c.—Bishop Hors-sorrow; all my labours procured not for me what ley renders this verse thus: Canaan the trafficker! | may expiate iniquity. Thus interpreted, the words The cheating balances in his hand! He has set contain the penitent confession of the Ephraimites his heart upon over-reaching! On which the in the latter days, wrought upon at last by God's bishop observes, “God says to the prophet, Instead judgments and mercies. of turning to me, and keeping to works of charity Verses 9, 10. I that am the Lord thy God from and justice, he is a mere heathen huckster. Thou the land of EgyptFrom the time I brought thee hast miscalled him Jacob: he is Canaan. Not Ja- | out of it: will yet make thee to dwell in tabernacles cob the godly, the heir of the promise: Canaan the — That is, in thy habitations, quietly and joyfully, cheat, the son of the curse.” The Hebrew word as in festival times. The word tabernacles is here 1x3, rendered merchant, is both a proper name and put for houses, or habitations; because at first the an appellative. And to preserve the ambiguity in Israelites dwelt in tabernacles, or tents. This must his translation, the bishop joins the appellative and be taken as a promise of the restoration of the Isthe proper name together. Without this, as he raelites to their own land, after their being carried justly observes, the whole spirit of the original into captivity, provided they turned to God, and to would be lost to the English reader. All the ancient his worship and service, in true repentance, and new versions, except the Chaldee, give the proper name. obedience. I have also spoken by the prophets, &c. The first words of the verse, He is, not being in the -"Here are three species of prophecy distinctly Hebrew, some interpreters, without supplying any | mentioned: 1st, Immediate suggestion, or inspirathing, render the clause, The balances of deceit aretion, when God dictates the very words which the in the hand of the merchant; that is, instead of prophet is to deliver: 2d, Vision, or a representapractising just and fair dealing, which was the way | tion made of external objects to the imagination, in to please God, they made use of unjust weights and as lively a manner as if they were conveyed to the measures, and practised frauds, deceits, and cun- senses: and, 3d, Parables, and apt resemblances, ning, in buying and selling; depreciating those such as that of God's church to a vineyard, Isa. v. 1, things they wanted to buy, below what they knew of the destruction of Jerusalem to a forest set on they were really worth; and setting a greater value fire, Ezekiel xx. 46, 49, and to a seething-pot, on,

and saying more in praise of, those things they chapter xxiv. 3. Hosea himself was a parable, or wanted to sell, than they really deserved. These type, to the Jews, in taking a wife of whoredoms, deceits in buying and selling are but too much to represent the idolatries of the house of Israel."used among us now, though God has so strongly | Lowth. declared his abhorrence of them in the Scriptures. Verses 11-13. Is there iniquity in Gilead ?-noir

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