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The prophet


consoles Baruch.

into Upper Egypt; and the country, being thus || ing defeated at Memphis, was taken prisoner, carried weakened by intestine war, was attacked and easily to Sais, and strangled in his own palace; thus veriovercome by Nebuchadnezzar, who, on quitting it, fying this prophecy." See Rollin's Ancient Hist., left Amasis his viceroy. After Nebuchadnezzar's vol. i., and Bishop Newton on the Prophecies, vol. departure, Apries marched against Amasis, but, be- l i. p. 362.

CHAPTER XLV. This chapter, though placed at a considerable distance from it, is evidently an appendage to chap. Xxxvi. Baruch, as we there learn, had been employed by Jeremiah, as his amanuensis, to write a collection of all those dreadful threatenings which God had denounced by his mouth. This seems to have affected his spirits, and to have alarmed his fears to such a degree, that God judged it proper to encourage and comfort him by letting him know that, although amidst the general calamities of his country he ought not to look for any great matters for himself, yet, in consideration of his services, his own life

should be preserved to him by a special providence, in all places to which it might be his lot to go, 1-5. A. M. 3397.


HE word that Jeremiah the pro-|| in my sighing, and I find no rest. A. M. 3397. B. C. 607.

B. C. 607. phet spake unto Baruch the son 4 Thus shalt thou say unto him, The of Neriah, when he had written these words in LORD saith thus ; Behold, that which I have a book at the mouth of Jeremiah, in the fourth built will I break down, and that which I have year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of planted I will pluck up, even this whole land. Judah, saying,

5 And seekest thou great things for thyself? 2 Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel, || seek them not: for behold, “I will bring evil unto thee, O Baruch ;

upon all flesh, saith the LORD: but thy life will 3 Thou didst say, Wo is me now! for the I give unto thee a for a prey in all places whiLORD hath added grief to my sorrow; I fainted ther thou goest.

a Chap. xxxvi. 1, 4, 32.- Isa. v. 5.- Chap. xxv. 26.

Chap. xxi. 9; xxxviii. 2; xxxix. 18.


people which have so long flourished under the peVerse 1. The word that Jeremiah spake unto culiar care of my providence I resolve now to give Baruch when he had written, &c.—“This seems to up to utter destruction: see chap. xxxi. 28. And indicate that the exact time of the uttering of this seekest thou great things for thyself ?-Dost thou prophecy was between the writing and the publication aspire to honour, dignity, and prosperity, or expect of the roll. And, perhaps, if Baruch had not re- | to be exempted from adversity and trouble in a time ceived such special assurances of protection, he of great and common calamity? Seek them notmight not have had resolution enough to have fol- || Never think of any thing of the kind; for, behold, lowed the prophet's further directions, and to have I bring evil on all flesh-Upon the whole country read first before all the people, and afterward before where thou livest, and upon all orders and degrees the princes, what he had written.”—Blaney. of men therein. But thy life will I give unto thee

Verses 3-5. Thou didst say, Wo is me now, &c. | for a prey-Thy life shall be preserved, but under -“The sorrows which I felt for the threatenings such circumstances that thou shalt have reason to denounced against my country and religion are in-| look on thyself as peculiarly indebted to the divine creased by my own troubles, being sought after by providence for so singular and extraordinary a fathe king's command in order to be put to death :'vour. See note on chapter xxi. 9, where the same see chap. xxxvi. 26. The Lord saith, That which proverbial expression occurs, and is further exI have built will I break down, &c.—The land and || plained.

CHAPTER XLVI. This chapter contains two prophecies against Egypt: the first fulfilled immediately after the publication ; the other about

thirty-four years after. To be more particular : We have here, (1,) A prediction of the defeat of Pharaoh-necho's army, notwithstanding their pompous preparations and sanguine expectations, by the Chaldean forces at Carchemish on the Euphrates, 1-12. (2.) A prophecy of the indasion and conquest of Egypt, by the Chaldeons under Nebuchadnezzar, who should fill the country with terror and confusion, murder its inhabitants, and render it desolate for forty years, 13-26. (3) A word of comfort is given to the Israel of God in the midst of these calamilies, 27, 28.

Jeremiah predicts the defeat


of the Egyptian army.

5 Wherefore have I seen them dis. A. M. 3397. 8. M: 3:39THE word of the Lord which

B. C. 607. came to Jeremiah the prophetmayed and turned away back ? and against a the Gentiles;

their mighty ones are beaten down, and are 2 Against Egypt, "against the army of Pha- | 2 fled apace, and look not back: ford fear was raoh-necho king of Egypt, which was by the round about, saith the LORD. river Euphrates in Carchemish, which Nebu- 6 Let not the swift flee away, nor the mighty chadrezzar king of Babylon smote in the man escape: they shall • stumble, and fall fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king toward the north by the river Euphrates. of Judah.

7 Who is this that cometh up fas a flood, 3 c Order

ye the buckler and shield, and draw | whose waters are moved as the rivers ? near to battle.

8 Egypt riseth up like a flood, and his waters 4 Harness the horses; and get up, ye horse-are moved like the rivers; and he saith, I will men, and stand forth with your helmets; go up, and will cover the earth ; I will destroy furbish the spears, and put on the brigandines. the city and the inhabitants thereof.

a Chapter xxv. 15.- 2 Kings xxxiii. 29; 2 Chronicles 'Heb. broken in pieces. Heb. fled a flight. ——4 Chapter xxxv. 29; fulfilled presently.—So Chap. li. 11, 12; Nah. vi. 25; xlix. 29. Dan. xi. 19.- Isaiah viii. 7; Chapter ii. 1 ; iii. 14.

xlvii. 2; Dan. xi. 22.


to oppose him; and it appears it was at the time Verse 1. The word of the Lord which came to when the Egyptian army lay along the banks of the Jeremiah against the Gentiles—This is a general Euphrates, waiting to oppose the entrance of Nebutitle to the collection of prophecies contained in this chadnezzar into Syria, that this prophecy was deliand the five following chapters, and refers to the vered, namely, as is here said, in the fourth year of denunciation of God's judgments upon the countries Jehoiakim. The two armies came to an engage round about Judea, namely, those of whom an enu- ment near the city of Carchemish, and the event of meration is made chap. xxv. 19–25. To some of the battle proved very disastrous to the Egyptians, these prophecies the date is annexed; in others it is who were routed with prodigious slaughter, as is lest uncertain. It is evident they were not all de- | here foretold by the prophet in a very animated livered at the same time, and they seem to be here style, and with great poetic energy and liveliness of out of their proper place. In the Vatican and colouring. Alexandrian copies of the Septuagint, they follow Verses 3-6. Order ye the buckler, &c.-In these immediately after chap. xxv. 13, where express men- verses the mighty preparations of the Egyptians for tion is made of the book which Jeremiah had pro-war are described, which causes the prophet, who forephesied against all the nations; which book is sees the defeat, to express, as he does in the next two contained in this and the following chapters. It | verses, “his astonishment at an event so contrary to seems those who collected Jeremiah's writings judg- || what might have been expected; but he accounts ed proper, without confining themselves to the order for it by ascribing it to the disposition of the Alof time, to join together all those prophecies which mighty, who had spread terror all around, and had respected the Gentile nations, and were not imme- decreed that neither swiftness nor strength should diately connected with the affairs of the Jews. avail the owners so as to save them from the impend

Verse 2. Against Egypt, against the army of ing overthrow."— Blaney. I have seen them disPharaoh-necho-Pharaoh-necho was king of Egypt mayed and turned backGod had, in a vision, in Josiah's time, and it was by his army that Josiah shown Jeremiah the army of the Egyptians discomwas killed at Megiddo, as is related 2 Kings xxiii. fited and fleeing; and their mighty ones—Their 29, where see the note. That army was then march- | most powerful warriors and valiant commanders; ing under the conduct of Necho against the Medes are beaten down, and are fled apace-Either fall in and Babylonians, who, having by the capture of the battle, or flee away as fast as they can; for fear Nineveh destroyed the Assyrian empire, had become is round about-A panic fear hath seized the whole formidable to the neighbouring states. Josiah op-army. Let not the swift flee away-Let them not posed it in its march through the country, but was be able to escape from those that pursue them, but defeated, and received a wound in the battle which | be either killed or taken. They shall stumble, 4-c., proved mortal. Necho continued his march after this toward the north by the river Euphrates-Which victory, defeated the Babylonians, took Carchemish, I was northward from Egypt, and even from Judea: and securing it with a strong garrison, returned into so Babylon is described as lying northward, being his own country. Nabopolassar, the king of Baby- situate upon that river. lon, observing that all Syria and Palestine had re- Verses 7-10. Who is this that cometh up as a voited on account of the reduction of Carchemish | flood-Here the king of Egypt is compared to a by the Egyptians, sent his son Nebuchadnezzar with mighty river, the Nile, or the Euphrates, when it an army to retake that city, and recover the revolted swells above its banks, and threatens to overwhelm provinces. Necho marched with a powerful army || the country with ruin and desolation. And he saith,

The prophet foretels


Pharaoh's overthroro.

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9 Come up, ye horses; and rage, || virgin, the daughter of Egypt: in vain A. M. 3397.

ye chariots; and let the mighty men | shalt thou use many medicines; for come forth : 3 the Ethiopians and the Libyans, thou shalt not be cured. that handle the shield; and the Lydians, & that 12 The nations have heard of thy shame, and handle and bend the bow.

thy cry hath filled the land: for the mighty 10 For this is h the day of the Lord God of man hath stumbled against the mighty, and hosts, a day of vengeance, that he may avenge they are fallen both together. him of his adversaries : and i the sword shall 13 1 The word that the LORD spake to Jeredevour, and it shall be satiate and made drunk miah the prophet, how Nebuchadrezzar king with their blood : for the Lord God of hosts of Babylon should come and smite the land

hath a sacrifice in the north country by the of Egypt. river Euphrates.

14 Declare ye in Egypt, and publish in Mig11 Go up into Gilead, and take balm, modol, and publish in Noph and in Tahpanhes :

3 Heb. Cush.- _* Heb. Put.- -5 Isa. lxvi. 19. Ch Isa. xiii. 1 Chap. viii. 22; li. 8.- Isaiah xlvii. 1.- Heb. no cure 6; Joel i. 15; ii. 1. i Deut. xxxii. 42; Isa. xxxiv. 6.- Isa. shall be unto thee. Ezek. xxx. 21.- - Isa. xix. 1; Chapter xxxiv. 6; Zeph. i. 7; Ezek. xxxix. 17.

xliii. 10, 11; Ezek. xxix. ; xxx. ; xxxii.; fulfilled about 571.

I will go up, and will cover the carth-With my Egypt was grown great by her conquests, particunumerous armies; I will destroy the city-Carche-larly by the former battle at Carchemish, (see verse mish or Babylon; and the inhabitants thereof, || 2,) and did not apprehend itself to be in any danger Who shall not be able to withstand the powerful of being conquered. The nations have heard of force I bring against them. Thus the prophet re- || thy shame-Of thy armies being shamefully beaten presents him as beginning his march with all the and running away; for the mighty man hath stumostentation and insolence of presumed success. bled against the mighty-When an army is once Come up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots, &c.— | broken and disordered, multitudes are a hinderance Here he is exhibited calling aloud to the nations of one to another, and one part helps to destroy anwhich his army is composed, giving them the signal | other. Thus the prophet concludes the first profor action, and rousing them to deeds of desperate | phecy against Egypt, or, as he expresses it, the valour; but all in vain: for the time is come for God daughter of Egypt, by an apostrophe to her, adto avenge himself of his ancient foes: they are doom- | dressing her as a conquered nation, whose wound ed to slaughter, to fall a bloody sacrifice on the plains is pronounced incurable, and disgrace universally of the north. For, adds the prophet, verse 10, this known; forasmuch as the number of her warriors is the day of the Lord God of hosts—That is, as it served only to augment the general disorder, and follows, the day of his vengeance. Hence, the day more effectually to destroy each other. of the Lord is used in the New Testament to signisy Verse 13. The word that the Lord spake, &c.the day of judgment, of which all other days of Here begins the second prophecy against Egypt, the vengeance are the earnests and forerunners. That exact time of the delivery of which we have no he may avenge himself of his adversariesOf the means of ascertaining; but the desolation foretold idols of Egypt and their worshippers: the Egyp- || in it is undoubtedly the same with that predicted by tians were some of the first idolaters, and carried | Ezekiel, chaps. xxix., xxx., xxxi., xxxii. And this idolatry to its greatest height. And the sword shall came to pass in the twenty-seventh year of Jehoiadevour, it shall be satiate, &c.— These metapho-chin's captivity, that is, the sixteenth year after the rical expressions signify the very great slaughter destruction of Jerusalem, as may be collected from which would be made at that time in the Egyptian Ezek. xxix. 17, where Nebuchadnezzar's army is army. For the Lord God hath a sacrifice, &c.— || spoken of as having at that time suffered a great The slaughter of men in battle, which is by way of deal at the siege of Tyre; on which arcount the punishment for their sins, is called a sacrifice to God, spoils of Egypt are promised them for their wages because it makes some kind of satisfaction and and indemnification: and the promise was accordatonement to the divine justice. See the margin. ingly made good that same year.—Jos. Ant., lib. x.

Verses 11, 12. Go up into Gilead, and take balm cap. 9. -Gilead was famous for producing balm and such Verses 14, 15. Publish in Migdol, and in Noph, like healing gums: see note on chap. viii. 22. The and Tahpanhes-Concerning these three cities, see prophet, alluding to the custom of men's going note on ch. xliv. l. The meaning is, publish this prothither for relief in dangerous infirmities, ironically phecy over all the land of Egypt; or these three advises the Egyptians to try all the methods they places are named, because in them the Jews, who can think of to prevent that destruction that threat- | went into Egypt with Johanan, were chiefly settled. ened them, but he signifies that all their endeavours Say, Stand fast, and prepare thee-Prepare for would be in vain. Compare chap. li. 8. O virgin, war, and resolve to keep your ground, and not yield the daughter of Egypt—Those cities or countries to the enemy: compare verses 2, 3. For the sword are called virgins which were never conquered. I shall devour round about thee-The nations are de Invasion and conquest of


Egypt by the Chaldeans.

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B. C. 607.

A. M. 3397. say ye, Stand fast, and prepare 17 They did cry there, Pharaoh A. M. 3397.
B. C. 607. thee; for the sword shall devour | king of Egypt is but a noise; he hath
round about thee.

passed the time appointed.
15 Why are thy valiant men swept away? 18 As I live, saith the King, whose name is
they stood not, because the Lord did drive the Lord of hosts, Surely as Tabor is among

the mountains, and as Carmel by the sea, so 16 He made many to fall, yea, rone fell | shall he come. upon another and they said, Arise, and 19 Otthou daughter dwelling in Egypt, let us go again to our own people, and to furnish thyself u to go into captivity: for the land of our nativity, from the oppressing Noph shall be waste and desolate without an sword.


p Verses 3, 4.- Verse 10.- Hebrew, multiplied the faller. Isa. xlvii. 4 ; xlviii. 2;. Chap. xlviii. 15.-Chap. xlviii. 18. Lev. xxvi. 37.

? Heb. make thee instruments of captivity. Isa. xx. 4.

stroyed around you, and you have reason to expect Verse 18. As I live saith the king, whose name is
that the sword will next reach you. Why are thy the Lord of hosts-He, before whom the mightiest
valiant men swept away?“The Hebrew word kings on earth, though gods to us, are but as grass-
To3x, here rendered valiant, is sometimes spoken of hoppers; he hath said and sworn what follows;
God, as Gen. xlix. 24. Sometimes it is a title given || Surely as Tabor, &c.-As surely as Tabor is among
to angels, as Psa. Ixxviii. 25; but the LXX. under- | the mountains and Carmel by the sea, so surely shall
stand it here of Apis, the idol of Egypt, which might the conqueror of Egypt come. Or, though Egypt
properly be said to be conquered when the nation, || were as inaccessible as the top of Tabor, and begirt
that had put themselves under his protection, was with the sea like Carmel, yet the enemy should come
subdued.”—Lowth. And, instead of they stood not, upon her, and make an entire conquest of her.
because the Lord did drive them, as we translate the Houbigant paraphrases the clause thus, “ As much as
next clause, the LXX. add, o porxos o EKEKTOG OH OK Tabor overtops all other mountains, so much shall
EuELVEV, orl kupLoc Tapeżvoev avtov, thy elect calf did the Chaldeans be superior to the Egyptians; and as
not abide, because the Lord debilitated, literally, the waves of the sea roar in vain at the foot of mount
paralyzed, him. But it is not at all probable that Carmel, so shall the Egyptians waves rage in vain."
this idol was here intended, but either of the mighty Blaney understands the clause in nearly the same
princes of Egypt; or, if the noun be singular, as sense, observing, “Tabor and Carmel were two of
Blaney understands it, reading, 773x, thy mighty the most considerable mountains in the land of
one, instead of 717°3x, thy mighty ones, then the Israel. Carmel formed the principal headland all
king is probably meant. Neither the king himself, along the sea-coast. Nebuchadnezzar is compared
nor his valiant captains, could stand before Nebuchad- | to these on account of his superiority over all
nezzar and the Chaldean army, because God dis- others."
comfited them. It was of God to destroy Egypt, Verse 19. O thou daughter dwelling in Egypt-
and when he works none can hinder him ; when he | Blaney translates it, o inhabiting daughter of
strikes none can stand up against him, or stand be- || Egypt, observing, that an antithesis seems to be de-
fore him.

signed between navr, inhabiting, and the act of miVerses 16, 17. He made many to fallOr, as the gration, which was to follow. Countries and cities Vulgate renders Goud 173777, multiplicavit ruen- are often represented under the emblem of women, tes, he multiplied those falling, or more literally, especially in medals and pictures. Furnish thyself the faller, as in the margin, the word being singular. to go into captivity—“The expression is ironical, Blaney connects this with the next clause, as the implying that, instead of the rich and goodly furniLXX. do, and reads the verse thus: “He hath caused ture wherein she did pride herself, she should be many to stumble, yea, to fall; they said therefore carried away captive, naked and bare, and wanting one to another, Arise, and let us return to our peo- || all manner of conveniences.” The Hebrew of this ple, and to our native country, because of the op- | clause seems to be more literally translated in the pressor's sword.” These are either the words of the margin than in the text; the word 57, there renEgyptian allies, resolving to return to their own dered instruments, meaning either the carriages, or countries, and not concern themselves any further the trunks and boxes that were to hold the things to with the affairs of Egypt; or else they are the words be removed. Blaney reads it, Get ready thy equiof the remains of the Egyptians, resolving to retire page for removing. For Noph shall be waste, &c. within their own borders, as thinking the Babylo-| – Noph in particular shall be wholly depopulated nians would not follow them thither. They did cry, and laid waste. This place, called also Memphis, Pharaoh king of Egypt is but a noise—He is no was accordingly laid waste some time after this, and more than an empty boaster: he has neglected the remained some years in a state of desolation. It opportunities he ought to have laid hold on, and he was, indeed, afterward rebuilt, but never recovered is not prepared according to his appointinent. its ancient splendour.

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Destruction of Egypt


by Nebuchadnezzar's army.

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B. C. 607.

B. C. 607.

20 Egypt is like a very fair heifer, || LORD, though it cannot be searched; A. M. 3397.

but destruction cometh; it cometh because they are more than the y out of the north.

grasshoppers, and are innumerable. 21 Also her hired men are in the midst of 24 The daughter of Egypt shall be confoundher like fatted bullocks; for they also areed; she shall be delivered into the hand of the turned back, and are fied away together : they people of the north. did not stand, because ? the day of their cala

la || 25 The Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, mity was come upon them, and the time of saith ; Behold, I will punish the multitude 10 their visitation.

of • No, and Pharaoh, and Egypt, f with their 22 a The voice thereof shall go like a serpent; gods, and their kings; even Pharaoh, and all for they shall march with an army, and come them that trust in him : against her with axes, as hewers of wood. 26 & And I will deliver them into the hand of 23 They shall "cut down her forest, saith the those that seek their lives, and into the hand of

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So Hosea x. 11. - Chapter i. 14; xlvii. 2; Verses 6, 10. Heb. bullocks of the stall. -—-z Psalm xxxvii. 13; Chap. 1. 27. a Isa. xxix. 4. -b Isa. x. 31. o Judg. vi. 5.

Chap. i. 15.- - Or, nourisher. 10 Heb. Amon.- Ezek. xxx. 14, 15, 16 ; Nah. u. 8. — Chap. xliii. 12, 13; Ezek. XXX.

-5 Chap. xliv. 30; Ezek. xxxii. 11.


Verses 20, 21. Egypt is like a very fair heifer— the grasshoppers-Because the army of the Chal“In the foregoing verse the prophet compared Egypt deans shall be as numerous as the inhabitants of to a delicate young woman. Here he resembles her Egypt. In other words, though the cities and inhato a fat and well-favoured heifer. In which compari- bitants of Egypt be never so numerous and large; son, as Grotius not improbably conjectures, there is yet the Chaldean army shall plunder and destroy an allusion to their god Apis, which was a bull, re-them, because their number is proportionable to such markable for his beauty and the fine spots or marks an enterprise. Armies are often compared to grasshe had about him.”—Lowth. But destruction com- hoppers and such like insects, both for their multicih, &c.-The Hebrew is very emphatical, 11539 pptudes, and because they make a general consumption, X232, destruction from the north, it cometh, it grasshoppers devouring all before them, wherever cometh. Also her hired men-Her mercenary sol- they come: see Judg. vi. 5; vii. 12; Joel ii. 4, 5. diers ; are in the midst of her like fatted bullocks- Verses 25, 26. Behold, I will punish the multitude Bullocks fatted up, and fit for the slaughter: or they of No-Hebrew, 2.3197198, Amon of No, which, says are inactive, and as little courageous as fatted bul- Blaney, “is the literal translation, and we need seek locks; foreign or hired troops never fighting with for no other.” Amon, or Ammon, as the word is such spirit and resolution as those manisest who are generally written, was the name by which the Egypdefending their own country and property. They tians called Jupiter, who had a celebrated temple at did not stand-Namely, in the fight; because the Thebes, famous for its hundred gates in Homer's day of their calamity was come-Because the time time, and supposed to be the same city with No here when God resolved to punish them, and bring calam- mentioned. Here Jupiter was worshipped in a disity upon them, was arrived, even the time of their tinguished manner, on which account the place was visitation, as it is expressed chap. 1. 27.

called Diospolis, the city of Jupiter, which name Verses 22, 23. The voice thereof shall go like a the LXX. have put for No, Ezek. xxx. 14–16. If serpent—" That is, her (Egypt's) voice shall be low therefore No be Thebes, or Diospolis, as it seems and inarticulate through fear. This passage seems evident it is, then Ammon of No signifies the deity to be an imitation of Isa. xxix. 4, where we find the of the place, the Theban Jupiter, as Herodotus same threat denounced against Jerusalem, namely, styles him, lib. ii. cap. 42. As, on the other hand, Thy speech shall be low out of the dust, and thy nos x1, No-ammon, Nah. iii. 8, should be rendered, voice shall be as one that hath a familiar spirit, out No of Ammon, which exactly corresponds with the of the ground. The cause which is assigned is the Greek Aloonos, or, city of Jupiter. But very difsame in both places, the irresistible attack of power- ferent from these is the term, X3712nnx, used Ezek. ful enemies." --Dr. Durell. See note on Isaiah xxix. xxx. 15, which indeed signifies the multitude, or nu4. For they shall march wilh an army-For the merous inhabitants of No; although, from the similiChaldeans shall come with powerful forces; with tude of the words jinx and j1977, Amon and Hamon, axes, az hewers of wood--As if they came to fell our translators, and others besides them, have contiinber in a wood. They shall cut down her forest founded them together. Some have supposed No to -Here Egypt is compared to a forest, either for the mean Alexandria, the great emporium of Egypt; multitude of cities and their stately buildings, or of and the Chaldee and Vulgate have rendered it so. people in that country; and its destruction is de- | But Alexandria was not built till ages after the time scribed by the metaphor of cutting down the trees when Jeremiah prophesied: and it does not appear of a forest. Though it cannot be searched, &c.— that there had been before any city, at least any conThough the forest be very thick, and the trees | siderable one, standing upon the spot which the thereof innumerable. Because they are more than || founder made the object of his choice. VOL. III. ( 33 )



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