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AND THE DEAD SEA.

CHAPTER I.

Embarkation with Greek Pilgrims for Palestine-Scene on Board

-Greek Psalmody-Sea of Marmora—The Dardanelles-Plain

of Troy-Greek Dance— Tchesmé-John, the new Interpreter

-Rhodes—Its History-Appearance of the Town—The Port

-Commerce and Manufactures of the Island-Character of

the Greeks as Sailors-A Supper on Deck-Ignorance of the

Ship’s Situation-Swallows-Cyprus-Description of the Island

in Telemachus— View of Mount Carmel-Coast of Palestine

- Arrival at Jaffa

277

CHAPTER II.

Landing of the Pilgrims—The Hospital of the Fathers—The

Author's Reception there - Hardships endured by the Monks

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I SHALL divide this Introduction into two Memoirs ; in the first I shall take up the history of Sparta and Athens, at about the age of Augustus, and bring it down to the present time. In the second I shall inquire into the authenticity of the religious traditions relative to Jerusalem.

Spon, Wheeler, Fanelli, Chandler, and Leroi have, it true, treated of the fortunes of Greece in the middle ages ; but the picture drawn by those writers is far from being a finished one. They have contented themselves with general facts, and not taken the trouble to dispel the confusion which pervades the history of the Byzantine empire; they were moreover ignorant of the existence of some Travels in the Levant. While I avail myself of their labours, I shall endeavour to supply their omissions.

As to the history of Jerusalem, it is involved in no obscurity in the barbarous ages; we never lose sight of the holy city. But when the pilgrims tell you : We repaired to the tomb of Jesus Christ; we entered the grotto where the Redeemer of the world sweated blood,” &c. an

VOL. I.

B

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B. C. 87.

Plut.

B. C. 87.

incredulous reader might imagine that the pilgrims were misled by uncertain traditions. Now this is the point which I purpose to discuss in the second memoir of this Introduction.

I now proceed to the history of Sparta and Athens.

When the Romans began to make their appearance in the East, Athens declared itself their enemy, and Sparta

followed their fortunes. Sylla burned the in Syl. Appian. Piræus and Munychia ; he plundered the city of Cecrops, and made such a slaughter of its citizens, that, as Plutarch informs us, their blood filled the whole Ceramicus, and ran out at the doors.

In the civil wars of Rome, the Athenians espoused the cause of Pompey, which they looked upon as the cause of Liberty ; the Lacedæmonians adhered to Cæsar, who was too generous to revenge himself on B.C. 47. Cæs. Athens. Sparta, faithful to the memory of o on Beappant. Cæsar, fought at the battle of Philippi against

Brutus, who had promised the pillage of

Lacedæmon to his soldiers in case they were B. C. 41. Plut. victorious.

The Athenians erected statues to Brutus, attached themselves to Anthony, B. C. 21. Vell. and were punished by Augustus. Four

years before the death of that prince, they

revolted against him. A. D. 25. Tit. Athens was free during the reign of Tiberius.

Sparta pleaded at Rome, and lost a petty cause against the Messenians, formerly its slaves. The contested point was the possession of the temple of Diana Linnatis, that very Diana whose festival was the occasion of the Messenian wars.

If we suppose Strabo to have lived during

the reign of Tiberius, the description of Sparta and Athens by that geographer must refer to the time of which we are now speaking.

When Germanicus visited Athens, out of

respect to its former glory, he divested himself of the insignia of power, and was preceded by only a single lictor.

Plut. in Vit.
Brut.

B. C. 44.

in Ant.

Pat. A. D. 10.
Suet. in Ang.

Liv. An. 4.

De Sit. Orb. 1.9.

A. D. 18. Tacit.
Ann. 1. 2.

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