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agreeably to the Scripture now under consideration, it is said of Christ, “ He treadeth the wine press of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.” (Rev. xix. 15.) And we are told by Christ himself, and by St. Paul, how and when this shall be completely done. “ Then shall he say unto them on his left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire.” (Matt. xxv. 41.) “When the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven, with his mighty angels, in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and the glory of his power.” (2 Thess. i. 7, etc.)

“ And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the Lord. And they shall go

forth and look upon the carcasses of the men that have transgressed against me; for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched, and they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh.” (Isa. Ixvi. 23, 24.)

This prophet had dwelt much on the certain overthrow and destruction of all the enemies of the church, and the prosperity and happiness to which that shall be brought in the latter days, and now concludes his prophecy in these remarkable words, which, in figurative language, represent the eternal state of the church, and of her enemies, which are destroyed and punished for their transgression. Dead bodies which are not buried soon become very nauseous and abominable, until they are wholly consumed by worms or by fire. Here the greatness and duration of the punishment of these transgressors is set forth by their bodies, though putrid and very offensive, continuing unconsumed by the worm or by the fire, and remaining food for the one and fuel for the other, without any end or diminution. And this is to take place in the sight of all the inhabitants of heaven, and they shall have it fully in view while they worship and praise God. This is exactly agreeable to other passages of Scripture, especially Rev. xiv. 10," And he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone, in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up forever and ever."

“ And I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia! salvation, and glory, and honor, and power unto the Lord our God. And again they said, Alleluia. And her smoke rose up forever and ever.” (Rev. xix. 1-3.)

No similitude, no words could be chosen that would, in a more determinate and striking manner, set forth the dreadfulness and perpetuity of the future punishment of the wicked than these used by the prophet Isaiah. For this reason, doubtless, our Savior alludes to this passage repeatedly when he would set this awful subject in the most awakening point of light. But this will be more particularly considered hereafter.

By the prophet Jeremiah, God fixeth an awful curse on those who refuse to trust in him, and pronounceth every one blessed that trusteth in the Lord. “ Thus saith the Lord, Cursed be the man that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm, and whose heart departeth from the Lord; for he shall be like the heath in the desert, and shall not see when good cometh, but shall inhabit the parched places in the wilderness, in a salt land, and not inhabited. Blessed is the man that trusteth in the Lord, and whose hope the Lord is; for he shall be as a tree planted by the waters,” etc. (Jer. xvii. 5, etc.)

The curse here pronounced on the unbeliever must intend the curse which will fall on him in the future state; for no such curse as is here described, and opposed to the blessing pronounced on him who trusteth or believeth in God, comes on the sinner in this world; but, as Jeremiah himself says, in this world, “ The way of the wicked prospereth, and they are happy that deal very treacherously." (Jer. xii. 1.) This curse is expressed in figurative language, but appears to be the same which is fixed by John the Baptist and our Savior on all unbelievers. “ He that believeth not the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him. He that believeth not shall be damned. Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire."

In the Book of the prophet Ezekiel, it is often declared that they who persist in evil ways through life shall die, shall die in their iniquity. And, on the contrary, they who turn from their evil ways shall live. (See Eze. iii.; xviii.; xxxiii.) By dying here cannot mean departing out of this life by the death of the body; for the penitent and obedient die this death, as well as the obstinate sinner. It must, therefore, mean what is called the second death, which is to be judged according to their works, and cast into the lake of fire, where they shall be tormented forever and ever. (Rev. xx. 14.)

But one text more will be mentioned in the Old Testament importing the future punishment of the wicked, and that is in Dan. xii. 2. “ And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt."

We now come to the New Testament, to see what is said there on the future punishment of the wicked. We may justly expect greater light on this head, in this more clear revelation of a future state. If, notwithstanding all that is found in the Old Testament, there be really no such punishment, doubtless Christ and his apostles have plainly told us that there will be no such evil, and have not said a word that can be construed in favor it. But if the glad tidings proclaimed in the gospel are consistent with the future punishment of those who reject it, and if a great, awfully aggravated, and endless punishment awaits them, the kind Savior, who is full of grace and truth, and those whom he authorized to preach the whole truth, have certainly warned mankind of this, and stated the doctrine of the wrath to come in the most plain and determinate words.

John the Baptist, who was raised up to introduce the Savior, is not silent on this head, but publishes awful threats against the obstinately wicked, and those who reject Christ. “ When he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Bring forth, therefore, fruits meet for repentance.” (Matt. iii. 7, 8.) Here he brings into view wrath to come, which could be avoided only by true repentance. “ And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down and cast into the fire.

He that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into the garner, but he will burn up the chaff with unqnenchable fire." (Matt. iii. 10–12.) “He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life; and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him.” (John iii. 36.)

What need of going any farther? The point is decided. He who introduceth the Savior plainly tells us what will be the consequence.

They who repent and believe the gospel shall be saved, but all who do not are left in, at least, as bad a case as they could be in had there been no Savior. They shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on them ; they shall be cast into unquenchable fire.

But what does Christ himself say ? “ Whosoever shall say to his brother, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire. Agree with thine adversary quickly, while thou art in the way with him ; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. Verily I say unto thee, thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing. And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out and cast it from thee; for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off and cast it from thee; for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.” (Matt. v. 22, etc.) “ Enter ye in at the strait gate; for wide is the gate, and broad is the way that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat." (Matt. vii. 13.) “ Many will say unto me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name, and in thy name cast out devils,” etc. “ And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity. Every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand: and the rain descended, and the floods came; and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell, and great was the fall of it.” (Matt. vii. 22, etc.) “ But the children of the kingdom shall be cast into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.” (Matt. viii. 12.) “ Verily I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah, in the day of judgment, than for that city.” (Matt. x. 15.) “Fear not them which kill the body, and are not able to kill the soul : but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.” (Matt. x. 28.) “ Woe unto thee, Chorazin! I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon, at the day of judgment, than

And thou Capernaum, I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom, in the day of judgment, than for thee." (Matt. xi. 21, etc.) “ Wherefore I say unto you, all manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men. And whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in the world to come.” (Matt. xii. 31, 32.) “ He that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal damnation.” (Mark iii. 29.) “ And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven.” (Luke xii. 10.) There is a certain connection between not being forgiven and punishment or damnation. “So shall it be in the end of the world. The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; and shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth." (Matt. xiii. 41.) So shall it be in the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the

for you.

just; and shall cast them into the furnace of fire : there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.

6 Whosoever shall save his life, shall lose it. For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? Or, what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father, with his angels; and then shall he reward every man according to his works.” (Matt. xvi. 25, etc.) “If thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off and cast them from thee; it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into everlasting fire. And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire.” (Matt. xviii. 8, 9.) “ And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken : but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder.” (Matt. xxi. 44.) “ Then said the king to his servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away,

and cast him into outer darkness; there shall be weep. ing and gnashing of teeth. For many are called, but few are chosen." (Matt. xxii. 13.) “Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayers; therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation. Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell ?” (Matt. xxiii. 14, 33.) “The Lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of; and shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.” (Matt. xxiv. 50, 51.) “ And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came, and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage, and the door was shut. Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not. For unto every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance; but from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath. And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth." (Matt. xxv. 10, etc.) “ The Son of man goeth as it is written of him: but woe unto that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed ! it had been good for that man if he had not been born." (Matt. xxvi. 21.) 6 Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me, and of my words, in this adulterous and sinful generation, of him also shall the Son of mau be ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father, with the holy angels.” (Mark viii. 38.) “ And if thy hand offend thee, cut it oil'; it is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having two VOL. II.


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