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An exhortation and]

CHÁP. VI. [encouragement to return. 14 For I will be unto Ephraim as a ing cloud, and as the early dew it { lion, and as a young lion to the house goeth away.

of Judah: I, eren 1, will tear and go 5 Therefore have I hewed them by away; I will take away, and none the prophets ; I have slain them by the shall rescue him.

words of my mouth: and thy judgments 15 I will go and return to my place, are as the light thut goeth forth. still they acknowledge their offence, and 6 For I desired mercy, and not saseek

my face: in their affliction they crifice; and the knowledge of God will seek me early. (E)

more than burnt offerings.

Ÿ But they like men have transCHAP. VI.

gressed the covenant: there have they COME, and let us return unto the dealt treacherously against me.

Lord: for he hath torn, and he 8 Gilead is a city of them that will heal us; he hath smitten, and he work iniquity, and is polluted with will bind us up.

blood. 2 After two days will he revive us : 9 And as troops of robbers wait for in the third day he will raise us up, a man, so the company of priests murand we shall live in his sight.

der in the way by consent : for they 3 Then shall we know, if we follow commit lewdness. on to know the LORD: his going forth is 10 I have seen an horrible thing in prepared as the morning; and he shall the house of Israel : there is the whore. come unto us as the rain, as the latter dom of Ephraim, Israel is defiled. and former rain unto the earth.

11 Also, O Judah, he hath set an 4 O Ephraim, what shall I do unto harvest for thee, when I returned the thee? o Judah, what shall I do unto captivity of my people. (F) thee? for your goodness is as a morn

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EXPOSITION.
CHAP. V.

removing the barriers between truth (E) Farther judgments threatened a- and error, right and wrong, religion gainst all classes. – This chapter begins and idulatry; and therefore the Lord dewith threatening the Israelites for their un- clares he will pour down upon them an inlawful sacrifices on Mispah and Tabor, undation of wrath, that shall completely whereby they not only offended the pure overwhelm them. eye of God, but defiled themselves and se- When they are charged with “ walking duced others. They are then threatened after the commandment" as a crime (ver. with a rejection of all their sacrifices, how- 11), we must understand, certainly, not ever numerous and costly, and the devotion the command of God, but of those wicked of their substance to the locusts, who ( whe- princes who ordered them to mingle with ther to be literally or figuratively taken) his worship the licentious rites of Baal.. should destroy it in a siagle month. A (Comp. Matt. xv. 9.) fresh alarm is now sounded in the cities The Almig?ty here again threatens to of Judah, and the crier is ordered to pro- tear these rebels to pieces like a lion, and claim aloud, “ After thee, O Benjamin- then retire, and hide himself from them, the enemy is after thee." (Comp. Joelii. l.) till they become suitably humbled by their The sin of Jsrael and Judah is here afflictions, and seek bis favour early, as compared to that of the accursed man, the inhabitants of those countries look up who removeth his poor neighbour's land- to the dawn of day, and bail the rising sun. mark; Deut. xxvii. 17. So the princes

CHAP. VI. of Judah and of Israel are accused of (F) An exhortation to return to God,

NOTES. CHAP. VI. Ver. 5. Bewed them - that is, cut Ver. 8. Polluted Marg. “ Cunning" (plotting, hem don, like trees in the forest. See Isa. x. 15. scheming) for blood.

Thu judyments are gone forth, or are announced, Ver. 9. By consent - Hleb, “With one shoulder.” -learly as thelight, or executed rapidly as the lights But the Hebrew word for “shoulder" is Shechem, ng. See Job xxxvii. 3.

and therefore Newcome renders it, A company of Ver. 6. Merey and not sacrifice that is, mercy priests murder in the way to Slechem;" and to the n preference to sacrifice. And the knowledge of same effect, Bp. Horsley and others. Gol more Uran, &c. See Matt, ix. 13.

Ver 11. When I returned-Dr. Wheeler, “ When Ver. 7. Like mnen-Marg: "Like Adam."

I shall return;" Ilorsley, "When I bring back."

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Farther complaints)

HOSEA. (of Israel's sin and folly.

7 They are all hot as an oven, and CHAP. VII.

have devoured their judges; all their WHEN I would have healed Israel, kings are fallen; there is none among

then the iniquity of Ephraim them that calleth unto me. was discovered, and the wickedness of 8 Ephraim, he hath inixed himself Samaria : for they commit falsehood; among the people; Ephraim is a cake and the thief cometh in, and the troop not turned. of robbers spoileth without.

9 Strangers have devoured his 2 And they consider not in their strength, and he knoweth it not: yea, hearts that I remember all their wick- gray hairs are here and there upon edness : now their own doings have him, yet he knoweth not. beset them about; they are before my 10 And the pride of Israel testi. face.

fieth to his face: and they do not 3 They make the king glad with return to the LORD their God, o their wickedness, and the princes with seek him for all this. their lies.

11 Ephraim also is like a silly dove 4 They are all adulterers, as without heart: they call to Egypt, oven heated by the baker, who ceaseth they go to Assyria. from raising after he hath kneaded the 12 When they shall go, I will spread dough, until it be leavened.

my net upon them; I will bring them 5 In the day of our king the princes down as the fowls of the heaven; 1 have made him sick with bottles of will chastise them, as their congrega. wine; he stretched out his hand with tion hath heard. scorners.

13 Woe unto them! for they have 6 For they have made ready their · fled from me: destruction unto them! heart like an oven, whiles they lie in because they have transgressed against wait: their baker sleepeth all the me: though I have redeemed them, night; in the morning it turneth as a yet they have spoken lies against me. flaming fire.

14 And they have not cried unto

an

EXPOSITION-Chap. VI. Continued. with a lamentation over Israel's incon. and affectionate father, lamenting over his stancy.—The close of the preceding chap- hardened and rebellious children, who were ter holding out a hope of pardou and ac- alike unimpressed by the kindness of tuan ceptance, and the Prophet here puts into admonition, aud the severity of his reproof. the mouths of the penitent Israelites words The last verse is differently explaiued ; by both of confession and encouragement: some as a promise, by others as a threate“ Come, and let us return unto the Lord,' ing. Bp. ÍJorsley thinks tbat the vintage is &c. The following expression, “ After always used as an image of judgments; ibe two days,” &c. seeins to be proverbial. har est, of mercies. We conceive bis lordThe allusion to us appears to be, to some ship would have been more correct in say: of the desperate diseases of those countries ing, that the harvest, figuratively understood, which generally terminated on the third implies a mixed state of reward and punishday, either in death or recovery. (See ment. See Matt, xiii. 39, 40. We may remem2 Kings xx. 5.) Here the anticipation is ber, that on the return of the seventy years favourable ; here is mercy in reserve for captivity, those who came back were chiefly theni.

of the tribe of Juda!. In ver. 4, God is introduced as a kind

NUTES. CHAP. VII. Ver. 2. They consider not in-Heb. their cakes with coals, turning them several times, “ Say not to" their hearts.

till done." Ver. 4. Who craseth from raising, &c.- Booth- Ver. 9. Gray hairs are here and there - Hel. royd, “ Which he ceaseth frota watching, when he hath kneaded the douglı,” &c.

· Sprinkled” upon him.

Ver. 20. Testifick to his fuce-or against him. Ver. 3. With bottles of wine-Marg. “ With heat See Note on chap. v.5. through wine,

Ver. 11. Without heart - that is, witbuat know Ver. 8. Among the people-Newcome,“ Nations." ledge. Newcome.

Ver. 12. As their congregation hath heard-Hars.

A cake notiurned - that is, burnt and spoiled. Rauwolf snys, that travellers in the deserts of Ara

ley, " As they hear it declared in their congregaria. p, frequently bake bread on the ground, covering Ver. 14. When-Newcome, " Though."

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Warnings and]

CHAP. VIII. [farther threatenings. me with their heart, when they howled 5 Thy calf, O Samaria, hath cast upon

their beds : they assemble them- thee off; mine anger is kindled against selves for corn and wine, and they them: how long will it be ere they atrebel against me.

tain to innocency? 15 Though I have bound and 6 For from Israel was it also : the strengthened their arms, yet do they workman made it; therefore it is not imagine mischief against me.

God: but the calf of Samaria shall 16 They return, but not to the be broken in pieces. most High: they are like a deceitful 7 For they have sown the wind, bow: their princes shall fall by the and they shall reap the whirlwind : it sword for the rage of their tongue: hath no stalk: the bud shall yield no this shall be their derision in the land meal; if so be it yield, the strangers of Egypt. (G)

shall swallow it up.

8 Israel is swallowed up: now shall CHAP. VII.

they be among the Gentiles as a vessel SET the trumpet to thy mouth. He wherein is no pleasure. shall come as an gle against the

9 For they are gone up to Assyria, house of the Lord, because they have a wild ass alone by himself: Ephraim transgressed my covenant, and trespas- hath hired lovers. sed against my law.

10 Yea, though they have hired 2 Israel shall cry unto me, My God, among the nations, now will I gather we know thee.

them, and they shall sorrow a little 3 Israel hath cast off the thing that for the burden of the king of princes. is good : the enemy shall pursue him. 11 Because Ephraim hath made

4 They have set up kings, but not many altars to sin, altars shall be unto by me: they have made princes, and I him to sin. knew it not: of their silver and their 12 I have written to him the great gold have they made them idols, that things of my law, but they were they may be cut off.

counted as a strange thing.

EXPOSITION.
CHAP. VII.

and vice, pride and civil contentions, and (G) Farther complaints, both of wicked- conspiracies. (See 2 Kings xv. 10, 14, 25.) ness and hypocrisy.--Here God complains Ephraim, in particular, is charged with that though he had used every means for mixing with idolatrous nations, and serving reforming Israel, they still persisted in their God by halves only; and with applying for sins, without regarding the consequences. aid to their enemies, instead of God, their That those of the higher orders, who ought Almighty protector. (See 2 Kingz xv. 19; to have checked their crimes, united and and xxvii. 4.) And the chapter condelighted in them; and that they all burned cludes with comparing them, on account with their lusts, as an oven when fully of their unsteady character, and frequent heated, and ready to receive the dough. apostacies, to " a deceitful bow," which,

Ver. 5. alludes to some recent excesses being warped and crooked, could never be at a royal feast; and the following verses depended upou for sending its arrows to accuse them with being given up to idleness the object aimed at.

NOTES. Ver. 15. Though I have bound, &c.-Boothroyd, Ver. 7. It hath no stall, &c.--- Newc. “The stalk Whether I chastised, or strengthened their arm, hath no bud; it shall not yield tlour," &c. So et,” &c.

Horsley. Ver. 16. A deceitful bow-Heb. "A bow of de- Ver.'y. A wild ass alone.--Wild asses generally eit.”

go in herds, but sometimes one strays from the rest.

Pucocke.---Ephraim hath hired lovers. -See ezek; CHAP. VIII. Ver. 1. To thy mouth---Heb. "To vi.3. he roof of thy mouth." - He shall come as an Ver. 11. Allars to sin-- Boothroyd, " Fer sin;"' i.r, agle-that is, the Assyrian shall come.

for idolatry - Unto him for sin--that is, he shall Ver. 4. I knew it not-Boothroyd, “ Of whom I be surfeited with the multitude of foreign altars. pproved not."

Ver. 13. They sacrifice flesh-Newc. “They saVer. 3. Thy calf, O Samaria," &c. – Newcome, critice gifts appointed unto me, and eat flesh," i.e. Remove far from thee (or cist oll) thy call, O Sa. we conceive, they take the prime ci all the sacrifices aria!"Ere they atiain lo innocency !--- Newc. "Vill they potendure innocency??

Ver. 14. Buildeth tennples--namely, to idols.

Israel's guilt)

HOSEA.

[and misery. 13 They sacrifice flesh for the sa- soul shall not come into the house of crifices of mine offerings, and eat it; the Lord. but the Lord accepteth them not; 5 What will ye do in the solenn now will he remember their iniquity, day, and in the day of the feast of the and visit their sins: they sl.all return

Lord? to Egypt.

6 For, lo, they are gone because of 14 For Israel hath forgotten his destruction: Egypt shall gather them Maker, and buildeth temples ; and Ju- up, Memphis shall bury them : the dah hath multiplied fenced cities : but pleasant places for their silver, nettles I will send a fire upon his cities, and shall possess them: thorns shall be in it shall devour the palaces thereof. (H) their tabernacles.

7 The days of visitation are come, CHAP. IX.

the days of recompence are cone; lsREJOICE not, Israel, for joy, as rael shall know it: the prophet is a

other people : for thou hast gone fool, the spiritual man is mad, for the a whoring from thy God, thou hast multitude of thine iniquity, and the loved a reward upon every corn-floor.

great hatred. 2 The floor and the winepress shall 8 The watchman of Ephraim was not feed them, and the new wine shall with my God: but the prophet is a fail in her,

snare of a fowler in all his

ways,

០៧ 3 They shall not dwell in the Lord's hatred in the house of his God. land; but Ephraim shall return to 9 They have deeply corrupted them. Egypt, and they shall eat unclean selves, as in the days of Gibeah: things in Assyria.

therefore he will remember their ini4 They shall not offer wine offerings quity, he will visit their sins. to the Lord, neither shall they be 10 I found Israel like grapes in the pleasing unto him: their sacrifices wilderness; I saw your fathers 25 shall be unto them as the bread of the first-ripe in the fig tree at her first mourners; all that eat thereof shall time: but they went to Baal- -peor, and be polluted : for their bread for their

separated themselves unto that shame;

EXPOSITION.
CHAP. VIII.

if it should have a little, their enemies (H) Farther threatenings for impiety.- should devour it. Themselves also shall This chapter begins with threatening an suffer the same fate ; and be treated by the invasion from the Assyrians, who should nations (Assyria and Egypt) as the rile pounce on Israel like an eagle ; so did shreds of a useless broken vessel. Ver Shalmanezer, 2 Kings xvii. 3—6. Aud have they the plea of ignorance-Gol wherefore this ?-For their hypocrisy, ini- had written to them the great things & quity and idolatry; particularly the wor- his law, but they counted them strange. shipping the golilen calves of Dan and All their taste was for foreign gods and Bethel. The folly and unprofitableness foreign altars : they shall go therefore of pursuing evil courses is then set forth where they shall see no others; and sigha in brief, but very einphatic terms. The in vain for those of Zion. (See 2 kiog labour of the wicked is vain, like sowing xvi. 10.) The last words predict the burning of the wind; and the fruit of it destructive of Jerusalem, after reproving the bouse of as the whirlwind; like corn blighied in the Judalı for their confidence in their own bud, their toil produces no increase, or strength.

NOTES. CHAP. IX. Ver. 4. The bread of mourners--coarse was mad."--The grral katred which they bsd te and scanty: “ the bread of aflliction," P's. Isxx. 5. the house of God, ver. 8.

food became polluted in the house where death Ver. 8. The watchman of Ephrcia-tbe troe preentered. Nomb. xix. 14.—The bread for their soul phet, Ezek. iii. 17. ---- The prophet-that is the -that is, their meat offering.

false prophet (as in ver. 7) is a snere; Pepetu Ver. 6. T'he pleasant places for their silver-New.

snare to the people. And hatred ia-Aescu, come, “ (Purchased) with their silver."

&c. " Against." The false prophets preferred the Ver. 7. The prophet is a fool, the spiritual man is idolatrous worship of the high places to rise acred mad:-there being no verb in the original, Newcome altar at Jerusalemi. This was évidestly base de and others render this verse, wbich duubtless refers captivity. Mr. Townsend places it B. c.7 sà to the false prophets, in the past tense,“ Was foolish, Ver. 9. The days of Gibeah.-See Judges sin

Israel like an)

CHAP. X.

[exhausted vine. 3 and their abominations were according is dried up, they shall bear no fruit: as they loved.

yea, though they bring forth, yet will 11 As for Ephraim, their glory I slay even the beloved fruit of their 1: shall fly away like a bird, from the womb.

birth, and from the womb, and from 17 My God will cast them away, the conception.

because they did not hearken unto him: 12 Though they bring up their chile and they shall be wanderers among dren, yet will I bereave them, that the nations. (I) there shall not be a man left: yea, woe also to them when I depart from

CHAP. X. them!

TSRAEL is an empty vine, he bring13 Ephraim, as I saw Tyrus, is eth forth fruit unto himself : ac: planted in a pleasant place: but Eph.cording to the multitude of his fruit

raim shall bring forth his children to the he hath increased the altars ; accordmurderer.

ing to the goodness of his land they 14 Give them, O LORD: what wilt have made goodly images. thou give ? give them a miscarrying 2 Their heart is divided ; now shall womb and dry breasts.

they be found faulty: he shall break 15 All their wickedness is in Gilgal; down their altars, he shall spoil their for there I hated them : for the wick- images. edness of their doings I will drive them 3 For now they shall say, We have out of mine house, I will love them no king, because we feared not the no more: all their princes are revolters. Lord; what then should a king do to

16 Ephraim is smitten, their root

EXPOSITION.
CHAP. IX.

fall before the destroyer, (some of them) (I) Israel's guilty conduct, and the mi- be buried in Egypt, and leave their own series it produced. In this chapter, the pleasant places desolate. The time, too, captivity and dispersion of Israel is again is declared to be at hand, according to God's threatened, the prospect of which fills the revelation by the watchman (or true Prophet with such terror, as to make him Prophet), whatever might be alleged by wish their women should be barren, rather false prophets, who pretended to have the tban bring forth children to slavery or Spirit, but who in fact ensuared the souls slaughter.

of others, and like the men of Gibeah, drew He begins with reproving them for their deep guilt on themselves. In the succeedsacrifices and rejoicings on their corn. ing verses, God is introduced declaring his floors, by which they ascribed to idols, as early favour for his people, and the delight the heathen did, the praise of all their he took in their obedience; but now they plenty; for which reason, they are threat- had so deeply revolted, all their glory will ened with famine, and devoted to exile in take wing, God will forsake them, and their i land where they should be polluted ; and offspring be devoted to destruction; to devant the means of worshipping the God of struction twice repeated, to intimate its heir fathers, or observing the solemnities being both sure and terrible.” f bis appointment. Nay more, they shall Smith.)

(Dr. J.

NO TES. Ver. 10. As the firstoripe.-See Jer. xxiy. 2.--- was some time placed. See chap. iv, 15; also Amos ual peor.-See Num.xxv. 3, &c.

iv. 4 ; v. 6. Calmet. fer. 11. From the birth-Boothroyd,“ There shall Ver. 16. The beloved fruit-their darling offspring. : Do birth, no pregnancy, no conception;" I. P. ere shall be no increase. To the same effect New- CHAP. X. Ver. 1. An empty rine - Marg. “ A me, Wheeler, &c.

vine emptying (or casting) the fruit it giveth. Ver. 12. Though Boothroyd, &c. " Yea, though." According to the multilude of his fruit, &c. -- that is, Ver. 13. Ephraim, as I saw (or see) Tyrus. as their prosperity increased, so did their idolatry. unaria was situated on a bigh and pleasant hill. --Goodly images-Heb. “ Statues ;" i, e. idols. e I Kings xvi. 24.

Ver. 2. Faully-that is, “guilty.” Ver. 14. A miscarrying nomb-Heb. “A womb Ver. 3. We hare no king-inis oracle was probably it casteth the fruit

delivered during the nine years anarchy which preVer. 15. Gilgal-A place infamous for idolatry, ceded the reign of king Hoshea (B. c. about 730). dwhere it is supposed one of "the goldeu calves' --Do to us-rather," for us ;' Secker and Hørsley,

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