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Michael the prince)
CHAP. XII. (stands up for Israel.
nation even to that same time : and at CHAP. XII.
that time thy people shall be delivered,
every one that shall be found written in AND at that time shall Michael the book, stand
up, the great prince which 2 And many of them that sleep in standeth for the children of thy people: the dust of the earth shall awake, some and there shall be a time of trouble, to everlasting life, and some to shame such as never was since there was a and everlasting contempt.
EXPOSITION. obtained a peaceable possession of the tian Martyrs and Confessors, in after times, kingdom. Induced by bribery, he removed derive much hope and consolation from the good Onias from the Jewish high-priest- the history of these Jewish Martyrs ? As to hood, and placed his unworthy brother the character of Antiochus, it is difficult to Jason in his stead; but with him also he name any feature of wickedness to which dealt deceitfully, and on receiving a second it does not correspond. He neither feared bribe, gave the office to another brother. God, por regarded man. He then “ came up" to Egypt with a small Yet it must be confessed, that there are company, and by his artifices, obtained some points in which this “ wilful king" far footing there, and plundered 'several of more resembles the Antichrist of St Paul the provinces. After this he raised a pow- and St. John, than the tyrant now before erful army, and by some means got into
But as there are many prophecies his possession his nephew Ptolemy Phi- which have a double reference to David lometor. They often ate and drank toge- and to Christ; so we see no absurdity in ther, and formed a covenant or treaty; hut considering this abandoned monarch as a both practised great duplicity, and each de- type of Antichrist, whose character, howceived the other.
ever, will fall more properly under our At length Antiochus returned to Syria notice in the New Testament, and particuwith spoils of immense value (1 Macc.i. larly in the book of the Revelation. In 19, 20.); and then“ his heart was (set) the mean time, we must confess that we against the holy covenant:" for Jason can neither find, nor form, any satisfactory, (above mentioned) hearing a report of his interpretation of the last verses of this death, attempted to recover the higlie chapter. Some expositors have brought priesthood; and for that end raised 1000 them down to our own times, particularly men, and took possession of the temple. Mr. Faber, and still more recently, the Rev. Antiochus, supposing that the Jews had Ed. Cooper, of whose hypothesis the followall rebelled, beseiged and took the city, ing is an outline. slew 40,000 of the inhabitants, and set up
He refers the character now before an idol in the sanctuary.
us to the celebrated Napoleon Bonaparte, After this he made another attempt on
whose exploits are still fresh in every meEgypt, but without success; the haughty mory. Educated a Catholic, he renounced Romans ordering him instantly to leave all revealed religion, though he liberally that country. He then again turned bis tolerated all. “The God of forces," howrevenge upon the Jews : slew many, wasted ever, was the idol of bis idolatry, and he is their city, and built a fortress near the
said to have dedicated a military chapel temple to prevent them from attending on to the god Mars. Io 1799, he turned his its worship. (1 Mac. i. 41. &c.) Thus was arms against the holy land, and invaded the temple deserted, and the daily sacrifice Syria. He then, by a series of rapid sucdiscontinued. Soon after this Antiochus cesses, made himself master of Egypt, issued a decree for a uniformity of worship,
where he professed the faith of Mahomet; and (of course) the suppression of the and imposed taxes to maintain his army, Jewish religion.
Many commentators which was recruited from all the conquered however extevd this (at least in a secondary countries. Here he is alarmed by the view) to the final pollution of the temple,
preparations of the Turks and the Pacha and its destruction, by the Romaus; and
or Damascus: bence he passes to the holy to the persecutions which then followed, land, and pitches his camp between the as well on the Christians as the Jews.
Dead Sea and the Mediterranean.-II When it is here said they that under- 1808, he is resisted by the Spaniards in itand shall instruct many," it is naturally
the south, and driven beyond the Pyrenisked, how can this be applied to ihe pious nees; he is afterwards attacked by Austrir lews in the time of Antiochus? Did they on the south, Russia and Germany on the abour to make proselytes to Moses ? Per- north, and dies in exile at St. Helena, aps not: but did not their example instruct (See Brit. Rev. No. 48, p. 450.) nany? and did not, in fact, many Chris
(and last judgment
. 3 And they that be wise shall shine complished to scatter the power of the as the brightness of the firmament; holy people, all these things shall be and they that turn many to righteous- finished. ness as the stars for ever and ever. 8 And I heard, but I understood
4 But thou, O Daniel, shut up the not: then said I, O my Lord, what words, and seal the book, even to the shall be the end of these things? time of the end : many shall run to 9 And he said, Go thy way, and fro, and knowledge shall be in Daniel : for the words are closed up creased.
and sealed till the time of the end. 5 Then I Daniel looked, and, be- 10 Many shall be purified, and hold, there stood other two, the one on made white, and tried ; but the wicked this side of the bank of the river, and shall do wickedly; and none of the the other on that side of the bank of wicked shall understand ; but the wise the river,
shall understand, 6 And one said to the man clothed 11 And from the time that the in linen, which was upon the waters of daily sacrifice shall be taken away, the river, How long shall it be to the and the abomination that maketh deend of these wonders ?
solate set up, there shall be a thousand 7 And I heard the man clothed in two hundred and ninety days. linen, which was upon the waters of 12 Blessed is he that waiteth, and the river, when he held up his right cometh to the thousand three hundred hand and his left hand unto heaven, and five and thirty days. and sware by him that liveth for ever 13 But go thou thy way till the end that it shall be for a time, times, and be: for thou shalt rest, and stand in an half; and when he shall have ac- thy lot at the end of the days. (R)
among the mysteries which yet“ remain (R) The prophecies summed up by a re- be fulfilled " in the latter ages : and we ference to the resurrection and last judg- are here still hurried on in the vorter of ment. We have been obliged to place the Scripture prophecy to the second coming concluding verses of the preceding chapter of our Lord,'to the resurrection of the
NOTES. CHAP. XII. Ver. 1. Michael.-Lightfoot, Hors- 80 many years, as in verses 11 and 12. Park ley, Witsius, Faber, and many others, apply this to shall have accomplished to scallet, &c. - Watie our Saviour, Christ; but Mede, Warburton, and reads (and Boothroyd to the same effect), And other learned men, explain it of a created angel. alter the accomplishment of the dispersions of the Preb. Towosend's 0. T. Arr. vol. ii. p. 722. The holy people (i. e. Israel), all these things shall be common explanation of Michael is, “ one like God," fulfilled." This is the same period, it should be it but nothing can be argued from Hebrew names. collected, which is ascribed to the little hom," the Gabriel signifies “ The strong God;" Elijah, “God Roman Antichrist, in chap. vii, 25. the Lord;"' and Elisha, “ God the Saviour," &c. Ver. ll. One thousand two hundred and pinety
Ibid. Such as nerer nas. See Matt. xxiv. 21; days.- This again is the same period, differentis el. Rev. xvi. 18.-Written in the book — that is, of pressed; for three years and a half, or 30 days eact, God's remembrance. See Mal. iii, 16; Luke x, 20, make just 1260 days. As the prophecies of tuese t** &c.; Rev. xx. 12.
last chapters refer chiefly to the Eastern empire, Ver. 2. Many of them-Wintle, “Multitudes that while the little horn, chap. vii., refers evidenti; * sleep," &c. Compare John v. 28.
the west, commentators have distinguished between Ver. 3. They that be wise- Marg.“ Teachers ;" the east and Western Antichrist, referring the fermet the same word as used chap. xi. 33. " They tbat un. to Mahomet, and the latter to the Pope, both bariog derstand shall instruct many."
arisen about the same time ; that is, the western AsVer. 5. Upon the bank-ileb.“ Lip," or margin. tichrist assumed bis temporal authority, which made
him a prophetic beast, in 606, and Mahone, *.
Ver. 6. Upon (Marg. " above") the waters. - It should be remembered that these are represented as
cording to Prideaux, in the same year began the augelic, or aerial beings, who could walks equally well forgery of his Koran. If we date 12 years from on water as on land. Ver. 7. His right hand and left.-It was the usual
this period (as does Bp. Newton and most medera
commentators), it will bring us to A. D. 186, toward form of swearing to lift up one hand, and usually the close of the present century, by lulet ne the right; but we recolleci no other instance of list. many expect, and more hope, that both powery sad ing up both; it is supposed to give emphasis.--For a Mahomeianism will be overthrowo. If we dare the stime, times, &c.- Mr. Wintle has shown, that both
1290 days in this chapter froin the same penad. the New Testament and Classic writers use times (or will bring us to very near the close of the prescat
seasons) for years ; so we sometimes say, so many utsuminers, or winters. These years usually consisted
century, when we hope the ruins of both establis. of 360 days, prophetically used for years. Thus
ments may be cleared aray; perhaps also the less
converted, and return to their own land, and the three years and a hall, or 1261 days, will stand for blessed period alluded to in ver. 12, may be the ETE
The vision sealed]
[to the end.
EXPOSITION. dead, and to the day of judgment. Michael, one asked the recording angel, How long the prince, is generally understood to shall it be to the end of these wonders ? be the Son of God himself, who, under the The answer is still clothed in mystical lanOld Testament, often appeared as captain guage : " For a time, times, and half a of the Lord's hosts, and of his people's time," at the end of which, all these things salvation.
shall be fulfilled. The first verse brings us to the eve of On the numbers here given in the 11th the general resurrection and final judg, and 12th verses, Dr. Boothroyd thus rement; when the books are opened, and marks: “ Here is a fixed point at which all found written in the book of life (or to begin our calculation ; but it is still difmercy) shall be delivered. But hark! the ficult to determine when this period comtrumpet sounds, and the graves are opened! menced. The taking away the daily sacriAnd the many, the multitudes of them who fice, and setting up the abomination of desleep in the dust of the earth, are awakened, solation, may be applied to various similar sonie to “everlasting life, and some to events. The profanation of the temple by everlasting contempt and shaine." But Epiphanes is said to be this setting up, the discovery is premature; the scene is (1 Mac. i. 54), and our Lord applies it to instantly closed : -the words are shut up, the destruction of the temple by the Roand the book is sealed. One important fact, mans. (Matt. xxiv. 15.) Some date it from however, is left revealed; "Many shall the rise of Antichrist, and suppose the suu to and fro," hither and thither, like 30 years more respected the period when couriers in the time of war,
“ and know- the Jews will be converted, and the latter ledge shall be increased :" knowledge of 45, the time when the fulness of the Genthe most important kiod, the knowledge of tiles shall be brought in." God's salvation. Then, those who are wise But if Daniel heard and understood not, themselves, shall endeavour to enlighten we surely need not blush to own our iguoothers; to “ turn them from darkness to rance. Two things, however, are perfectly light," and from sin to righteousness; and clear: 1. That the end of all the changes those who are thus active, whether to in- and revolutions in the world, is the purifitruct infants at home, or Pagans abroad, cation of the church from error and from hall shine with the splendour of the tirma- sin; and, 2. That at the final close of all nent, and as the stars for ever. Here is these transactions, every good man will ertainly the best encouragement to minis- have an honourable lot assigued to him erial and missionary exertions, for what- among those that are redeemed and puriver may be the labours and trials of such fied. In the mean time, it is our duty to be n earth, “ great is their reward in hea. diligent in studying the Scriptures, and en."
active in promoting the great euds of prą. These things “ the angels desire to look vidence, as there revealed, but not too to" (1 Peter i. 12), and therefore, while curious to pry between the sacred leaves hey were walking on either side the river, which God has “ closed and sealed.”
NOTES. the Millennium, which is generally expected to Sir Isaac and Bp. Newton bare reckoned them as inimeoce with the 7000th year of the world, as we prophetic years, they may possibly terminate with all have farther occasion to remark.
some of the other periods. However, we have no As to the 2300 days in chap. viii. 14, we have re- disposition to prognosticate ; " Blessed is he that arked above (see Note ere), they may probably waiteth!"
literally intended: but since men so great as ODENDA TO CHAP. IX., Ver. 24–27. and reckons the first week as completed We have given the above as the most in the building of the temple; but this nerally received interpretation, and pro- week, he considers as previous to, and bly the true one, though attended with forming no part of the 70 weeks, which he usiderable difficulties. Some of these commences from the completion, and not em to be avoided (thongh others may the foundation, of the temple; and termi.
created) by commencing the calcula- nates with its destruction in A. D. 70. In n in the 20th of Artaxerxes, when orders this view, he applies the whole of ver. 26 re given for rebuilding the city as well to the Messiah, the middle clause of which the temple. The great difficulty, how- he thus renders: “And he (Messialı) shall P, regards the last week of years, when destroy the city and the sanctuary with
Romans destroyed the temple, and the leader which cometh (Titus): and his ich, instead of following the death of end shall be with an inundation, &c. (p.42.) essiah within seven years, was almost 40 ars after that event.
We mention this hypothesis merely to in order to avoid this difficulty, Dr. Sto. recommend it to examination, for which we ad divides the prophecy into two parts,
have here no room.
THE BOOK OF THE PROPHET
HOS E A.
INTRODUCTION. HOSEA, the first in order of the twelve minor Prophets, (whose writings sometime made a separate volume) exercised his office in the kingdom of Israel much about the same time that Isaiah exercised his in the kingdom of Judab, and probably longer. “ His prophecies are chiefly (but by no means exclusively) directed to the ten tribes, before their captivity, reproving them for their sins, exhorting them to repentance, and threatening them with destruction, in case of impenitence; but comforting the pious with the promise of the Messiah, and of the happy state of the church in the latter days. His style is so abrupt, sententious, and concise, that it borders sometimes on obscurity. And how should it not, when the subjects of 60 years' prophecy are condensed into a few pages? But it is, in many places, moving and pathetic, and, not seldom, beautiful and sublime. Hosea is a bold reprover, not only of the vices of the people, but also of their kings, princes, and priests. Like most other of the Hebrew prophets, however, he tempers bis denunciations of vengeance with promises of mercy; and the transition: froin the one to the other, are often sudden and unexpected. He is generally supposed to have prophecied from the year 785 to 725, before the Christian Era.” Dr. Jr. Smith.
Through all the minor Prophets, we shall pay constant attention to Abp. Newcome ; an! upon this prophet in particular to Bp. Horsley, who is one of its latest and ables: critics and commentators. The book is poetically rendered by all the modera transiators, and the poetry is of the most ancient cast : "pointed, energetic, and concise;" says Bp. Lowth.
Before we enter upon our Exposition, we may here briefly consider a question which will necessarily meet us in the very entrance of the book. “Was Hosea directed to and did he really, marry a wife of whoredom? or is this only to be considered as a vision, as some think, or a parable, as others ?" Abp. Newcome seems to consider it as a fact, and Bp. Horsley is most decidedly of that opinion. We confess that we are not food of resolving all the prophetic actions into mere visionary transactions, nor do we see any necessity for so doing in the present instance. The Prophet is not ordered to commit either adultery or fornication, but to marry; nor does it appear that the woman persevered in her criminality. The fact seems to us, that she had been previously married, during which connexion she had been criminal with another man; and actually had, at this time, children living with her, who had been born in adultery. This woman, who had been an adulteress, and these children of adultery, he is commanded to receive into his family; but there is no intimatiou of her being false to him; and a change of character may, we think, fairly be presumed. It may be said to have been an unseenly counexion ; but the divine command justifies it; and all who knew of the Prophet's conduct would, of course, know the reason of it, and the authority on which he acted.
Bp. Horsley is, indeed, of opinion, that she was also unfaithful to the Prophet afterwards, which made her the more correct type of the Jewish Church. Of this, borever, we see no necessity, since the object was to teach them, not to practice, but to abbas idolatry:
him, Call her name Lo-ruhamah: for I CHAP. I.
will no more have mercy upon the THE HE word of the Lord that came house of Israel ; but I will utterly take
unto Hosea, the son of Beeri, in them away. the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz,
7 But I will have mercy upon the and Hezekiah, kings of Judah; and in house of Judah, and will save them by the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, the LORD their God; and will not save king of Israel.
them by bow, nor by sword, nor by 2 The beginning of the word of the battle, by horses, nor by horsemen. Lord by Hosea. And the Lord said 8 Now when she had weaned Loto Hosea, Go, take unto thee a wife of ruhama, she conceived, and bare a whoredoms and children of whoredoms: for the land hath committed 9 Then said God, Call his name great whoredom, departing from the Lo-ammi: for ye are not my people, Lord.
and I will not be your God. 3 So he went and took Gomer the 10 Yet the number of the children daughter of Diblaim; which conceiv- of Israel shall be as the sand of the ed, and bare him a son.
sea, which cannot be measured nor 4 And the LORD said unto him, numbered ; and it shall come to pass, Call his name Jezreel; for yet a little that in the place where it was said while, and I will avenge the blood unto them, Ye are not my people, there of Jezreel upon the house of Jehu, and it shall be said unto them, Ye are the will cause to cease the kingdom of the sons of the living God. house of Israel.
11 Then shall the children of Judah 5 And it shall come to pass at that and the children of Israel be gathered day, that I will break the bow of Israel together, and appoint themselves one in the valley of Jezreel.
head, and they shall come up out of 6 And she conceived again, and the land : for great shall be the day of bare a daughter. And God said unto Jezreel. (A)
instead of this, however, they had long (A) The Prophet commanded to marry an addicted themselves to spiritual fornication, adulieress, that he might have children by or idolatry. The names here given to the zer, affording figurative instruction.-Un- Prophet's children, are all emblematical. ler the figure of a wife proving false to her The first is intended to put Israel in mind arriage vows, and bearing children likely of their unrepented guilt, and the acts of
follow her example, the Prophet repre- cruelty committed in their palace of Jezreel. ents the shameful idolatry of Israel, (1 Kings xxi. 1.) The second and third, hich provoked God to cast them off. The signifying “ Not finding mercy," and
hole passage contains information by ac. “ Not my people," denote that, in conseon, instead of words. The Lord had been quence of their guilt, they were to be rehusband unto Israel, and they owed him jected and disowned by God. He promises, e fidelity of a wife to a tender husband; however, to repair the loss to his church,
NOTES. CHAP. J. Ver. 2. Great whoredom--that is, idol- And will cause to cease. See 2 Kings xv. 8-12, 29. See Deut. xxxi. 16.
Ver. 5. Break the bow - that is, the military Ver. 4. And the Lord said .. Call his name Jezreei. strength. It is supposed, either that King Zecha. This name is differently interpreted; either, "the riali died in this valley (Jezreel), or that some signal
d of God” (which is adopted by Bp. Horsley), or, defeat was here sustained. Eod will sow,'' which is preferred by Dr. Booth- Ver. 6. Lo-ruhumah – that is, according to our d, as meaning that God would scatter Israel over margin, “ Not having obtained mercy.”-For I the earth, as a sower scatters seed. See ch.ji. 23. will no more hare mercy-Heb. "I will not add any bid. I will avenge the blood of Jezreel - Not more to," &c. - But I will utterly-Newcome, death of Jezebel in Jezreel, for he was command- “surely;" Heb.“ Taking, I will take them away.' o destroy the house of Ahab (2 Kings ix. 7-10); Ver. 7. Not save them by bon, &c. See 2 Kings his cruelty in other instances, while residing at xix. 35.
palace at Jezreel. (1 Kings xxi.) Newcome. Ver. 9. Lo-ammi-Marg. “ Not my people." See red blood seemed to be the delight of Jehu; and 1 Pet. ii. 10.: ae not go beyond his commission 2 Kings x. 11-14 ? Ver. 10. Yet the number, &c.-See Rom. ix. 27, 28.