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The judgment-seat]
DANIEL.

[prepared. the hair of his head like the pure before him: the judgment was set, wool: his throne was like the fiery and the books were opened. flame, and his wheels as burning fire. 11 I beheld then, because of the

10 A fiery stream issued and came voice of the great words which the forth from before him : thousand thou- horn spake; I beheld even till the beast sands ministered unto him, and ten was slain, and his body destroyed, and thousand times ten thousand stood given to the burning fame.

EXPOSITION-Chap. VII. Continued. monuments of Egyptian antiquity, and from colours of its skin, wbich commentators the ruins of Persepolis, where winged explain, as intimating the rapidity of Ales. lious and the like fictitious animals are ander's conquests, (who was the founder still to be seen. These figures are supposed of this Empire,) and the various nations e to have been the emblems of particular which his army was composed. The four nations, and are not more strange than hearls of this beast may well represent the many others still useil iu heraldry.

partition of the Empire after Alexander's The first of these beasts, (like the golden death, under his four captains, Cassander, head in Nebuchadnezzar's dream,) evi- Lysimachus, Ptolemy and Seleucus; and dently intends the Babylonian monarchy, the number of wings answering to the for and is described as a lion with eagles' heads, may perhaps intimate that each of wings, having been before compared to them partook, in some degree, of their those animals separately, both by Jere- master's character and success. miah and Ezekiel. (See Jer. iv.7 ; xlviii. 40; The fourth beast, which represented ibe Ezek. xvii. 3, 12.) When we are informed Roman Empire, was anonymous and nobthat its wiogs had been plucked, we rea- descript. It has no name, and its form is dily understand that its progress bad been the more terrible, from being leit to our checked, and its glory was in the vane, imagination to conjecture. Ji is evident, Its standing on its hind feet as a man, and however, that it was made to raven and having a human heart given to it, may destroy, being suruished with teeth of ines, intimate the beast's approach to reason with nails of brass, and with feet of great and humanity, the proper characteristics strength to tramiple down its prey. But of a man. It may also allude to the circum- its chief peculiarity consisted

in its stances of Nebuchadnezzar himself, who, numerous horns. " It had ten horns," by after being transformed for his punishment which we are taught to understand ten mi. into the figure of a beast, was restored, nor kingdoms, answering to the ten toes on not only to the privileges of humanity, Nebuchadnezzar's image. These kingdoms but to his celebrated rank in society. are variously stated, (as may be seen in our

The second animal here named was a notes,) and cannot, perhaps, at this distacc bear, and represents, as did the silver part of time, be ascertained with certainty; iu of Nebuchadnezzar's image, the combined most ages since, there have been about ibat kingdom of the Medes and Persiaus. This number of inferior states which sprung bear is said to raise himself on one side, out of the Roman Empire (here dubtes on which it is remarked, that at the siege intended); but the most remarkable was of Babylon the Persians were subject to the little horn, which rose after the others, the Medes; but raised themselves in the and is by Protestant Commentators, and person of Cyrus to pre-emiuence. This ani- we think with good reason,) explained of inal was furnished with what our translators the ecclesiastical dominion of the Pepære or call three ribs, but which, from their situa. Bishop of Rome. This is described by its tion in the mouth, should be either tusks small beginning; it was “a little horn;" or rou's of teeth. The last idea agrees with by its pretensions to wisdom, for this little the command given to “devour inuch born had the eyes, that is, the discernment flesh,” and is quite in harmony with the of a man; a tongue also "speaking, great nature of the animal, which is remarkably things.” Of this little born, we shall have voracious.

occasion to speak more particularly when The third beast was a leopard, with four we come to St. Paul's "Man of Sin," and heads, and four wings of a fowl, or bird to the mystical beasts of St. John in the rather; and this is understood to represent Apocalypse. (See 2 Thess. i. 3, &c.; Rev. the Macedonian Empire. This animal xiii. xvii. and xix.) was swift of foot, and variegated in the

NOTES—Chap. VII. Con. Ver. 10. A fiery stream.--See Ps. 1. 3; xcvii. 3. St. John as a false prophet, in league with the best,

Ver. 11. The beast was slain. - The same power and doomed to the same terrible end. See Rer. here represented as a little horn, is represented by xix. 20.

The kingdom)

CHAP. VII.

[of the Messiah. 12 As concerning the rest of the came up, and before whom three fell ; beasts, they had their dominion taken even of that horn that had eyes, and a away; yet their lives were prolonged mouth that spake very great things, for a season and time.

whose look was more stout than his 13 I saw in the night visions, and, fellows. behold, one like the Son of man came 21 I beheld, and the same horn with the clouds of heaven, and came to

made war with the saints, and prevailed the Ancient of days, and they brought against them; him near before him.

22 Until the Ancient of days came, 14 And there was given him domi- and judgment was given to the saints nion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all of the most High; and the time came people, nations, and languages, should that the saints possessed the kingdom. serve him: his dominion is an ever- 23 Thus he said, The fourth beast lasting dominion, which shall not pass shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, away, and his kingdom that which which shall be diverse from all kingshall not be destroyed.

doms, and shall devour the whole earth, 15 I Daniel was grieved in my spi- and shall tread it down, and break it rit in the midst of my body, and the in pieces. visions of my head troubled me.

24 And the ten horns out of this 16 I came near unto one of them kingdom are ten kings that shall arise : that stood by, and asked hinı the truth and another shall rise after them; and of all this. So he told me, and made he shall be diverse from the first, and me know the interpretation of the he shall subdue three kings. hings.

25 And he shall speak great words 17 These great beasts, which are against the most High, and shall wear our, are four kings, which shall arise out the saints of the most High, and ut of the earth.

think to change times and laws: and 18 But the saints of the most High they shall be given into bis hand until hall take the kingdom, and possess the a tirne and times and the dividing of ingdom for ever, even for ever and time. Ter.

26 But the judgment shall sit, and 19 Then I would know the trulh of they shall take away his dominion, to ne fourth beast, which was diverse consume and to destroy it unto the end. om all the others, exceeding dreadful, 27 And the kingdom and dominion, hose teeth were of iron, and his nails and the greatness of the kingdom . brass ; which devoured, brake in under the whole heaven, shall be given eces, and stamped the residue with to the people of the saints of the most s feet;

High, whose kingdom is an everlasting 20 And of the ten horns that were kingdom, and all dominions shall serve his head, and of the other which and obey him.

NOTES. er, 12, The rest of the beasts.-We learn from Ver. 16. The truth – that is, the true meaning of verse, compared with the 6th, that no earthly all this.-So Boothroyd. See ver. 19. ce can either acquire or retain dominion, other- Ver. 18. The saints of the Most High-Chal. “ of e than from God. Sec John xix. 1). These all the High Ones;" referring doubtless to ibe blessed iheir dominion taken away, yet their lires were Trinity. onged -Chal. “A prolonging of life was given Ver. 21. Made nar with the saints. - See Rer. hem" for a season and time-Boothroyd, ** For xiii.7. ppointed time."

Ver. 22. The saints possessed the kingdom - that er. 13. Oue like the son of man.-One in human is, the kingdom of the Messiah was established. -, though riding on the clouds of heaven. Com. Ver. 23. Devour the whole farth -- the Romans Watt. xxiv. 30.

bosster the conquest of the world. See Loke ii. 1, T. 15. In the midst of my body..-Chal." sheath ;" Ver. 25. Wear out the saints-that is, with exac. he body, according to Aben Ezra, may be con- tions and oppressions. --Until a lime (i. e, a year), ed as the sheath of the mind, as one said to times (two years), and the dividing of time, that is, ander the Great,

half a year, making in the whole three prophetic inst thou not know that man's exterior form years and a ball. See chap. xii. 7. but the scabbard to the enlivening mind."

Ver. 28. Hitherto (at this place) is the end of the Orient. Lit. No. 1053. matter--that is, of the angel's explanation.

Daniel's second]

DANIEL.

(prophetic vision 28 Hitherto is the end of the mat- in a vision, and I was by the river of ter. As for me, Daniel, my cogitations Ulai. much troubled me, and my countenance 3 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and changed in me : but I kept the matter saw, and, behold, there stood before in my heart. (L)

the river a ram which had two hords:

and the two horns were high; but one CHAP. VIII.

was higher than the other, and the IN IN the third year of the reign of higher came up last.

king Belshazzar a vision appeared 4 I saw the ram pushing westward, unto me, even unto me Daniel, after and northward, and southward; so that that which appeared unto me at the no beasts might stand before him, first.

neither was there any that could de2 And I saw in a vision; and it liver out of his hand; but he did accame to pass, when I saw, that I was cording to his will, and became great. at Shushan in the palace, which is in 5 And as I was considering, behold, the province of Elam; and I saw an he-goat came from the west on the

EXPOSITION-Chap. VII. Continued. (L) Ver. 9–28. The establishment of tended in both places. Here indeed, we Messiah's kingdom.-We now come to a fifth have him only in one view, and that is, in Monarchy, answerable to the stone that his judicial capacity, or in the most conNebuchadnezzar saw grow into a mountain. spicuous manifestation of his kingdum. But it is here represented by a very differ. Not that he then began to be, but to appear ent set of images. Heaven is opened, and to be, so great. And his greatness was er: presents a vision of the Eternal preparing bibited only to the one purpose explained his throne for judgment; not the universal in this vision. It was newly explained, judgment of the great day; but the judg. why the fourth beast was destroyed, and ia ment of the nations, preparatory to the so exemplary a manner; now the visi a establishment of Messiah's Mediatorial opens by whom, and how it was done; even Sovereignty over all the earth. It seems by a man vested with royal diguity and to have special reference to his Ascension power in heaven. The truth of the thing to glory, when it was said unto him, “ Sit is set forth in the solemnity where with thou at my right hand until I make thine earthly princes were wont to associate the enemies thy footstool.” (Comp. Ps. ii. 6, prince royal into sovereignty with them. &c.; Ixviii. 17, 18.; cx.1.) The apparatus of selves; or 10 delegate their whole authority Deity is similar to the descriptions of the for the execution of their justice. I be kell Psalmist, and to the burning wheels that (saith he) till the thrones were placed, as accompanied the chariot of the cherubim, they were on very great occasious, and the (Ezek. ch. i.)

Ancient of days did sit ;.. ..and, bekord, This scene is so admirably explained in one like the Son of man, (the King's sua; a few lines by Bp. Chandler, that we can- came in the clouds of heaven, and Lacy not withhold the passage froin our readers. brought him before Him (the Ancient of “There is no doubt, that the Stone in the days), to take investiture of his new dignity former vision (Nebuchadvezzar's) signities (as mediator]....his universal and everthe same person that is called the Son of lasting kingdom.” (Bp. Chandler's Dei. Man in this, or that the Messiah is in

p. 130.)

NOTES. CHAP. VIII. Ver. 1. In the third year, &c. - Ver. 5. An he.goat. This is a very proper eteWith the preceding chapter ends the Chaldec part of blem of the Greeks, or Macedonians, *bo were the book, the rest is Hebrew.

called the Ægeadze, or people of the goat, frarn the Ver. 2.' At Shushan, &c.--Commentators diffi'r as following circumstance, as related by their RA to the lact, wbether Daniel was personally there, as historians. Caranus, tijeir fist king, going with a he might be, officially; or whether it was in vision large party of Greeks to seek a habitation is use. only: the point is unimportant.

donia, was commanded by the oracle which they can Ver. 4. A ram-Hleb. * One ram.” It is remarked sulted, to follow a beri of goats; this he ta by Ammianus Marcellinus, that a ram was the royal Euessa, and there fixed his capital, which be eal ensign of Persia ; and it is said that figures of rams' gra, or. Goal's Town, and made the goal is Djeads, with horns of unequal height, are still to be standard. One of Alexande.'s sons was seen in the ruins of Persepolis. Throughout the Agus, and some of his successors are represents : East, a born was the emblem of power, as we have had frequent occasion to remark. See Orient. Lit.

with goats' horns upon their coins-Arele Ale tera

-Heb. " A born of sight,” or a conspicuous 153, No. 1054. Ibid. Pushing westward, to the bounds of Asia ;

which is afterwards explained in reference to Aless

der the Great and his successors, ver. 31. northward, to Annenia and Cappadocia; and soulas nard, to Egypt. Bp. Newton.

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Of the ran]
CHAP. VIII.

[and he-goat. n. ni lo face of the whole earth, and touched and the place of his “sanctuary was

not the ground : and the goat had a cast down. s notable horn between his eyes.

12 And an host was given

him 6 And he came to the ram that had against the daily sacrifice by reason of two horns, which I had seen standing transgression, and it cast down the truth before the river, and ran unto him in to the ground; and it practised, and the fury of his power.

prospered. 7 And I saw him come close unto 13 Then I heard one saint speaking, the ram, and he was moved with cho- and another saint said unto that cerler against him, and smote the ram, tain saint which spake, How long shall and brake his two horns : and there be the vision concerning the daily sawas no power in the ram to stand before crifice, and the transgression of desohim, but he cast him down to the lation, to give both the sanctuary and ground, and stamped upon him: and the host to be trodden under foot? there was none that could deliver the 14 And he said unto me, Unto two ram out of his hand.

thousand and three hundred days; then 8 Therefore the he-goat waxed very shall the sanctuary be cleansed. great: and when he was strong, the 15 And it came to pass, when I,

great horn was broken; and for it came even I Daniel, had seen the vision, and stup

up four notable ones toward the four sought for the meaning, then, behold, winds of heaven.

there stood before me as the appearance 9 And out of one of them came

of a man. forth a little horn, which waxed ex- 16 And I heard a man's voice beceeding great, toward the south, and tween the banks of Ulai, which called, toward the east, and toward the plea- and said, Gabriel, make this man to saat land.

understand the vision, 10 And it waxed great, even to the 17 So he came near where I stood : host of heaven; and it cast down some and when he came, I was afraid, and of the host and of the stars to the fell upon my face: but he said unto ground, and stamped upon them. me, Understand, O son of man: for

11 Yea, he magnified himself even at the time of the end shall be the o the prince of the host, and by him vision. he daily sacrifice was taken away, 18 Now as he was speaking with

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NOTES. Cer. 9. And out of one of them, &c.- From this will be found but little, compared with what the Roo increasing toward the south and east particu- mans did, for which we must refer to our Exposition y, Sir Isaac Newton sagaciously infers, that it of our Lord's prophecies respecting the destruction e in the north-west part of the goat's dominions ; of Jerusalem. Matt. xxiv. in Italy, which points directly to the Romans. Ver. 13. That certain saint - Heb. (Palmoni) a The pleasant land - means, undoubtedly, that certain one, or such an one. Ruth iv. 2. It is a adea, See Ezek. XX. 6.

compound word, but there seems no sufficient au1. 10. And it wared great even to – that is, thority for the marginal gloss, a numberer of se. > be imagined himself iromortal, and ranked crets.' See Gesenius. - How long shall be the If among the gods. See Isa. xiv. 12-14. An- vision concerning?-In this question it may be res Epiphanes, to whom this has been generally marked that the word concerning is supplied by our 1, abolished the Jewish sacrifices, and, after translators in Italics, and, as Bp. Newton thinks, imeing a swine upon the altar of barnt-offering, properly; he therefore reads, * How long shall the ute it, he placed there an image of Jupiter vision last, the daily sacrifice (be taken away), and ius.

Il cast down some : - Antiochus de- the transgression of desolation (or transgression le high priest, and persecuted to death those making desolate) continue? (See Matt. xxiv. 15.) hered to the Jewish worship. See 1 Mac. i. Wintle and Boothroyd to the same eflect. vi. and vii.; also Joseph. Antiq. b. xii. 6. Ver. 14. Days-Heb. “ Evenings and mornings," 1. The prince of the host-nainely, the Lord See Gen. i. 5, 6, 13, &c. Those who apply this pre

And by him-Marg. " from him;"' i.e. diction to Autiochus, must contine it to the last six e of the host. So Wintle and Boothroyil. years of his life: but those who take the days for : And an host was given-Antiochus placed years, bring down the period nearly to the supposed

or garrison, in the temple, to prevent the time of the millennium. See on chap. xii. — Then Corship. The word him is not in the He

shall the sanctuary be cleansed-Marg. “ Justified ;' -By reason of transgression-Wintle," By i. e. (says Gesenius) its honour be maintained.” ansgression;" more literally, “ in wicked- Ver 17. All the time" To (lamed) the time ; 1.P.

rebellion.- Cast down the truth-by de- the vision extends to the end.” Boothroyd renders he sacred books, 1 Mac. i. 56.

it, “ At the appointed time shall the vision be acantiochus did, however, in the suppression complished." But is not this rather an expository wish worship and persecution of ille Jews, paraphrase than a translatica? Seo ver. 19.

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Visions of the]

DANIEL.

(latter days me, I was in a deep sleep on my face 24 And his power shall be mighty, toward the ground : but he touched but not by his own power: and he shall me, and set me upright.

destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper

, 19 And he said, Behold, I will make and practise, and shall destroy the thee know what shall be in the last mighty and the holy people. end of the indignation: for at the time 25 And through his policy also he appointed the end shall be.

shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; 20 The ram which thou eawest and he shall magnify himself in his having two horns are the kings of heart, and by peace shall destroy maes; Media and Persia.

he shall also stand up against the Prince 21 And the rough goat is the king of princes; but he shall be broken of Grecia: and the great horn that is without hand. between his eyes is the first king. 26 And the vision of the evening

22 Now that being broken, whereas and the morning which was told four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall true: wherefore shut thou up the vistand up out of the nation, but not in sion ; for it shall be for many days.

27 And I Daniel fainted, and a 23 And in the latter time of their sick certain days; afterward / rose kingdom, when the transgressors are up, and did the king's business; and I come to the full, a king of fierce coun- was astonished at the vision, but dont tenance, and understanding dark sen- understood it. (M) tences, shall stand up.

his power.

EXPOSITION.
CHAP. VIII.

army, under Alexander the Great, rushed (M) The Vision of the Ram and He- against him and broke his horns. goat.-This visiou is, in the latter part of This goat is said to have a third and ihe chapter, explained by a celestial expo- notable horn between bis eyes, which is sitor, to refer to the Persian and Greek explained as referring to the first kingdom, monarchies. The propriety of the emblems or to the dynasty of Alexander binself may be seen in our notes; we shall ouly (ver. 21); and it is remarkable, that wbes here observe, that the ram was the royal he went to Jerusalem with au hostile intenensign of Persia, and the goat the accre- tion, but was pacified by Ineeting the High dited emblem of the Greeks, two centuries Priest, Josephus tells us (Antiq. Bk, si. before the time of Daniel. The ram had 8.) that these prophecies were shown to two horns of unequal height, representing him in the temple, in the Greek transisthe Medo-Persian Empire, and answering tion, as predicting the conquest of the to the former emblem of the bear (ch. vii. Medes and Persians by a Greek, which he 5.) which raised itself on one side ; i. e. applied to himself, and was not a little ani. the Persian Empire under Cyrus raised mated thereby. itself above the Medes, and pushed its This horn was soon broken by the death conquests on every siile as far as possible. of Alexander and the murder of his bein A he-goat, however, is seeu coming from a few years after this, however, four borus the west, evidently pointing to the Greek of inferior strength arose instead of one, or Macedonian Empire. The rapidity of From four of his commanders, as meu tiobes its advance is well described by his flying, in chap. vii., proceeded the kingdoms of or skimming as it were, over the ground, Greece, Thrace, Syria and Egypt. Out of so as not to touch it; and the energy of one of these arose agother " little hori," this attack upon the ram may well de- which many writers, both ancient and moscribe the fury with which the Greciau dern, have interpreted of Antiochus Epi.

NOTES—Chap. VIII. Con. Ver. 18. A deep sleep-Wintle and Boothroyd, “I rary as well as a warlike nation. sunk fiat into a deep swoon.” —- Set me upright Ver. 24. Not by his onn power-that is, Duby Heb.“ Made me stand upon my standing."

strength derived from the parent goat (Greece), Ver. 19. At the time appointed the end shall be from Tialy. Newton. -- Tke holy people - H Wintle, “ There shall be an end."

" People of the holy ones ;” perhaps ihe Trists, Ver. 23. When the transgressors are come to the ch. vii. 18, full-Heb. “ Accomplished.” See Matt. xxiii. 32. Ver. 25. By peace--Boothroyd, “In peace."

Of fierce countenance--Deut. xxviii. 5.-Un- The Prince of princes--that is, Messiah. -rta derstanding dark sayings-the Romans were a lite. without hand. See chap. ii. 34, 45.

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