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me.

Nebuchadnezzar's]

DANIEL.

[vision of a tree, guages, that dwell in all the earth; visions of my dream that I have seen, Peace be multiplied unto you. and the interpretation thereof.

2 I thought it good to shew the signs 10 Thus were the visions of mine and wonders that the high God hath head in my bed; I saw, and behold a wrought toward me.

tree in the midst of the earth, and the 3 How great are his signs! and height thereof was great. how mighty are his wonders! his king- il The tree grew, and was strong, dom is an everlasting kingdom, and and the height thereof reached unto his dominion is from generation to ge- heaven, and the sight thereof to the neration.

end of all the earth. 4'I Nebuchadnezzar was at rest in 12 The leaves thereof were fair, mine house, and flourishing in my and the fruit thereof much, and in it palace:

was meat for all : the beasts of the 5 I saw a dream which made me field had shadow under it, and the afraid, and the thoughts upon my bed fowls of the heaven dwelt in the bougts and the visions of my head troubled thereof, and all flesh was fed of it.

13 I saw in the visions of my head 6 Therefore made I a decree to upon my bed, and, behold, a watcher bring in all the wise men of Babylon and an holy one came down from before me, that they might make known heaven; unto me the interpretation of the 14 He cried aloud, and said thus, dream.

Hew down the tree, and cut off his 7 Then came in the magicians, the branches, shake off his leaves, and astrologers, the Chaldeans, and the scatter his fruit: let the beasts get soothpayers: and I told the dream be- away from under it, and the fowls from fore them ; but they did not make his branches: known unto the interpretation 15 Nevertheless leave the stump of thereof.

his roots in the earth, even with a 8 But at the last Daniel came in band of iron and brass, in the tender before me, whose name was Belte- grass of the field; and let it be wet shazzar, according to the name of my with the dew of heaven, and let his god, and in whom is the spirit of the portion be with the beasts in the grass holy gods: and before him I told the of the earth : dream, saying,

16 Let his heart be changed from 9 0 Belteshazzar, master of the man's, and let a beast's heart be given magicians, because I know that the unto him; and let seven times pass spirit of the holy gods is in thee, and over him. no secret troubleth thee, tell me the

17 This matter is by the decree of

me

NOTES. CHAP. IV. Ver. J. Peace be mulipliedma usual dicate it; meaning, that during his disease form of address, as appenrs from comparing ch. vi. 25. Ver. 2. I thought it good-Chald. “ It was seemly

foreign power should be su tiered to seize his kington before me.'

To render this verse more perspicuous, Dr. Boedd Ver. 4. Al rest-here means, at ease and in peace. Ver. 8. According to the name of my god—that is,

introduces the masenline pronoun he, instead of Bel. See chap. i. 7.—The spirit of the holy gods.

The passage then rends, In (or with the tender --Nebuchadnezzar, it is evident, was to this lime an

grass of the field he shall be wet with the des idolater, and seerns to have entertained very con.

heaven, and his portion shall be with the beasts in fused notions of the divinity. “Perhaps (says Dr.

the grass of the earth." Boothroyd) he thought his own god the same as

Ver. 16, Let his heart be changed from man's Daniel's, under another name.”

Wintle, “His heart shall be changed from the ba Ver. 16. I saw — Chald. “I was seeing."

man;" i. e. he shail be deprived of his under

In the midst of the earlk-or land.

standing, which was the case; and he appears Ver. 11. Reuched unto heaven-An hyperbole for

have become “ a wild man of the words, fan very high. See Gen. xi. 4; Deut. i. 28 ; Job xx. 6;

with the beasts of toe forest un fruits and vegetables, 2 Chron. xxviii.9.

and exposed to all the inclemency of the weather. Ver. 13. Anarcher and an holy one. See on ver. 17.

Perhaps those who assumed the gorernment care Ver. 14. Cried aloud - Chald. “ With might,” or

themselves no trouble to prevent this; and maas, mightily.

we know, can endure a great deal of wet andet Ver. 15. With a band of iron, &c.- that is, se. ers.-By the watchers are onerally updentsud 2

Ver. 17. This molter is by the decree of 1er mird care it to the ground, that no human force may era.

gels, and particularly guardian Angels, which wie

men.

And its]

CHAP. IV.

(interpretation. the watchers, and the demand by the answered and said, My lord, the dream word of the holy ones: to the intent be to them that hate thee, and the inthat the living may know that the most terpretation thereof to thine enemies. High ruleth in the kingdom of men, 20 The tree that thou sawest, which and giveth it to whomsoever he will, grew, and was strong, whose height and setteth up over it the basest of reached unto the heaven, and the sight

thereof to all the earth; 18 This dream I king Nebuchadnez- 21 Whose leaves were fair, and the zar have seen. Now thou, O Belte- fruit thereof much, and in it was meat shazzar, declare the interpretation for all; under which the beasts of the thereof, forasmuch as all the wise men field dwelt, and upon whose branches of my kingdom are not able to make the fowls of the heaven had their haknown unto me the interpretation ; but bitation: thou art able; for the spirit of the 22 It is thou, O king, that art grown holy gods is in thee. (F)

and become strong: for thy greatness 19 ( Then Daniel, whose name was is

grown, and reacheth unto heaven, Belteshazzar, was astonied for one hour, and thy dominion to the end of the and his thoughts troubled him. The earth. king spake, and said, Belteshazzar, let 23 And whereas the king saw a not the dream, or the interpretation watcher and an holy one coming down thereof, trouble thee. Belteshazzar from heaven, and saying, Hew the tree

EXPOSITION.

the chapter. CHAP. IV.

It may seem strange that,

after having experienced the imbecility of (F) Ver. 1-18. Nebuchadnezzar rclates his Chaldean soothsavers, in respect of his his dream of a great tree, which is inter- former dream, he should again apply to preted by Daniel.-Iu several versions, and them, in preserence to Daniel; but perin some editions of the original, the three haps he might think, as he was still an first verses of this chapter are attached to idolater, that though they could not bring the preceding; they are, however, equally back the lost recollection of his former striking and appropriarc, whether they be dream, yet, hearing the dream related, (as considered as pious reflections, arising they then said,) they might be able to infrom the event just before mentioned, or terpret it; and it appears extraordinary as dictated after his illness and recovery, that this was not attempted. here ahout to be related.

It is possible, however, that the king The dreain here recorded took place, as might wish to try them; and that they, is supposed, ten or tivelve years after the suspecting his real design, dreaded again events of the preceding chapter, an: near to appear, in competition with the illustrithe close of Nebuchadnezzar's life. Hav- ous Prophet. Hin, however, the baughty ug subdued all the neighbouring comtries, monarch addresses in terms not only of and greatly embellished and enriched the respect, but of flattery. “O Belteshazzar, anetropolis in which he resided, he becanje master of the magicians, I know that the intoxicated with self-adıniration and ap- spirit of the holy gods (or rather, of the plause, and in that state of mind saw the Holy God) is in thee." Or it may be, that. vision here related.

Nebuchadnezzar's conscience sinute him, On the dream itself we have little to re- and he feared to receive from Daniel those mark, since we shall find it fully explained reproofs which he deserved, and which in by the Prophet hiinself, in the latter part of the end he did meet with.

NOTES, ceive to be the true sense of the Chaldee term. Bet that the root of this tree should be preserved. Com$ the wor!d governed by the decrees of angels ? pare Isa. xliv. 26. Certainly not; the very test asserts the contrary; for We are aware that Mr. Parkhurst, Bp. Horsley, t says, that the direct object of the decree and de- and others, explain the watchers to be the persons uand is, that the liring (hy wliich we understand of the Holy ?rinityį but we conceive they are exall living) may know that ihe Most High ruleth in pressly distioguished from them by the worils just he kingdom of men. By “the recrce of the qnotri. Dr. Good gives the words a dillerent renTatchers" we therefore understand, the decree dering, but this we concrire unnecessary. (See Good sbieb "the watcher and holy one came down on Job lsvi. &c.) rom heaven (ver. 14) to execute; and the demand Ver. 22. Reachech unto heare.- See N. on ver. 11. shicb these angels were sent to enforce was, that Ver. 23. Tron und brass ---Comp. Note on ver. 15.

>>

they shall

Nebuchadnezzar's]

DANIEL.

(disease and recovery. down, and destroy it; yet leave the might of my power, and for the honour stump of the roots thereof in the earth, of my majesty ? even with a band of iron and brass, 31 While the word was in the in the tender grass of the field ; and king's mouth, there fell a voice from let it be wet with the dew of heaven, heaven, saying, ( king Nebuchadnezand let his portion be with the beastszar, to thee it is spoken ; the kingdom of the tield, till seven times pass over is departed from thee. him.

32 And they shall drive thee from 24 This is the interpretation, O king, men, and thy dwelling shall be with and this is the decree of the most the beasts of the field: High, which is come upon my lord the make thee to eat grass as oxen, are king:

seven times shall pass over thee, until 25 That they shall drive thee from thou know that the most High ruleth in men, and thy dwelling shall be with the kingdom of men, and giveth it to the beasts of the field, and they shall whomsoever he will. make thee to eat grass as oxen, and 33 The same bour was the thing they shall wet thee with the dew of fulfilled upon Nebuchadnezzar: an heaven, and seven times shall pass he was driven from men, and did eat over thee, till thou know that the grass as oxen, and his body was wet most High ruleth in the kingdom of with the dew of heaven, till his hairs men, and giveth it to whomsoever he were grown like eagles' feathers, and will.

his nails like birds' claws. 26 And whereas they commanded 34 And at the end of the days 1 to leave the stump of the tree-roots; Nebuchadnezzar lifted up miue eres thy kingdom shall be sure unto thee, unto heaven, and mine understanding after that thou shalt have known that returned unto me, and I blessed the the heavens do rule.

most High, and I praised and honoured 27 Wherefore, O king, let my coun- him that liveth for ever, whose domsel be acceptable onto thee, and break nion is an everlasting dominion, and off thy sins by righteousness, and thine his kingdom is from generation to geiniquities by shewing mercy to the poor; neration. if it may be a lengthening of thy tran- 35 And all the inhabitants of the quillity.

earth are reputed as nothing: and be 28 All this came upon the king Ne- doeth according to his will in the army buchadnezzar.

of heaven, and among the inhabitants 29 At the end of twelve months he of the earth: and none can stay his walked in the palace of the kingdom hand; or say unto him, What doest of Babylon.

thou ? 30 The king spake and said, Is not 36 At the same time my reason rethis great Babylon, that I have built turned unto me; and for the glory of for the house of the kingdom by the my kingdom, mine hovour and bright

- Bing

NOTES-Chap. IV. Con. Ver. 25. Eat grass.-The original term includes as of Isa. xiji. also Note on Jer.li. 38. - Ikich let well lierbs for inan as grass for cattle. See Gen. ii. built: -Though built ages before, it was greatly est 5; Exod. x. 12, 1.), &c.

vellished and improved, and perhaps in great part Ver. 26. That the heavens do rule.-The heavens rebuilt, by Nebuchadnezzar. Bochart this site (or heavens is here, hy a common metonyny, put for as much' indebted to him as Rome was to Jelis God. See Luke xy, TR.

Cæsar.
Ver. 27. A lengthening, &c.-See 1 Kings xvi. 39. Ver. 33. His hair like eaylts' feathers. -

Ver. 29. Al the end of twelve months -- By this de. totally neglected, is not only grewlony, hut sa pre Jay of his sentence, some hare supposed that the hably matted together, like feathers. king commenced the work of reformation recom. the beari. meded by the prophet, ver. 27. But soon growing Ver. 34. At the end of the days--that is, of the weary, (as often is ihe case,) he began again to glory " seven times," or years, predicted rer. in hinsell, and thus brought down instant judgment. Ver. 3. I was established, - It is prolables

Rewalked in-Mars. "npon." Itis well known great king lived only a year after bis recorers. Hos that all great honses in the East have fat and ter. death happened about ihe 37th year of Jewis raced roots. See 2 Sam. xi. 2. Ver. 30. 18 not this great Babylon. See Expos.

captivity, after reigning 13 years. Wintle.

This inc ades

Belshazzar's]
CHAP. V.

[great feast. ness returned unto me; and my counsellors and my lords sought unto me;

CHAP. V. and I was established in my kingdom, BELSHAZZAR the king made a and excellent majesty was added unto great feast to a thousand of his

lords, and drank wine before the thou37 Now I Nebuchadnezzar praise sand. and extol and honour the King of hea- 2 Belshazzar, whiles he tasted the ven, all whose works are truth; and wine, commanded to bring the golden his ways judgment : and those that and silver vessels which his father Newalk in pride he is able to abase. (G) buchadnezzar had taken out of the

me.

EXPOSITION-Chap. IV. Continued. (G) Ver. 19—37. Daniel's interpretation Daniel closes his prediction with an inof the preceding dream. - Daniel, we are timation to the king, that there was yet told, “was astonied for one hour." No room for his repentance; and that by works doubt he paused to pray; but this was of righteousness and mercy, the judgment not all; be found the dream contained might be, at least, protracted, and his painful ridings, and bis thoughts troubled tranquillity lengthened. But, alas! how him. "

My lord, (said hc,) the dream be to quickly do the most solemn impressions on them that hate thee!" However, painful the human mind wear off? Distressed as as might be the task, and serious as might he doubtless was at the moment, he soon be the consequences, he must be faithful. forgets bis dreams, and in one short year Bp. Lowth remarks, that in prophetic lan- again begins to boast, “ Is not this great guage, “ Cedars of Lebanon, and oaks of Babylon, which I have built ?" though he Bashan, are used in the way of metaphor had only embellished and enlarged it: and allegory, for kings, princes, and poten- “ built by the might of my power, and for tates, of the highest rank." (Isa.ii. 13-16.) the honour of my majesty ?" Alas! poor And the prophet Ezekiel (chap. xxxi.) has vain mortal!" While the word was in represented both the monarchis of Assyria the king's mouth, there fell a voice from and of Egypt under the figure of mighty heaven, o king Nebuchadnezzar, the cedars. But here Nebuchadnezzar is repre. kingdom is departed from thee!” What sented as a fruit tree; not only lo!ty and follows need not to be strained to an exactly strong, but having borne fruit to feed, as literal interpretation. He lost his reason; well as brauches to protect, his numerous and, becoming a maniac, was driven from provinces. He, however, who is “ Higher human society; associating, probably, with than the highest,” saw the extent to which the animals in the parks and pleasurehis power and ambition had growu, and grounds of his own palace; totally negsent down his orders by a beavenly mes- lected by those who assumed his authority, senger, to “ hew down the tree;" but yet and that, for seven years successively, he tu spare the stump, and protect the root, became more like a satyr than a man. that after a while it might sprout and This judgment was designed, however, grow again. It is useless to speculate on not for his utter destruction, but reform ; the order of celestial beings here intendeel. at the end of the appointed peri not only The angels of God are in constant attend- did his understanding return tu him, but auce on his presence, and wait to execute hie appears to have been completely humhis commands. (See chap. vii. 10.) They bled, and gave glory to that God who is are here called watchers, or guardians, be- “ able to abase those who walk in pride," cause it is their office to watch, with unre- as he had done. This declaration is in mitting attention, the objects committed to perfect harmony with the opening verses of their care, as in the case before us; and ihe chapter, which many suppose had reunder the new dispensation, " Are they not ference to this humbling providence. While all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister looking down upon his own performances, for (or 10) them who shall he heirs of sal- he lost bis reason; in looking up to heavation ?” (Heb. i. 14.)

ven, it was restored.

NOTES. CHAP. V. Ver. 1. A greal frast - probably con- who conceives the occasion of this feast to have linued for a considerable tine. See Esther i.3, &c. been, a dedication of the kingdom to bis idols, which

Ver. 2. Whiles he tasteil. -- It was customary at makes his calling for the sacred vessels of the Jews the commencement of a festal solemnity, to offer a the more impions, libation to their gols, and to this the tasting here Ibid. His father – Marg. “ Grandfather." So mentioned is supposed to reser. See Mr. Wintle, ver. 11 and 13. Comp. 2 Sam. ix. 7; Jer. xxvii. 7.

(on the wall.

The hand-writiny)

DANIEL. temple which was in Jerusalem ; that the words of the king and his lords the king, and his princes, his wives, came into the banquet bonse : and and his concubines, might drink the queen spake and said, O king, live therein.

for ever: let not thy thoughts trouble 3 Then they brought the golden thee, nor let thy countenance be vessels that were taken out of the tem- changed : ple of the house of God which was at 11 There is a man in thy kingdom, Jerusalem; and the king, and his in whom is the spirit of the holy gods; princes, his wives, and his concubines, and in the days of thy father light drank in them.

and understanding and wisdom, like 4 They drank wine, and praised the the wisdom of the gods, was found in gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, him; whom the king Nebuchadnezzar of iron, of wood, and of stone.

thy father, the king, I say, thy father, 5 In the same hour came forth made master of the magicians, astrolofingers of a man's hand, and wrote over gers, Chaldeans, and soothsayers; against the candlestick, upon the plais- 12 Forasmuch as an excellent spirit, ter of the wall of the king's palace: and knowledge, and understanding, and the king saw the part of the hand interpreting of dreams, and shewing of that wrote.

hard sentences, and dissolving of 6 Then the king's countenance was doubts, were found in the same Da. changed, and his thoughts troubled niel, whom the king named Belteshaz. him, so that the joints of his loins were zar: now let Daniel be called, and be loosed, and his knees smote one against will shew the interpretation. another.

13 Then was Daniel brought in be7 The king cried aloud to bring in fore the king. And the king spake the astrologers, the Chaldeans, and and said unto Daniel, Art thou that the soothsayers. And the king spake, Daniel, which art of the children oi and said to the wise men of Babylon, the captivity of Judah, whom the king Whosoever shall read this writing, and my father brought out of Jewry? shew me the interpretation thereof, 14 I have even heard of thee, that shall be clothed with scarlet, and have the spirit of the gods is in thee, and a chain of gold about his neck, and that light and understanding and exshall be the third ruler in the kingdom. cellent wisdom is found in thee.

8 Then came in all the king's wise 15 And now the wise men, the men : but they could not read the astrologers, have been brought in bewriting, nor make known to the king fore me, that they should read this the interpretation thereof.

writing, and make known unto me the 9 Then was king Belshazzar greatly interpretation thereof: but they could troubled, and his countenance was not shew the interpretation of the changed in him, and his lords were thing: astonied.

16 And I have heard of thee, that 10 Now the queen by reason of thou canst make interpretations, and

NOTES-Chap. V. Con. Ver. 5. The candlestick – probably a chandelier, maritan character; it is possible, howerer, that they having several branches, with lamps, which sho:16 miglit know the characters, without being able to full against the wall where the hand wrote.

extract any intelligible meaning from them. See ca Ver. 6. Countenance-Chola. “ Brightnessrs," or Ver 25. rather, “sparklings.” So we say, “the eyessparkle;" Ver. 10. The queen-probably the queen-mother the countenance is "lighted up with joy." It oltin whose name was Nitocris, according to Herudoter. refers to festivity, or inebriety, as in this verse; but Ver. 11. Thy father that is, grandlather; Nate alas! it was changed to a melancholy consternation. on ver. 2.) maiie master,&c.-To account for Daniel's ---- The joints....looseil.—The term is sometimes being ont of office, (asis evident from several cifti applied to loosening the dress, but here evidentiy las stances,) Mr. Haroier quotes Sir John Chardis, &* a stronger import: his frame was uonarvei,

saving, that " in the East, when the king dire, the Ver. 7. The astrologers, &c.-See Notes on chap. i. physicians and Astrologers are displaced: the first 20. Scarlet -- Mirg. “ Purple." So Wintle and for not having driven away dealb, and the other in Boothroyd ; and the saine ver. 28.

not having predicted it." ' Harmer's Obs. ii. 163 Ver. 8. Ihry coulil not rrail. -- From this, Mr. Ver. 12. Dissolriny doubts - Chalder, literally: Boothroyd insers that the writing was in the old Sa. “ Untying of knots.i

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