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(of Holy Wuters. thirty broad : these four corners were of sand; and it was a river that I couid 23 And there was a row

not pass over: for the waters were of building round about in them, round about them four, and it was maile with risen, waters to swim in, a river that boiling places under the rows round about. could not be passed over. 24 Then said he unto me, These are the 6 And he said unto me, Son of places of them that boil, where the minis

man, hast thou seen this? Then he ters of the house shall boil the sacrifice of brought me, and caused me to return the people.

to the brink of the river.

7 Now when I had returned, beCHAP. XLVII.

hold, at the bank of the river were FTERWARD he brought me very many trees on the one side and

again unto the door of the house; on the other. and, behold, waters issued out from 8 Then said he unto me, These under the threshold of the house east- waters issue out toward the east counward : for the forefront of the house try, and go down into the desert, and stood toward the east, and the waters go into the sea : which being brought came down from under from the right forth into the sea, the waters shall be side of the house, at the south side of healed. the altar,

9 And it shall come to pass, that 2 Then brought he me out of the every thing that liveth, which moveth, way of the gate northward, and led whithersoever the rivers shall come, me about the way without unto the shall live: and there shall be a very utter gate by the way that looketh great multitude of fish, because these eastward ; and, behold, there ran out waters shall coine thither : for they waters on the right side.

shall be healed; and every thing shall 3 And when the man that had the live whither the river cometh. line in his hand went forth eastward, 1C And it shall come to pass, hat he measured a thousand cubits, and the fishers shall stand upon it from he brought me through the waters; the En-gedi even unto En-eglaim; they waters were to the ancles.

shall be a place to spread forth nets; 4 Again he measured a thousand, their fish shall be according to their and brought me through the waters; kinds, as the fish of the great sea, exthe waters were to the knees Again ceeding many. he measured a thousand, and brought 11 But the miry places thereof and me through; the waters were to the the marishes thereof shall not be healloins.

ed; they shall be given to salt. 5 Afterward he measured a thou- 12 And by the river upon the bank

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NOTES. CHAP. XLVII. Ver. 1. Under the threshold.-- Whilliersoerer the ricers Heh, “Two rivers : See Note on chap. xliii. 8; also chan. xlvi. 2. 3. but is we rear of but one in the context, Michaelis

Ve... Waters were risen - Heb.“ Swoln;" (hy only dividing one Hebrew word into twn, see LXX, 6. Lifted up their proud waves. • These Note. p viji. Introduction to our first volume) reads, wars beautifully represent the gradual progress of * Whithersoever the river shall come, the sea hall the gospel. See Isa. 11. 2-4. Conpare Joel ui. 18; live." But in Hebrew. the plural is often wsed for Zech xiy.8; I-a. lv. 1 ; John vii,3%," Newcome.- the singular, and here may verhaps intend the Waters to snim in-Hrb.“ Waters of swimming." spreading streams of this sacred wa er.

Ver. 7. Bisk-Heh.. lip;" Newcome, ** Brink;' Ver. 10. From En-gedi un o fin-eglnim.--The former the same word as is s'ı rendered in rer. 6.

place lay nearly due enst from Jerusalem, t e latier Ver. 8. Desert - Mary. * Plain." See Denn.iii. hit the northern extremity of the drad sea, where the 17. - Brought forth into the sert --by ver. 1". 11, Jordan tiow's into it: from 15 to 21 miles of coast.-restrained to the read, or salt seo, Gen. xiv. 3. It is As the fish of the great sea.---This inplies, not that called the dead sea on account of a tradition which, the water shall become fresh, like the lake of Gen. though disputed, tas never been refuted, that no nesareth bot like the ocean, its deleterinus qualities hsh can live in it. This may be partly owing to its being purged in the accession of these sacred waters. excessive saltness, containing (as ascer ained by Perill. The inirishes (or marshes) shall not be recent experiments) one sonrth of its weighi in saii, healed.The south end. u here Sodom strod on the which renders it singularly broyant and bilderand south-west, and the valley of salt” on the sou hinay account for its being uninhabited. See Modern ent. They shall be given (up) lo sali--and this Trav. rol. ii p. 2 9.

may figuratively represent those nations that utterly Ver. 9. Erery thing that liveth, which moceth- reluse the healing streams of salvation. Newcome, " Every living ihing which moveth.".


[of the land, thereof, on this side and on that side, Jand according to the twelve tribes of shall grow all trees for meat, whose

Israel. Joseph shall have two portions. leaf shall not fade, neither shall the

14 And ye shall iuberit it, one as well as another:

: concerning the wbicis I lifted up fruit thereof be consumed : it shall mine hand to give it unto your fathers : bring forth new fruit according to his anl this land shall fall up to you for inbemonths, because their waters they

ritance. 15 And this shall be the border

of the land toward the north side, fra issued out of the sanctuary: and the fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the go to Zedad;

the great sea, the way of Hethlon, as net

16 Hamath, Beruthih, leaf thereof for medicine. (X)

Sibraim, which is between the border

Dainascus and the border of llamatb; [Omil, and puss lo ver. 21, chap. xlviii.)

Hazar-batticon, which is by the coast of

17 And the border from the 13 Thus saith the Lord God ; This shall sea sball be Hazar-epan, the burler of be the border, whereby ye shall inherit the Damascus, and the north north want, and


ably to the nature of fructifying stream

convey fertility and verdure wherever they (X) Ver. 1-12. The vision of the holy wa. may spread. Moreover, these waters bare ters and mystic trees. We now approach the a singular power of conveying life and salocluse of this extraordinary vision, and va- brity to the dead sea itself : a lake which, rious cireumstauces lead us to consider it alier discarding all the fables of credu. in many parts of mystic import. Though Jous travellers, is confessedly barres of the temple itself may not in magnitude living creatures. exceed that of Solomon, yet the grand If we allegorize these streams, it seenus scale on which the surrounding courts and natural that the dead sea should also be em adjacent grounds are laid out, seems blematical of the state of both the jewish strongly to in wate a great increase of and beathen world prior to the promulgation the true church of God, principally by the of the gospel. The religion of the Jews and accession of the Gentiles. So in this chap- the science of the Greeks were alike dead. ter the mighiy stream of waters flowing To what good purpose did the former as. from the sanctuary, though it may have ply their rabbinical lore? or the latter some reference to the waters formerly sup- their admired wisdom ? The former suak plied from an adjacent spring or two for into the most ridiculous superstitions and the priest's use, are in volume so vasily the latter into the inost gross idoiatries, greater, and in virtue so perfectly distinct which, at the same time as they practised and and superior, that he must be a dreaming recommended to the vulgar they ridiculed expositor indeed, who can explain this li- themselves. But these healing streams, terally of water only to cleanse the sacri- wherever they fowed, eraugelizeri the fices and sacrificial instruments. Besides, former, and rationalized the latter. “Christ this water ran from the temple-increased crucified,” was indeed “to the Jew: as it proceeded, and conveyed life and stumbling block” till the veil was taken health and blessing wherever its sircams from their hearts; and then they read tbe flowed.

gospel in all the books of Moses. The Nothing is more common in the Holy same roctrine was “ to the Greeks soolist. Scriptures than to represent the influences ness," till they also were enlightened; and of the Holy Spirit under the emblem of then they saw in the doctrine of redemption water; and, in perfect accordance with a display of divine wisdom, aud felt its this remark, the spread of knowledge, truth power in the renovation of their hearts and and righteousness is often expressed by the lives. Thus the dead sea is filled with liv. image of Rowing streams,-streams that, ing fish, and the trees which grow upon uniting and continuing to spread, we its banks, instead of the fabled apples are led to believe shall cover the earth of Solom, produce trees of perpetual verwith the knowledge and glory of the dure, and fruits of immortality ever per Lord as the waters cover the immense and ever fresh, while its leaves shall beal basis of the sea. These waters, too, agree- all the disorders of human life.

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NOTES. Ver. 12. Shail grow (Heb." spring up") all trees Ver. 13. This shall be the border. The paper for food – Here is an evident allusion to the trees situation of many of the places named in this so of paradise. See our Note on Gen. ii. 9. The the following chapter, can hardly now besserael leaj thereof for medicine -- Newcome, “ Healing." It is, however, evident, that provision is here Seite The medical art in the East is still chiefly confined for the relurn of all the tribes, bough many did not to external applications.


and of the]

(several tribes, the border of Hamath. And this is the length, and of ten thousand in breadth. north side. 18 And the east side ye shall 10 And for them, even for the priests, shall measure from Hauran, and from Damas- be this holy oblation; toward the north five eus, and from Gilead, and from the land and twenty thousand in length and toward of Israel by Jordau, from the border unto the west ten thousand in breadth, and tothe east sea. And this is the east side. ward the east ten thousand in breadtb, and 19 And the south side southward, from toward the south five and i wenty thousand Tamar even to the waters of strife in Ka- in length: and the sanctuary of the Lord desh, the river to the great sea. Aod this shall be in the midst thereof. 11 It shall is the south side southward. 20 The be for the priests that are sanctified of the west side also shall be the great sea from sons of Zadok; which have kept my the border, till a man come over against charge, which went not astray when the Hamath. This is the west side. 21 So children of Israel went astray, as the Leshall ye divide this land unto you accord

vites went astray.

12 And this oblation ing to the tribes of Israel.

of the land that is offered shall be unto 22 Aud it shall come to pass, that ye them a thing most holy by the border of shall divide it by lot for an inberitance unto the Levites. 13 Aud over against the you, and to the strangers that sojourn border of the priests, the Levites shall have among you, which shall beget children five and tweiity thousand in length, and among you : and they shall be unto you as ten thousand in breadth : all the length boru in the country amoug the children of shall be five and twenty thousand, and the Israel; they shall have inheritance with breadth ten thousand. 14 And they you among the tribes of Israel. 23 And shall not sell of it, neither exchange, nor it shall come to pass, that in what time the alienate the first fruits of the land : for it is Stranger sojourneth, there shall ye give holy unto the LORD. him his inheritance, saith the Lord God. 15 Aud the five thousand, that are left

in the breadth over against the five and CHAP. XLVIII.

twenty thousand, shall be a profane place NOW these are the rames of the tribes. for the city, for dwelling, and for suburbs

From the north end to the coast of the and the city shall be in the midst thereof. way of Hethion, as one goeth to Hainath, 16 And these shall be the measures thereof; Hazar-enau, the border of Damascus the north side four thousand and five hunnorthwarıl, to the coast of Hamath; for dred, and the south side four thousand and These are bis sides east and west; a portion five hundred, and on the east side four for Dan. 2 And by the border of Dan, thousand and five hundred, and the west from the east side unto the west side, a side four thousand and five hundred. portion for Asher. 3 And by the border 17 And the suburbs of the city shall be touf Asher, from the east side even unto the ward the norib two hundred and tisty, and sest side, a portion for Naplitali. 4 And toward the south two hundred and fisty,

y the border of Naphtali, from the east and towarıl the east two hundred and fifty, ide unto the west side, a portion for Ma- and toward the west two hundred and lifty. assel. 5 And by the boriler of Manas. 18 And the residue in length over against ch, from the east side into the west side, the oblation of the holy portion shall be ten

portion for Ephrain. 6 And by the thousand eastward, and ten thousand westorder of Ephraim, from the east side even ward : and it shall be over against the obnto the west side, a portion for Reuben. lation of the holy portion ; and in increase

And by the border of Reuben, from the tbereof shall be for food unto them that ast side even unto the west side, a portion serve the city. 19 And they that serve or Judab.

the city shall serve it out of all the tribes 8 And by the border of Judah, from the of Israel. 20 All the oblatioa shall be ast side unto the west side, shall be the five and twenty thousaud by five and twenty #ering which ye shall offer of five and thousand : ye shall offer the holy oblation venty thousand reeds in breadıb, and in foursquare, with the possession of the ength as one of the other parts, from the city. ast side unto the west side: and the sanc. nary shall be in the midst of it. 9 The Dlation that ye sball offer un to the LORD

217And the residue shall be for the -all be of five and twenty thousand in prince, on the one side and on the

ap. xlv.).

NOTES, CHAP. XLVIII. Ver. 8. Five and twenty thou- generally adhered to the God of Israel, and one mo. nd reeds. - Rather, " Cubits." See Note on tive, probably, for the defection of the latter might

be their being promoted to the priesthood among Ver. 11. It shall be for the priests that are sancti. idolaters. See judges xvii. 11--13. d – Marg, " The sanctified portion shall be for Ver. 1j. Profane place-see on chap. xlii. 20.

priests of the sons,” &c.-As the Levites went, Ver. 35. The Lord is there-Heb. Jehovah-shamSee chap. xliv. 10. It appears that the priests mah.

The gates)

(of the city. other of the holy oblation, and of the the south side southward, the border possession of the city, over against the shall be even from Tamar unto the fire and twenty thousand of the obla- waters of strife in Kadesh, and to the tion toward the east border, and west- river toward the great sea. ward over against the five and twenty 29 This is the land which ye shall thousand toward the west border, over divide by lot unto the tribes of Israel against the portions for the prince: and for inheritance, and these are their it shall be the holy oblation ; and the portions, saith the Lord God. sanctuary of the house shall be in the 30 And these are the goings out of midst thereof.

the city on the north side, four thou22 Moreover from the possession of sand and five hundred or easures. the Levites, and from the possession 31 And the gates of the city shall of the city, being in the midst of that be after the names of the tribes of Iswhich is the prince's, between the bor- rael: three gates northward; one gate der of Judah and the border of Benja- of Reuben, one gate of Judah, ose inin, shall be for the prince.

gate of Levi. 23 As for the rest of the tribes, from 32 And at the east side four thouthe east side unto the west side, Ben- sand and five hundred : and three gates; jamin shall have a portion.

and one gate of Joseph, one gate of 24 And by the border of Benjamin, Benjamin, one gate of Dan. from the east side unto the west side, 33 Aud at the south side four thou. Simeon shall have a portion.

sand and five hundred measures: and 25 And by the border of Simeon, three gates; one gate of Simeon, one from the east side unto the west side, gate of Issachar, one gate of Zebuluo. Issachar a portion.

34 At the west side four thousand 26 And by the border of Issachar, and five hundred, with their three from the east side unto the west side, gates; one gate of Gad, one gate of Zebulun a portion.

Asher, one gate of Naphtali. 27 And by the border of Zebulun, 35 It was round about eighteen from the east side unto the west side, thousand measures: and the name of Gad a portion.

the city from that day shall be,

The 28 And by the border of Gad, at LORD is there. (Y)


laod. The hest idea we can form of its (Y) Ver. 21-35. The division of the extent as Dr. Boothroyd surgesis) is by land, and the gates of the city. There is conceiving a square of 23,000 cubits each as much prudence as m«desty, in not at- way, or about seven English inilesin levyta tempting to explain what we canuot com. bealth; and this square divided preliend; and those commentators who lengthwise into three parts for rectangles have been mort anxious to remove all ob- this: 10,000 for the priests, 10,000 for the scurities. have lieeu compelleil to confess Levises, and 5000 for the city: with the themselves non-plussed in the visions of temple in the midst of the whole plot of Ezekiel. The great outlines of the alle- ground. A part also was to be added for the gory are as much as we dare hope to kiny's palace aud pleasure grounds. The understand; but the fulfilmeut of these rea.ous of this proportion are ious far from predictions, may, as in other instances, evident; but ihe portions of the prie-fi reuder iutelligible what now seems mo-t and Levites probably iucluded pasture ubscure. Though the returu from the grounds, and perhaps vineyariis, for the Babylonisii captivity included but a very use of the Temple. The increase of the small part of the ten tribes of Israel, there number of gates (ilouble those of the foris reason to believe a remnant of them

mer city) is a circunstauce we by no is still preserved in some of the Eastern means understand; but it is copied by Si. couuiries, and will be forthcoming when- John in his Apocalyptical description of ever the God of Israel shall give the word. the New Jerusalem. '(Rev. xxi. 21.) The

What is meant hy the “Holy oblation' descriptive uame here given to the city, it is diflicult to explain, since it is uei her JEHOVAH SHAMMAR, is sufficieutly definite cophued to the Temple, nor the holy city; as implying God's continual presence with nor does it exteud to the whole of the holy his church, under every dispensation.





INTRODUCTION. DANIEL is the last of those usually called the four greater Prophets, not for their superior excellence or authority, but for their contents: the book of Daniel is, however, much shorter than either of the other three. Indeed, some of the minor Prophets, as Hosea and Zechariah, contain more chapters than Daniel though not more matter.

Daniel was of noble descent, and probably, as the Jews assert, related to the royal family of Judah. He was carried captive to Babylon at an early age, and in the 606th year before the Christian era. Having been initiated into the mysterious learning of the Chaldeans, he was found qualified for the highest offices in the courts of Babylon and Persia, but did not defile himself with their idolatries. He was contemporary with Ezekiel; and in one of his prophecies (Ezek. xiv. 14, 20,) is associated with Noah and Job, as three of the wisest and best of men.

Though Daniel's name is not prefixed to this bcok, he speaks so often in the first person as to leave no reason to doubt the fact; it has been almost universally admitted both by Jews and Christians. The evidence arising from his predictions in favour of Christianity, have led some Jews to speak degradingly of his authority; Josephus, however, speaks of him as one of the greatest of the Prophets ;* but to us Christians “ the testimony of Jesus," who calls him “the Prophet Daniel,” (Matt. xxiv. 15.) is para. mount to all others. Neither this book, nor that of Jonah, is considered as poetical, though some passages are remarkably sublime. I

Porpliyry, a learned opponent of Christianity in the third Century, was so struck with the fulfilment of Daniel's prophecies, that he pretended they were furged after the events; and in particular, after the time of Antiochus, though it is evident that they were translated into Greek 100 years before, and by the Jews themselves shewn to Alexander the Great to procure his favour.s

Some additions to this book are, indeed, found in the Vulgate Latin, and in Theo. dosius's Greek version, which are admitted into the Catholic Canon of the Old Testa. ment by the Council of Trent. These are, “ The History of Susanya," which, in its itle, is said to be set apart from the beginning of Daniel ;” and “ the History [or ather fable, as Erasmus calls it) of Bel and the Dragon," cut off from the end of it; Iso “the Song of the Three Children" in the fiery furnace, all which are rejected rom the Canon by the learned and judicious Lardner, and by all consistent Protestants, s never having existed in the Hebrew or Chaldee languages. ||

Antiq. lib. x. cap. ii. 27. * Ibid. lib. xi. cap. 8. & 5. • Lowth's Lect. xx. & See chap. ii. 30–23.

| This is evident from a play npon some names in the Greek text, which could not have been used either in Heb, or Chaldee. See Horne's Analysis, Crit. Introd. vol. iv. p. 194, 4th ed. and Wintle's Preliminary Dissertation, p. Jyüj.

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