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And expressions of ]
(faith in him. and imagine deceits all the day long. 19 But mine enemies are lively, and
13 But I, as a deaf man, heard not; they are strong: and they that hate and I was as a dumb man that openeth me wrongfully are multiplied. not his mouth.
20 They also that render evil for 14 Thus I was as a man that hear- good are mine adversaries; because I eth not, and in whose mouth are no follow the thing that good is. reproofs.
21 Forsake me not, O LORD: 0 15 For in thee, O LORD, do I my God, be not far from me. hope: thou wilt hear, O LORD my
God. 22 Make haste to help me 0 LORD, 16 For I said, Hear me, lest other- my salvation. (Q) wise they should rejoice over me: when my foot slippeth, they magnify
PSALM XXXIX. themselves against me. 17 For I am ready to halt, and my
To the chief Musician, even to Jeduthun.
A Psalm of David. Sorrow is continually before me. 18 For I will declare mine iniquity; I SAID, I will take heed to my ways; sin.
that I sin not with my tongue: I will
I will be sorry
at home to indulge in ease, and luxury, and PSALM XXXVIII.
crime. (9) A Psalm of David to bring to re- Many have endeavoured to explain the rembrance - That is, a memorial of his psalmist's complaints of unsoundness and sins
, and of bis sufferings under them. putridity in his flesh aud in bis bones figuHis afflictions appear to have been of ratively, of his inward distress and spiritwo classes-bodily pain and sickness, and tual conflicts; but we think “it seems the desertion of his friends and relatives, evident (as Mr. Scott observes,) that the who, instead of comforting, aggravated writer was (also) visited with some dire bis afflictions. In David's history, indeed, malady, which affected his whole frame in We read nothing of his being confined with the most distressing manner; and that he sickness; yet it is reasonable to believe considered this as the chastisement of this might often be the case, though per- God, for some particular sins of which his haps for no long continuance, so as to in- conscience accused him." What that parterrupt the operations of his government. ticular malady might be with wbich he was That be suffered much from disease may afflicted, we presume not to determine; but be inferred, not only from his frequent re- from the symptoms mentioned, and partiferences to it in the book of Psalms, but cularly from his friends and 'neighbours from the singular fact of his extreme debi- keeping “ aloof from his sore," we should lity, and the extraordinary means used to think it must have closely resembled, keep life in him, for some time before his either the leprosy of Job, or the pestilence death, though he died at the age of seventy. of Hezekiah, either of which, connected (1 Kings i. 1-4.) In these afflictions, he with the agonies of conviction in his conconstantly refers to sin as the cause of his science, would be fully sufficient to account sufferings, and it is true that all our suf- for his groans and agonies. But we totally ferings originate in sin; yet his language object to the application of such language in this psalm seems to refer particularly to our Redeemer, for reasons which we to his dreadful apostacy in the matter of have already stated : nor do we find any Uriah, when be sent Joab to conduct the application of it to him in the New Testawar with the Ammonites, while he stayed ment, by either evangelists or apostles.
Job vi. 4.
NOTES. PSALM XXXVIII. Ver. 2. Tkine arrows.-See Ver. 16. 'In thee do I hope-Marg. “ Thee
do I wait for.'' Hear-Marg." Answer.” Ver. 3. Rest-Heb. “ l'eace," or “ health.”
Ver. 17. Ready to halt - Marg: " For halting;" Fer. 5. Because of my foolishness. This implies i. e. ready to sink down under my infirmities. sia, as well as folly, for the thought of foolisb
Ver. 19. Lirely: strong. - Heb. "(Being) Das is sin," Prov. xxiv. 9.
Jively, are strong. Ter. 6. Troubled - Heb. “ Wried,” or writhed Ver. 20. Because, &c. - Read, the last clause,
" What is good.” V. 20. Is gone from me-Heb. “ Is not with me." His disease affected his sight.
PSALM XXXIX. Title - To Jeduthun. - See Ver. II. My sore-Heb. “ Stroke,''My kins. 1 Chron. xvi. 41.---xxv. 3. mes-Marg. “ Neighbours.”.
Ver. 1. With a bridle-Heb. "Mazzle." It is pro
[on the frailty of life keep my mouth with a bridle, while 10 Remove thy stroke away from the wicked is before me.
me: I am consumed by the blow of 2 I was dumb with silence, I held thine hand. my peace, even from good ; and my 11 When thou with rebukes dost sorrow was stirred.
correct man for iniquity, thou makest 3 My heart was hot within me, his beauty to consume away like a while I was musing the fire burned : moth: surely every man is vanity. then spake I with my tongue.
Selah. 4 Lord, make me to know mine end, and the measure of my days, give ear unto my cry; hold not thy
12 Hear my prayer, O LØRD, and Me what it is ; that I may know how frail peace at my tears : for I am a stranger
with thee, and a sojourner, as all my 5 Behold, thou hast made my days fathers were. as an hand breadth; and mine age is as 13 O spare me, that I may recover nothing before thee; verily every man strength, before I go hence, and be no at his best state is altogether vanity. more. (R) Selah. 6 Surely every man walketh in a
PSALM XL. vain shew: surely they are disquieted To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David. in vain : he heapeth up riches
, and I WAITED patiently for the Lord; knoweth not who shall gather them. and he inclined unto me, and heard
7 And now, LORD, what wait I for? my cry. my hope is in thee.
2 He brought me up also out of an 8 Deliver me from all my transgres- horrible pit, out of the miry clay, and sions: make me not the reproach of set my feet upon a rock, and established the foolish.
my goings. 9 I was dumb, I opened not my 3°And he hath put a new song in mouth; because thou didst it.
my mouth, even praise unto our God:
substance ; a shadow fleeting like that of (R) A Psalm of David, coniempiating the passing cloud upon the grass. the frailty of human life." The psalm The life of man is then compared to begins abruptly, with the result of a medi- an image,” exhibited to the mind tation on the narrow, slippery, and dan- in a vision, or in a dream : and in no gerous paths of life, and more especially man is this vanity more striking than on the extreme difficulty of restraining the in the avaricious, who “ heapethu tongue amidst the continual temptations riches," and knoweth not who shall gather and provocations of the adversary.” (Bp. them.' Aud even while this travsitory : Horne.) Meditation should terminate endures, how doth affliction “ melt away, in devotion : and this ineditation led to health, and beauty, and talent, and wealit the following excellent prayer, that the and every thing desirable in man! psalmist might be taught practically his own frailty, and the uncertain duration
« This life's a dream, an empty show;
But the bright sorld to which I go of the present life, which, compared to the
Hath joys substantial and sincere : life to come, is but as a shadow to the When shall I wake, and find me there? Was
NOTES–Psalm XXXIX. Con. bable that the hridles of the ancients were made in Ver. 11. Thou makest his beauty-Heb. “T the form of uzzles. See Note on Ps. xxxij. 9. which is to be desired in him." To cons Ver. 2. Stirred--Heb. " Trouiled."
(Heb. “ to melt away") as a moth, or noth-wo Ver. 3. The fire burned.-See Jer. XX. 9.
which perishes with the touch. See Job iv. 19. Ver. 4. Hon frail I an-Marg.
* What time I
Note. have;" . *. as the Chaldee explains it," How soon I shall cease to exist here."
PSALM XL. Ver. 1. I waited patiently - F Ver. 6. 41 his best slute-Heb. “ settled;' most “In waiting I waited." permanent.
Ver. 2. An horrible pit-Heb.“ A pit of no Ver. 6. In a vain shen – Heb." An image;" resounding with falls of water. See Ps. xviii. phantasm, or appearance only.
Ver. 5. They cannot be reckoned-Marg. " Ver. 10. Blon--Heb. “Conflict," stroke!
can order (or enumerate) them unto thee.
The great sacrifice]
[ for man's sin. many shall see it, and fear, and shall thy truth from the great congregation. trust in the LORD.
11 Withhold not thou thy tender 4 Blessed is that man that maketh mercies from me, O Lord : let thy the Lord his trust, and respecteth not loving-kindness and thy truth continuthe proud, nor such as turn aside to ally preserve me. lies.
12 For innumerable evils have com5 Many, 0 Lokd my God, are thy passed me about : mine iniquities have wonderful works which thou hast done, taken hold upon me, so that I am not and thy thoughts which are to us- able to look up; they are more than ward : they cannot be reckoned up in the hairs of mine head : therefore my order unto thee: if I would declare heart faileth me. and speak of them, they are more than 13 Be pleased, O LORD, to deliver can be numbered.
me : O LORD, máke haste to help me. 6 Sacrifice and offering thou didst not 14 Let them be ashamed and condesire ; mine ears hast thou opened : founded together that seek after my burnt offering and sin offering hast thou soul to destroy it; let them be driven not required.
backward and put to shame, that wish 7 Then said I, Lo, I
me : in the volume of the book it is written of me:
15 Let them be desolate for a re8 I delight to do thy will, O my ward of their shame that say unto Cod: yea, thy law is within my heart. me, Aha, aha ! 9 I have preached righteousness in
16 Let all those that seek thee rethe great congregation : 1o, I have not joice and be glad in thee: let such as refrained my lips, O LORD, thou love thy salvation say continually, The knowest.
Lord be magnified ! 10 I have not hid thy righteousness 17 But I am poor and needy; yet
I have declared thy the LORD thinketh upon me : thou art faithfulness and thy salvation : I have my help and my deliverer; make no Dot concealed thy lovingkindness and tarrying, O my God. (S)
sufferings, during some of his persecutions (8) A Psalm of David, relating partly to from his enemies; and, in a typical sense, the his cun circumstances,
and partly to Mes- sufferings of our Redeemer. The imagery sick. We agree with Dr. Kennicott in di- seems taken from one of the horrible dun. viding this psalm into three parts, but not geons of the Asiatic tyrants. (Jer. xxxviii. exactly in our application of them. The 6—12.) Applied to our Saviour, it may typify first part, comprising the first five verses, the exírenie sufferings which he endured; we consider as capable of a double applica- yet a pit of mire, with the sound of waters tion, expressing first the psalmist's deep and waterfalls, seems not to agree with the
NOTES, Vet. Mine ears hast thou openeil-Heb.“ Dig. these Notes is well aware that many interpreters red," or carved ; and it is with much diffidence the consider this as an allusion to the Jewish law, Exod. Hiter ventares to suggest, that culling out, digging, xxi. 6. But the Hebrew word there used for boring, at carving, is the radical idea of the root (karah) is radically different from this. Compare the above kere used. It is very commonly used for digging Exposition. pils, or wells; sometimes for carving sepulchres from Ver. 7. In the volume-That is, roll. All the ana rock, Isa. xvi. 14; also for carving (or cutting up). cient books were in this form, as are all the sacred Lieat for a feast, 2 Kings vi. 23. where, instead of MSS of the Synagogues to this day, prepared a great provision," we would read more Ver. 8. Within my heart-Heb.'" In the midst of literally, went up a great 'catting;" I. t. cat up my bowels;" i. e. in my most in ward parts. Busyjoints of meat amongst them; and in Job xli.6. Ver. U. We have mentioned above. Dr. KenniWilt thou part the Leviathan (or carve him got) cott's discovery, that this psalın should end with the among the merchants? The same terin is trans- 10th verse. Thus much is certain, that the last five Serred back from the grottoes of the sepulchre, to verses form the 70th psalm. Perhaps they might be
quarts of human nature; “ Look unto the rnek originally connected, as distinct parts of the same Wetter ye are hewn, and to the hollow of the cave poem; but a short psalm being wanted for some whence je were digged;" referring to Abraham and particular occasion, these verses might be separated Sara Loeth's Isa. li. 1, 3. In harmony with this for the purpose. This is a circumstance not uncomfinagery, a kindred Hebrew noun is used for
birth, mon in church music. of origin. Ezek, xvi. 3.-xxxi, 30. The writer of Ver. 12. My heart faileth-Heb.“Forsaketh me."
(of charity PSALM XLI.
make all his bed in his sickness.
4 I said, Lord, be merciful unto To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David.
me: heal my soul; for, I have sinned BLESSED is he that considereth against thee.
the poor : the LORD will deliver 5 Mine enemies speak evil of me, him in time of trouble.
When shall he die, and his name 2 The LORD will preserve him, and perish? keep him alive; and he shall be blessed 6 And if he come to see me, he upon the earth : and thou wilt not de- speaketh vanity: his heart gathereth liver him unto the will of his enemies. iniquity to itself; when he goeth
3. The Lord will strengthen him abroad, he telleth it. upon the bed of languishing : thou wilt 7 All that hate me whisper together
EXPOSITION—Psalm XL. Continued. quiet of the grave'; but would intimate (as for the most exact and complete obediindeed many of the ancients thought,) ence." This will partly account for the verthat our Lord's sufferings were not ter- sion given of this passage by the Septua. minated with his parting breath.
gint, and in Hebrews x. 5. to which we shall The second part of the psalm, from ver. there again advert. 5 to 10, appears to relate to the incarnation When it is added, “Lo, I come !" these of the Messiah, and to that only. The pur- words, we conceive, express the effect of port of it is, that, seeing the insufficiency the Messiah's ears being thus prepared, of all other sacrifices to take away sin, He wamely, a ready and prompt obedience, presented himself as the great atoning and that in the accomplishment of presacrifice for human guilt. The language ceding predictions : “ In the volume (or here used is peculiar, and requires expla- roll) of the book, it is written of me: I nation. “Sacrifice and offering thou didst delight to do thy will," &c. the evidence not desire:" not that the sacrifices of the of which appeared in preaching in “ the law were unenjoined or disapproved ; yet great congregations” of the temple, the they were not the ultimate object of the
synagogue, and the public highways, till divine command; but were appointed only the speaker's lips were closed by violence as typical, and derived all their value in and death. the sight of God, from being the appointed 'The third part of the psalm comprehends types of Messiah's more perfect sacrifice : from ver. Il to the end; where, as the when offered to supersede the moral duties writer speaks of his sins laying hold upon they became abominable. (Isa. li. 8; Amos him, and sinking him into despair, we rev. 21.)
turn again to David. It appears to us, that “ Mine ears hast thou opened.” In the the five intervening verses (6 to 10,) are a language of the Hebrews, and of poetry, kind of parenthesis, though a most imto open the ears of any one is to secure portant one; and that the eleventh verse his favourable attention, (Job xxxiii. 16.) should be connected with ihe fifth : that de Isaiah, speaking in the person of Messiah, clares the mercies of God to be innumera says, "The LORD God hath opened miné ble; and this entreats that those mercie ear, and I was not rebellious, neither turn- may neither be with held or withdrawn fror ed away back. I gave my back to the the petitioner, who overwhelined wit smiters," &c. (Isa. 1. 5, 6.) But neither in sins and troubles, from which he prays this instance, nor in any other, (we be- ' be delivered. The three following verse lieve,) is the same original word used for (14 to 16,) which, in our version, are re opening the ears, as in the psalm before dered imprecatory, are in the original sit us, which we conceive signifies “ carved," ply future, and so rendered, not only or “cut out,” in the seuse of forming. Bishops Horne and Horsley, but also (See Notes.) As if the psalmist had said, Dr. Boothroyd, who is not governed by t - Mine ears hast thou made, or prepared, same system.
NOTES. · PSALM XLI. The poor- Marg. " Or weak, or This term seems always to imply moral evil, an sick." The Hebrew term is of extensive import, analogous to that of blasphemy. Matt. xxvi. 6 and includes every kind of afliiction. In the Ver. 9. Mine orn familiar friend-Heb. time of trouble-Heb. “In the day of evil."
man of my peace."
-Hath lified up-Heb.“ N Ver. 3. Thou will make-Heb." Turn” all his nified the heel.!! bed.
Ver. 13. Blessed, &c.- This animated dose Ver. 7. Devise my hurt-Heh." Evil to me.”
closes the first book (or collection) of the psalm Ver. 8 An evil disease-Heb.“ A thing of Belial,"
PSALMS. [communion with God. against me : against me do they devise 2 My soul thirsteth for Gol, for the
living God: when shall I come and 8 An evil disease, say they, cleaveth appear before God? fast unto him: and now that he lieth 3 My tears have been my meat day he shall rise up no more.
and night, while they continually say 9 Yea, mine own familiar friend, in unto me, Where is thy God ? . whom I trusted, which did eat of my 4 When I remember these things, I bread, hath lifted up his heel against pour out my soul in me : for I had
gone with the multitude; I went with 10 But thou, O Lord, be merciful them to the house of God, with the unto me, and raise me up, that I may voice of joy and praise, with a multirequite them.
tude that kept holy-day. Il By this I know that thou fa- 5. Why art thou cast down, O my vourest me, because mine enemy doth soul ? and why art thou disquieted in not triumph over me.
me ? Hope thou in God: for I'shall yet 12 And as for me, thou upholdest praise him for the help of his counteme in mine integrity, and settest me before thy face for ever.
6 O my God, my soul is cast down 13 Blessed be the Lord God of within me: therefore will I remember Israel from everlasting, and to ever
thee from the land of Jordan, and lasting. Amen, and Amen. (T) of the Hermonites, from the hill MiPSALM XLII.
7 Deep calleth unto deep at the To the chief Musician: Maschil: for the noise of thy water-spouts : all thy waves sons of Korah.
and thy billows are gone over me. AS the hart panteth after the water 8 Yet, the Lord will comrhand his
brooks, so panteth my soul after lovingkindness in the day-time, and in thee, O God.
the night his song shall be with me,
writers, apply the whole of this, as of the (T) A Psalm of Duvid. The blessedness Psalms generally, to our Saviour ; but as of charity and the baseness of treachery.- the psalmist here also confesses sin, and The eulogy on true charity with which the pleads for mercy, we cannot, for reasons psalm opens, is of most extensive applica- giveu in our exposition of Psalms xxx, and tion. The poor, the weak, the sick, are all xxxi., admit him to be here the speaker; its objects, and those wbo display tbis kind but perhaps we might divide the psalm not and benevolent disposition, of which our improperly into two parts : in the first five Lord affords a perfect example, though verses, we may cousider the writer as they can have no pretensions to merit, speaking in his own person, and in the rehave a promise of like sympathy and aid mainder in the person of the Messiab, our from the Lord himself in their afflictions. Lord Jesus having himself applied for acBut it may be here asked, how then was cominodated) the ninth verse to the our compassionate Lord himself surren- treachery of Judas. To lift up the heel dered to his enemies? why was not he, the against a person, is not only to desert him, most compassionate of all men, delivered or run away; but to turn the back and from them? The answer is easy—“He was treat him with contempt. Judas did this, delivered for our offences.” (Rom. iv. 25.) and probably never looked his master in
Bishop Horne, and other Hutchinsonian the face after he betrayed him.
NOTES. PSALM XLII. Title - Maschil. See Note to Ver. 4. These things)-Or times, rather. Booththe tité or P. xxvii. For the sons of Korak-- royrl, who were cboristers, 1 Chron, vi. 33, &c.
Ver. 5 and Il. Why art thou cast down ?-Heb. Sr. As the hart panteth--Heb. “ brayeth.” « Bowed down." - I shall yel praise - Marg. The Hebrew is feminine.
" Give thanks" for the help of his countenance; Ver. 1. Tears have been my meat-That is, I have Marg." His presence (or countenance)is salvation;" been so oceupied in weeping, that I have neglected Heb. “ salvations,” my niecesary food. See Ps. Ixxx. 6.
Ver.6. The hill Mizar-Marg. “ The little bill:'