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LORD: thy blessing is upon thy people.
Selah. (C)

PSALM IV.

To the chief Musician on Neginoth. A
Psalm of David.

HEAR me when I call, O God of

my righteousness: thou hast enlarged me when I was in distress; have mercy upon me, and hear my prayer.

20 ye sons of men, how long will ye turn my glory into shame? how long will ye love vanity, and seek after leasing? Selah.

3 But know that the LORD hath set apart him that is godly for himself: the

PSALM III.

[Psalm.!

LORD will hear when I call unto him. 4 Stand in awe, and sin not: commune with your own heart upon your bed, and be still. Selah.

5 Offer the sacrifices of righteousness, and put your trust in the LORD. 6 There be many Who that say, will shew us any good? LORD, lift thou up the light of thy countenance upon us.

7 Thou hast put gladness in my heart, more than in the time that their corn and their wine increased.

8 I will both lay me down in peace, and sleep: for thou, LORD,only makest me dwell in safety. (D)

EXPOSITION.

(C) A Psalm of David, for the morning. -This psalm is said to have been composed by David, when he fled from his son Absalom. "Thus circumstanced, (says Bishop Horne) he expresses himself in terms well adapted to the parallel case of the Son of David, persecuted by rebellious Israel; as also to that of his church, suffering tribulation in the world." The psalmist "complains, in much anguish, of the multitude of his enemies, and of the reproaches cast upon him, as one forsaken by God;" but declaring, notwithstanding, his sure trust in the divine promises, he derides the impotent malice of his ene mies, and ascribes his anticipated salvation to JEHOVAH. Thus is the same scripture made "profitable" to a variety of useful purposes. (2 Tim. iii. 16.) If we look back to the original occasion of the psalm, we cannot but grieve to hear the venerable monarch say of his own rebellious son, "Arise and flee, for we shall not else escape from Absaloin: make speed to depart, lest he overtake us, and smite the city with the edge of the sword." (2 Sam. xv. 14.) If we look forward to David's Son and successor, we may mark the period when Jew and Gentile conspired against him, as stated in the preceding psalm. If we look within, we shall always find enemies ready to rise up against us: we may, however, here also encourage

ourselves, as both David and Messiah did,
in the consideration that "salvation be-
longeth unto God," and he is "a shield unto
all them that trust in him." Under these
considerations, we may at night "lie down
in peace," and in confidence of diving
protection; and in the morning, arise and
praise our great Deliverer.

"My God sustain'd me all the night;
Salvation doth to God belong :

He rais'd my head to see the light,
And make his praise my morning song." Watt

PSALM IV.

(D) A Psalm of David, for the evenin -This, like many other psalms, is in t title directed to the chief musician Neginoth," or, "the overseer of the p formers on stringed instruments," inclu ing the harp, psaltery, and other inst ments played with the hand: so the foll ing psalm is dedicated "to the chief sician on Nehiloth," or " to the oversee the performers on wind instruments, the organ, and other pipes. The trum were performed on by the priests of but these two classes of instruments already intimated, were properly usc accompany two choirs of singers, w performed alternately, and when united in general chorus, the trum horns, and cymbals, were probably j with them. This was an evening p and probably used at the time of the ing sacrifice. It is, however, e NOTES.

PSALM 1V. TITI E,-To the Chief. "The original word (menatseach) signifies one that urgeth the continuance of any thing unto the end, 2 Chron. xxii. 18, and xxxiv. 12, 13..... There were Levites appointed to several duties; and some (lenatseach) to set forward, and be over the rest, I Chron. xv. 21. and there were such as excelled in the art of singing and playing upon instruments.. Some Levites

had no other charge." Ainsworth. The LXX render Lemnatseach, " to the end," (eis telos) which the critics have been much puzzled to account for; but

if the leader were always placed, as with us end of the row of musicians which he superin it will be easily accounted for.

Ver. 2. Leasing-Horsley, "falsehood." Ver 4. Stand in awe-Bishop Horne,“ tr But the Greek translators render it, "Be ar sin not; "and so it is quoted by St. Paul, Eph Ver. 7. More than in the time-“ Bey "superior to," Bishop Lowth.

Ver. 8. I will both, &c.-" I will at once,'

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PSALMS.

To the chief Musician upon Nehiloth. A

Psalm of David.

GIVE ear to my words, O LORD, consider my meditation.

2 Hearken unto the voice of my cry, Wmy king, and my God: for unto thee LORD, will I pray.

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3 My voice shalt thou hear in the morning, O LORD; in the morning will I direct my prayer unto thee, and will look up.

4 For thou art not a God that hath pleasure in wickedness: neither shall evil dwell with thee.

5 The foolish shall not stand in thy sight: thou hatest all workers of iniquity.

6 Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing: the LORD will abhor the

bloody and deceitful man.

[Psalm.

7 But as for me, I will come into thy house in the multitude of thy mercy and in thy fear will I worship toward thy holy temple.

8 Lead me, O LORD, in thy righteousness because of mine enemies; make thy way straight before my face. 9 For there is no faithfulness in their mouth; their inward part is very wickedness; their throat is an open sepulchre; they flatter with their tongue.

10 Destroy thou them, O God; let them fall by their own counsels; cast them out in the multitude of their transgressions, for they have rebelled against thee.

11 But let all those that put their trust in thee rejoice: let them ever

EXPOSITION.

adapted to the use of Christians as of Jews. It is the language of one who, having received mercy in former time, now applies to the same source for assistance and deliverance. But the psalm is not all devotional; part of it is addressed to persons of a different character: "How long will ye turn my glory into shame?" that is, how long will you despise and ridicule my trast in Jehovah, which is my glory? and at the same time delight in vanity and falsehood; or, as those words mean in the lips of a pious Israelite, How long will you put your trust in idols, which are but lying vanities." (Acts xiv. 15.)

Such are exhorted to stand in awe-to reflect to meditate by night upon their eds, and submit to the divine decree, as aving reference to his establishment on e throne, from which he was probably w driven; for Lightfoot, Calniet, and ers, think this psalm, as well as the preng, was written during Absalom's reon. Both, however, may have a far

ther reference to the Messiah himself, as King in Sion, and ver. 4. may be parallel with Ps. ii. 11." Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling."

The concluding verses of the psalm forcibly represent the writer's faith and confidence in God, in contradistinction from those who seek their happiness in worldly objects. There be many that say, "Who will shew us any good?"-many who inquire after honours, riches, and earthly pleasures; - but what are these to us?

Lord! lift thou up on us the light of thy countenance!" This shall kindle a light amidst the darkest adversity; this shall create a joy beyond that of the harvest or the vintage. (Isa. ix. 3.) With such anticipations, the good man may lay down to sleep with composure, and rest in the assurance of perfect safety.

"Thus with my thoughts composed to peace,
I lay me down to sleep:
Thy hand in safety keeps my days,
And will my slumbers keep."

NOTES.

LMV. Ver.3. Will I direct-Rather, arrange, th, orderly address thee;" the words "my being supplementary. Bishop Horsley resers to the orderly arrangement made by s previous to the morning sacrifice.And up-Ainsworth, "lock out," literally, for an answer to his prayer.

Wickedness.... evil. Mr. Ainsworth hat these words may be understood of evil persons, who ought not impenitently the divine presence; and who will not into the courts above.

The foolish, in Scripture, seldom or never ons deficient in capacity. The word here ndered by Ainsworth, "vain-glorious sinners who glory in their sins.

Watts.

Ver. 7. Toward thy holy temple-Heb. "The temple of thy holiness. See 1 Kings viii. 38, 44, 48. Before the erection of Solomon's temple, this applied to the tabernacle. 1 Sam. 1. 9.-iii. 3.

Ver. 8. Mine enemies-Heb. "My spies;" those that watch me.

Ver. 9. Faithfulness- Ainsworth, "certainty;" i. e. their word cannot be depended on. Very wickedness - Heb. "wickednesses."- Flatter:Horsley. "smooth over."

Ver. 10. Destroy thou them-Marg. "Make them guilty." Bishop Horsley, "Convict them," i. e. pronounce sentence against them as rebels; for those that rebelled against the Lord's anointed, rebelled against the Lord.

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PALM V

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2 Have mercy upon me, O LORD; for I am weak: O LORD, heal me; becaus for my bones are vexed.

3 My soul is also sore rexed: but thou, O Lord, how bog?

4 Return, O LORD, deliver my soul: Oh save me for thy mercies' sake.

5. For in death there is no remembrance of thee: in the grave who shall give thee thanks!

6 I am weary with my groaning; all the night make I my bed to swim; I water my couch with my tears.

EXPOSITION.

grace. It is plain, therefore, that the de

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the enemies of the lateral David; and is of Cyli more general import, reaching to the Care work of the ungodly, and to the enemies

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person of the Messiah and his church. The charge brought against these is, that truth ad-hoc were not to be found

their dealings with God or each other; that their in wird parts were very wicked- KILY test; their fit boughts and imaginaDices were det el, ail the stream was puisoned at the fontann : that their throat

A CIR, centuado emitBag, in sosore and impides hogare, the auissant and infectious exhalations of t a putrid weart, entombed in a body of sin; 1 and mat, if ever they put on the appearance Te famered with their of godless, Be #Gg in order the more effectually to deceive and bestrev.

In calling for Skigment against his enemies, the psalase use be considered as the Lord's anced; the che rebelled 128 V2, Rocled against the Lord 1235 is parYLA true. f, with Daces Harm and Hrsa, my the ps the Messias, w2.se in entent enemies are exted in time bece of These, bewever, who love and tear him, have every reason to juge a bla—

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NOTES

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{Psalm.

2 Lest he tear my soul like a lion, rending it in pieces, while there is none to deliver.

3 O LORD my God, if I have done this; if there be iniquity in my hands;

4 If I have rewarded evil unto him that was at peace with me; (yea, I have delivered him that without cause is mine enemy :)

5 Let the enemy persecute my soul, and take it; yea, let him tread down my life upon the earth, and lay mine honour in the dust. Selah.

6 Arise, O LORD, in thine anger, lift up thyself because of the rage of mine enemies and awake for me to the judgment that thou hast commanded.

EXPOSITION,

A Psalm of David, in time of sickes and great affliction.-This psalm is addressed to the chief musician, on Negiath upon Sheminith-that is, probably on stringed instruments (tuned) an octave above the usual pitch, as more plaintive, and therefore a more suitable accompaniBent to a penitential psalm like this. Bishop Horsley here remarks, "The supplicatory Psalms may be generally divided into two classes, according to the prayer; which, in some, regards the public, and in others the individual. In those of the latter class, which is the most numerous, the supplicant is always in distress. His distress arises chiefly from the persecution of his enemies. His enemies are always the enemies of God and goodness. Their enmity to the supplicant is unprovoked. If It has any cause, it is only that he is the faithful servant of JEHOVAH, whose worship they oppose. They are numerous and werful, and use all means, both of force nd stratagem, for the supplicant's destruc; an object, in the pursuit of which they incessantly employed. The supplicant

is alone, without friends, poor, and destitute of all support, but God's providential protection. The supplicant, on the other hand, often miraculously relieved, is yet never out of danger, though he looks forward with confidence to a period of final deliverance. If at any time he is under apprehension of death, it is by the visitation of God in sickness. And at those seasons, the persecution of his enemies always makes a considerable part of the affliction.

But why, (it may be asked,) is David so distressed at the thought of dying? Did he suppose that he should perish, or be annihilated? or that the state on which he was entering was one of total insensibility? This can refer only to the state of the body. The grave is the land of forgetfulness and of silence, where the voice of praise is never heard. (Psalm lxxxviii.12; exv. 17; Isa. xxxviii. 18, 19.) Recovery from sickness is the restoration of joy and gladness, and while our joy arises from a principle of gratitude, our gladness will be expressed in praise; and that praise will not rest privately in our own bosoms, but we shall be glad to unite with the congregation of all those who fear God,

NOTES.

MVII. Title-Skiggaion.—This is a very word, and of doubtful derivation. Ains ls it "an artificial song" (or wandering); "a lamentation;" and Boothroyd, (still an elegy." See Hab. iii. 1.—Cush, the -The late Mr. C. Taylor has taken as to show that the Hebrews (like other sis indulged sometimes in a play of words. s, No. 187, 188.) Something of the kind observed here. Some suppose the name Kush) used for Kish, and the name Kish,

the father, for Saul his son. Others think Cush may here be used in a moral sense for Shimei, (who also was a Benjamite) as in such sense a black man; that is, a man of black, malignant character. Such was Shimei, as we find in his history (2 Sam. xvi. 5, &c.) The Cushites, if not absolutely black, were of very dark complexions.

Ver. 2. None to deliver-11eb. "Not a deliverer." Ver.3. If I have done this-Namely, what he was accused of, 2 Sam, xvi. 7, 8.—If there be (such) iniquity, &c,

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7 So shall the congregation of the people compass thee about: for their sakes therefore return thou on high.

8 The LORD shall judge the people: judge me, O LORD, according to my righteousness, and according to mine integrity that is in me.

9 Oh let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end; but establish the just for the righteous God trieth the hearts and reins.

10 My defence is of God, which saveth the upright in heart.

11 God judgeth the righteous, and God is angry with the wicked every day.

12 If he turn not, he will whet his sword; be hath bent his bow, and made it ready.

13 He hath also prepared for him the instruments of death; he ordaineth his arrows against the persecutors.

14 Behold, he travaileth with ini

PSALM VII.

[Psalm.

quity, and hath conceived mischief,
and brought forth falsehood.

15 He made a pit, and digged it,
and is fallen into the ditch which he
made.

16 His mischief shall return upon his own head, and his violent dealing shall come down upon his own pate.

17 I will praise the LORD according to his righteousness: and will sing praise to the name of the LORD most high. (G)

PSALM VIII.

To the chief Musician upon Gittith. A
Psalm of David.

LORD our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! who hast set thy glory above the heavens.

2 Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast thou ordained strength because of thine enemies, that thou

EXPOSITION.

but with how little force may be seen by considering the cases of Hezekiah and (G) An Elegy of David.-" David is Nehemiah (referred to in the Notes.) We said to have composed this psalm" con- have no objection, however, to such an ap cerning the words (or the matter) of Cush plication, if not made exclusive. The fol the Benjamite. Whether Saul, or Shi-Towing remarks of Bishop Horne are both mei, or any one else, be intended under just and striking: this name, it is sufficiently clear that David had been maliciously calumniated, and that this psalm was written to vindicate himself from the imputation." The writer declares his trust to be in God alone, protests his innocence of the accusation, and requests that judgment may be given on his behalf. He then prays for the suppression of wickedness and the establishment of righteousness, denounces the most awful judgments against sinners, and praises God for his deliverance.

That the psalmist requests to be "judged according to his righteousness," has been used as an argument, not only to apply, but to confine this psalm to the Messiah,

"Conscious of his righteousness and integrity, as to the matter in question, David desires to be judged by him who is to judg the world at the last day. How few, among Christians, have seriously and deliberatel considered whether the sentence of the day is likely to be in their favour! Yet how many, with the utmost composure an self-complacency, repcat continually t words of this psalm, as well as those in th Te Deum, We believe that thou sha come to be our judge!' Legal, or perfe righteousness and integrity, are peculiar the Redeemer; but evangelical righteo ness and integrity all must have w would be saved."

NOTES-Psalm VII. Con.

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Ver. 10. My defence is of God-Heb. My buckler is upon God," Ainsworth," In God; the man"" or ing unquestionably is, "God is my buckler,' "shield."

Ver. 11. God judgeth the righteous-Marg. “God is a righteous Jedge." So Ainsworth, Horsley, &c.

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-God is angry with the wicked-This shou understood in the singular," the wicked man." " agrees with the following sentence, If he. &c. Ver. 14. Behold, he travaileth. The travaileth and conceiveth should be transp "Hath conceived iniquity, travailed with se and brought forth falsehood; i e. an abortion this effect Boothroyd.

Ver. 15. He hath made-Heb. "He hath dig pit, and sunk it" (deep), &c.

Ver. 16. Pate-The crown of his hend.

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