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them by France, and were about to retura our history, which will Aransmit them to pose under the dominion of that coyutry. We' terity. , have it in our power to state that this rum " It is our earnest wish to pass over these mour is wholly unfounded, and that no such times of opprubriun and iniquity, and arrive intention has been entertained for a single at the era when general liberly was proclainmoment by either of the rival chiess. The last ed by the agents of the French Governgent, arrivals from Hayti lave brought us, ainong and sanctioned by France herself, during uther interesting documents which fully several years of connection, of communica prove the determined resistance that will tion, and of mulual and uniuteriuplet corbe made to any attempt France may medi- respondence between the Governments of tale on their freedom and independence, a the two countries Manifesto of King Henry (Christophe) pube. “ We were worthy of liberig, from our lished on the ed of October, wbich will not fidelity and attachment to the mother counfail to astonish those who liave continued try; we have proved our gratitude to her, to consider the Haytians as mere barba- when reduced to our own resources, inflexpians. The object of it is, to assert before ible la menaces, inaccessible. 10 seduction, the grand tribunal of natious, the right of deaf 10 proposition, we braved misery, {aHayti to its independence; and we think mine, and all kinds of privations, and finally, that no reflecting man who 'reaus it, can ho triuniphed over boid her external and internestly resist the claim. The Manifesto is as nal enemies. We were then far from fore. fullows:

seeing, thai twelve years afterwards, as " Sovereign of a nation too long orpress. reward for so much perseverance, so many ed, which has suffered the most cruel perse sacrifices, and so much blood, France would tolions, and which by its energy, constancy, wish to deprive us, in the inost barbarous courage, and valour, has succeeded in effect. manner, of the most precious of all possesing its liberty and independence; our only sions--liberty. end, our unceasing anxiety, has been, to Under the administration of the Gom give to it a rank among civilised states, by vernor-General, Toussaint Louverture, Hayai consecrating our labours to the happiness of irose from its aslies, and every thing seemed a good, brave, atid generous people, which to promise a happy futurity. The arrival of has entrusted to us the care of its destinics., General Hedvosille changed the appearance

“ It is under favourable circumstances in of things, and gave a death-blow to public which liberal and dignified ideas appear to tranquillity. We shall not eufer into a detail predominate over those disastrous times of his intrigues with the Hayrian General when mankind groaned beneath the most Rigaud, whom he persuaded to revols horrible tyranny, and under which we be- against his legitimate chief, We shall merely hold the Sovereigns of Europe solely en.

notice, ihat before this agent deparied, he gaged at present in rendering their people disturbed every thing, by throwing amongst happy, tliat we deem it our duty tú raise us the brands of discord, and it was only our voice, and to justify, at the tribunal after the flowing of torrents of blood, that of nations, the legitimacy of our inde public tranquillity was re-established. Ali pendence.

ways occupied in the restoration of peace. 7 A simple relation of facts, a plain garra: Tuussaint Louverture, by his patunal admi. tive of the events which have produced nistration, had recalled the seign of the law - our independence, will be sufficient to dea of morality, of piety, of learning, of indus

monstrate by the most satisfactory evidence try, Agriculture and commerce fourished. to thie whole world our rights, and the justice of our cause.

system, by those who have themselves been *** "We shall not attempt to depict the doo its victims, is indeed a desideratun, plorable situation into which we were plunged

It has not been sufficieniig attended to before the epoch of our emancipation. The in considering the case of the Hagtiáns, that “world knows, that for upwards of 150 years they were put in possession of their liberty

we were afflicted by the grievous yoke of by a law of the French Legislature, solemnly slavery, condemned to contempt and pu- passcd and formally promulgated. They nishiinent. The recital of our protracted are, therefore, tonstitutionally free, and ilie misfortunes

, and the description of the lior projects of the West-Indían party to reduce tible tortures we have strffered during the them to slavery are ás contrary w law as colonial system are the peculiar province of to justice. Fortunately, however, for the

Haytiatis, tlie question of their freedom does A bistory of the bortons of the colonial - not bow depend on French special plead ug. !!! Win Wisor

5 N2 alian milindru 9.1: "ito o '

• He patronized the white colonists, par. it was merely because the bestile dannes in ticularly the planters; liis sořicitude, nay, which they were summoned to surrendes bis preference, had been carried to such a had obliged them to consult only their datys heiglit, that he was loudly blamed for being their lionour, and the circumstances in which, more attached to them than to his counury. they were placed."- [To prove these assere men. This reproach was not without some tiuns, reference is made to some official docu. foundation; sot sonne months before the arrival ments which are annexed to the Manisesto. of the French, he sacrificed his own nephew, " After a resistance of some months, the Gen. Moyse, because he had not observed his Governor yielded to the pressing entreaties orders for the protection of the colonists. and to the formal protestations of General This sct of the Governor, and the great Leclerc, that perfect liberty should be main, confidence he placed in the French Ga- tained, and that France would never destroy vernment, were the principal causes of the her noblest work. On this basis, the peace public reception the French experienced at was negociated with thic French, and Gores-> Bagui

. Indeed, so strong was his coufidence nor Toussaint, having laid down his astboin thai Goveruinent, that he had dismissed rity, quietly retired to the retreat he had the greater part of the troops of the line. choseu..

“ Sucli was the situation of affairs whilst “ The French had scarcely extended their the peace of Amiens was negociating. It dominion over the whole island, mare bois was scarcely concluded when a powerful cunning and perspasiou tban by force of arny landed on our coast, which sorprised arms, when tliey began to put in exccia: as in a muinent of perfect security, and tion their hørtille system of slavery and plunged us into an abyss of misfortunes. destruction. The better to accomplish tleis Posterity will scarcely believe, that in a plans, a correspondence was fabricated by philazsthropic and enlightened age, so abo- Machiavelie and mercenary seribes-designs minable an enterprise took place. From were attributed to Toussaint which he had. the boson of an enlightened nation, a swarm Deves thought of. While quietly seposing of basbarians went forth, to destroy and load in his habitation of Pongandin, under the with letters a whole civilized and unoffende protection of solemn treaties, he was loadest ing people.

with chains, cunreged- to France with his " It was not enough to use force; but, the family in a vessel called the Hero and all better to insure the success of the experi. Europe kuows how he terminated his unhape tion, it was necessary to use perfidious and py career, amidst the tortures and horrors of Shameful means. It was necessary to sow the dungeon of Chateau de Jour; in Franche division aunngat us, in order to calise a Comple. Such was the recompense reserveda division favourable to their objects. They for his altachment to France, and for the neglected nothing to attain this execrable eminent services which he had rendered end. The chiefs of different colours, who her and the colonists. were in France, even the song of the Go- « From this moment the signal for attests vernor, Toussaint Louverture, were brought was given throughout the island. All those orer in the expedition-even they were who had displayed strength of mind, or for deceived, like us, bg ibat muster piece of perior talents, at the period when we claimeperfidy, the Proclamation of the First Consul, ent the rights of man, wete the first seized in which he said-m You are all equat and upon. Even the traitors who liad sided free before Gork and the Republic.' This the French armies - by guiding their fans was his declaration, while the instructions guards, and pointing out their fellow-ciúzens given to General Leclerc positively enjoined to their vengeance, were not spared. All be imposition of slavery. It was not enough first it was attempted to sell them in for to take men as witnesses of his perjury, but reign colonies; but this not having seecsed the Deity ojust also be jusolted by horrible ed, the French resolved to carry there is blasphemy. :

France, where appressive labour; the galleys " The greater part of the people, deceived fetters, and dungeons awaited them. Thes by these falhacivus promises, and long as the Colonists, whose pember had progres exstomed to consider themselves Frenchy gively increased, thiuking their empire ak sanmitted without resistance. The Governor! ready established, ceased to disserale, "so little expected to have an energy to opa openly declared that slavery was meer pose, that he had not even given any orders tablished, and acted conformably with their talis generals in case of an attack. On the declaration. These shameless tien desired, appearance of the French squadron in the that those should again subunit to the robe east of tbe island, if any generals did resisty a slavery, who bad distinguished theme

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selves and been useful to their country, both to engage the French cabinetsimarnewens in civil and miditaty capacities; that virtuous -terprise against us Jf ever this enterprise : and honourable ragistrates ; that warriors should take place-rund shat it wil verancis corered with wounds, whose blood bad been hardly believemplo tbls casty the enemies it jä spilled in the cause of Erance and of liberty; the immuan race, we shall be indebted for it; should bu degraded by agaia becoming for we are far from jiuputing socke an interest plaves!

tion to those Europeans who have no known * Thas these Colonists, who hadbut just ledge of the colouial systens of which we hace obtained possession of their estates, wlose... been the victims, and of the borrible this e nupire was held together by a threal, already fortunes which iwe lave suffered. What decided which should be the first victims of interest had the French in Careying the tigre." their vengeance. Then arrived the infamous rors of war into the heart of a nation which deeree ut Buonaparte, which confirmed the ' was proud of belonging to tbeo: What inas re-establishment of our slavery; and, the lerese bad they ju coming is bury themselves better to insult our juisery, he éruployed foin our destructive clinate, and in tendering wards us the same system of delusion which -- themselves the instruments of the Culovists.he usually made use of towards the people : 10 saliate sleir thirst for riebes; and lures of Europe. This decree was brought by a vengeance? traitor called Hercule, a black oicer, who • Nevertheless, the greaters, part of they was the creature of Buonaparte. The proud people began to take up arids: lo' preserot and libercicide fæction of the Colonists and life and liberty. Tluis first movement aláriu seilers of human fleshi, whicle, since the Re. 1 ed etre French, and appeared serious enough volution, has annoyed every succeeding. lo General Leclerc; lu require tlie CouVOCAgovernment of France with plans, projects, : tion of HD Extraordinary Asserobły or slie wad atrocious and extravagant memorials, Colonists, in order to adopt upeasures that tending to our destruction--his faction, lorer best adapted to restore a better state of ruented by die recollection of the stespotisis. allairs; but these Cuionists, far from telóx-** which it exercised in Harti, ayitated by a

ing their utrocious principles in consequence crowd of contending passions, employed alt. of inperious circunstances, unapinuously possible means to seize again on the prey answered in these words--- No slavery, 110 which has escaped fraus it, Cuder the reign colony.' of the Csüstiuent Assembly, it supported

" As members of this Council, in vairt we jadepensiqice i under that of the Jacobins, raised uur voice to prutera the coupletion sided with the Terrorists; when Buonaparte : of the ruins of our country--in sain we tgadie'e governed, it was violepily Buonapartist; and representations on the injustice of empusing in short, it put on the mask of all parties to slavery on freemen--in vain, from out knows render then favourable. . It will thus that ledge of the spirit and love ut liberiỹ whicho it persuaded Buonaparte 10 undertake ilie, animated our countrymen, we asserted thán" wojuse, expedition against Hayri, It was it was the only means of detaching this

be same taction wliich, after persuading country for ever from France. Ak was 'oses ** ning into that measure, furnished wie with less. · Convinced, then, that no theatis of pecuniary resources, by subscription lista, conciliation existed, and that it was necesari which were opened at this periud. It was, sary to choose beineen slavery und an this faction, in a word, which caused the nourable death, we yuvé information of the bloud of our countrymen to flow so abus- slale of things to vor fellow.citizens who dantly wrich instigated the unlears-ot, had their eyes fixed upon is; and we aff puuishments which we bare leli, and which unanimousig touk up asus, tesutred to die could have been invented only by Colunists, or to cxpel lur ever the tyrants front opp Luardened in, and habitunted to, all sorts of soil, Aslo General Leclerc, who had alo crimes. It is to the Colonises hat France ready announced the sabnuissions of the owes the loss of a aumerous wrmy, which island, and had even received leiters otcom perished on the plaias and, monatains of gratulation, on the supposed..conqaost of Hagti: to them is attributable that shame llayti, tóct the maritime tuw us of Pralice, fal enterprise. which bas imprinted an inde« where the principal followers of the State lible stain on the French game... 2.3 Trade resided, astrames of laring treld out « We are persuaded, after the illusory bores, vexed at nur nying been perience we have had of the spirn which adale tu curisiimmate, ibis detestablementerahiniatės these Colonists and tratfickers ish prize, bearing the approach of a lecrible whr, hwinan flesh; and their vile supporters, ont despair shorteard his dafs, and hurried him ibey will emplosial sheic accusonued means lu șuis gtawal..


« Among other crimes which distinguished their efforts, we have effected the expalsina the administration of 1.eclerc, that practised of these oppressors of our territory. against the Hagtian General Maurepas will " To secure os for ever against the return excite the indignation of any heart susceptis of such barbarities and unheard-of crimes, as ble of pity. Maurepas, of gentle manners, well as against perfidy, and injustice, we do honest and respected by bis countrymen, solved for ever to rid oorselves of every kind who was one of the first to join the French, of foreign doininion; and accordingly on the and who had rendered them the most Ist of January, 1804. in a General Assets signal services, was suddenly carried away bly of the Representatives of the Nation, to Port de Paix, and put on board the Ad. the Independence of Ilagti was solemnls miral's ship in the road of the Cape, where, proclained; and we took an outh to die free after having been fastened to the mast, two and independent, and aever submit to any old epaulets were nailed in derision upp his foreign power. shoulders, and an old general's hat put up- " Like other people, our first years were on liis bead, with nails, such as are used in checquered with errors and troubles = like the building of ships. In this frightful situa- them, we partools of the vicissitudes insepa tion, after having saliated the savage joy of rable fronu revolutions. On our advancethose cannibals, he was precipitated with ment to the throne, our first care was, to his wife and children into the waves. Such raise the name and dignity of the Haytian was ihe punishment of this virtuous and un. People, convinced that good faith, frankness, fortunale soldier!

and probity in all transactions, respect for “ To the government of Leclerc succeeded property and the rights of men, could alnne that of Rochambeau. This monster, the effect this object. Convinced that the laws agent of Buonapaste, was polluted by every constitute the happiness of men united in species of crime; he spared neither sex, in- society, our first object was to form a code fancy, nor old age; he surpassed in cruelty of laws conformable to our usages, our clie the most refined villains in ancient or modern mate, and our manners. After a laberious úpes; the gibbet was raised erery where, attention, and with the assistance of the the drowning and burning machines, and all Almighty, we have been enabled to put the kinds of punishments were put in practice by finishing stroke 10 ibis hasis of our social his orders. He invented a kind of machine edifice, We have constantly encouraged where victims of both sexes, heaped one up- agriculture and commerce, which are the og another, were suffocated by the vapour channels of public prosperity. Abundant of sulphur. In his senseless rage, he went barvests have been the result of the labou to the expense of bringing a pack of Lloud- and efforts of our cultivators. Great quan hounds from Cuba to this island; they were tities of products have been carried away brought by a Frenchman named Noailles, of from our ports since we proclaimed our inan illustrious family, who, during the Revo- dependence; and particularly during the lution, was the first who betrayed liis bene. years 18/2, 1813, and 1814, by foreign nafactors; and thus was the human race given tions, which have carried on a lucratire comup to be devoured by these blood-hounds, merce with us. which partook of all the horrible propensities Solicitous to adopt every means for se of their masters. What then was our crime? viving our internal prosperity, at all times What had we done to deserve such a pro- attentirely observing the events that passed scription? Is this African origin, then, to in Europe during the bloody atraggle sop, be a cause of eternal opprobriun to us? Is ported there, we never for a single instant the colour of cus skin, to be for eser ile seal lost sight of our military system of defence of our reprobation?

." In that atitude we expected that Buna "lu the space of one

and twenty monihs. naparte, ihe enemy of the world, would af: doring which the French seinained in our tack us, çither by force of arins, os bg pera island, more than 16,000 of our countrymen sids, his accustomed means. We bare nos perished by the tortures just dezories. The forgol that after the peace of Amiens ling barbarities committed upon the Vastians by these modern conquerors exceeded the crimes Toussaint and the transactions under Ledere of Pizarro, of Cortez, os Budavilla, the first and Rochambeau, with ibose shich hare ap devastators of the new world... After all peared in the Crisis of the Sugar Colonies,

the Opportunity and the Life of Toussaing It is impossible not to be struck with the Louverture. The light which is thus thrown cxact coincidence of the statements in this on the historical accuracy of these morbis Manifesto, respecting both the cliaracter of must be gratifying to their anchore ,,3 %

11. 91.1 201409 11 1517 09900 LUDrosme es putea sa 'ca :0 399,00

first object was to enter on that famous ex Hayti by force of armps: The power that pedition for our cxtermination.

would undertake such' an enterprize, would 7. But the God of Armies, who raises and have to march for a lurig tinie uver 'ruin muid overturns thrones according to bis wilt, did dead bodies; and after having wasted all its prof, ir bis justice, consent ihat this oppreso means, if it could anain its object, what sor of nations should accomplish his borrible advantage would it derive from the loss of design. We bope that his fall will give so much blood and treasure. It is not prerepose to the torld, we hope that ine re- sumptuous to suppose that his Majesty Louis turn of those liberal and reanimating semti XVII., following the impulse of that phiments which influence the Earopean Pow. lanthropic spiric that reigns in his family, ers, will induce them to acknowledge the after the example of his unfortunate bro. independence of people who require unily ther. Louis XVI., in liis political conduct

the enjoyment of peace and commerce, the towards the Unied States of Americn, will • object of all civiliser nations.

imitate that monarch is acknowledging the - It will be in vain to attempt again, by independence of Hagti. Ilois would not means of force of seduction, to reduce us only be an act of justice, but a reparation under a foreign dominion. The absord of the evils which we have suffered from the maxim of deceiving men in order to governt French Government, thein, is no longer dangerous to us. Taught

"lo is in- vain that our calunniators shall by experience, we have acquired the aid dare again to allege that we should not be of truth, of reason, and of force. We shall considered as a people aspiring to independ Do longer be the victiids of credulity; we dence, and collectively employed in the means cannot forget that attempts have already of attaining it * This absurd assertion, ina been made to take away our liberty. The vented by perfidy, wickedness, and the painful recollection of the horrible punish- sordiu interests of slave traders, déserves ments which precipitated into the grave vur the profoundest contempt and indignationi fathers, our mothers, and children, will never of nen of property in all countries. This be'effaced from our minds.''

assertion has been sufficiently falsified during 9. "We can never again he deceived: we eleven years of independence, and its happy koow the perverseness of our enemies: we tesults. Free in point of right, and indes have before our eyes the projects of those pendent in fact, we will never renounce men named Malouet, Barri de Saint Ve. these blessings ; we will never consent to nant, Pages, Brulley, and other Colonists. behold the destruction of that edifice which The political religion of close traflickers in we have cemented with our blood, until we human flesh-of those coimsellors of tuisfor. are buried ander its ruilis. lunes-- is well known to us:-it is slavery We offer to comnercial powers, who and destruction. We are not ignorant of shall enter into relations with us, our friends the crinital plots, the shameful measures of, ship--security to their property, and out those apostles of criminality and datseliood:, royal protection to their peaceable subthey are even inore distinguished by their writ. jects, who shall come to our country with ings, than by the tortures they inflicted on us. the intention of carrying on their commer

We call upon all the sovereigns of the cial affairs, and who shall conform to our world-we call upon the brave and loyal laws and usages. British Nation, which was the first in its " The king of a free people, a soldier hy angust senate to pr«claim thie abolition of habit, we fear no war or enemy. We have the infamous trade in Blacks; and whichi, already siguified our determination not to making a noble 'nse of the ascendancy of interfere in any way in the internal govern. victory, notified its resolution to the other ment of our neighbours, we wish to enjoy startes with which it concluded 'tréaties: 'we 'peace and tranquillity among ourselves, and call upon all philantliropists, upon all' men, to exert the same prerogatives which other • and upon the whole world, and ask what people have, of making laws for themselves people, alter twenty-five years of conflicts if, after the free exposition of oor senti and after having conquered their liberty and ments, and the justice of our cause, any their independence, would consent to tay power should, contrary to the laws of da down their arms for ile purpose of again tions, place a hostile foot in our territory, * decunting the sport and ihe victinis of their then, our first duty will be to repel' such an cruet oppressors? The last of the Mayuans act of, aegression by every meaus tn pür will yield up his last sigli sooner than re power, nomice bis independence.

* We solemnly declare that we will never “ We will not do any power the injastice of supposing that it entertains the chime. • See Malouet's Memoirs respecting St. rical project of establishing its sway in "Doiningo.

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