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however, of the mode of interpreta- enable us thus to interpret his word, tion recommended in this volume is, and graut us “a right judgment in inserted in the Appendix, io an ana. all things!" lysis of the Epistle to the Ephe. sians, and an analytical introduction to that to the Colossians, to which A Sermon, preached in the Parish

Church of Lancaster, on Thursday: we can now only refer our readers. We have, perhaps, dwelt some

August the 25th, A.D. 1814, at the what longer upon this publication,

Primary Visitation of the Right because we consider that at a tinie

Rev. George Henry Lord Bishop when the most laudable zeal pre

of Chester, and published at the vails amongst us for the distribution Request of his Lordship and the of the Divine Records of our faith, it

Clergy. By THOMAS DUNHAM is peculiarly important, that correct

WAITAKER, LL.D. F. S. A., Vicar views respecting their meaning and

of Whalley, and Rector of Heyinterpretation should also be disse

sham, in Lancashire, London: minated. There can be no doubt,

Murray. 1812. that errors of various kinds abound lr we should form our opinion of upon this momentous subject. In visitation sermons in general, by the course of our labours, it has many specimens which have come been our anxious, endeavour to before us within the last few

years, correct them; and to point out we should be inclined to consider what, according to our bumble, yet them as of very doubtful utility. deliberate judgment, appears to be it has been too much the fashion 10 the true and scriptural method of convert the pulpit on such occasions interpretation We are happy, into a theatre of. loose attack and therefore, in having an opportunity unprofitable discussion. We should of noticing a work which contains be sorry to use the language of res so much valuable information and buke, and would on no account direction upon this important point, expose ourselves to the suspicion of and cordially recommend it to ge. uncharitable censure : but it is im, neral perusal. There appears to be, possible not to feel that some of at present, too general a disposition these sermons, and certain other to neglect the systematic study of compositions, which have been offi the Bible; and to undervalue the cially addressed to the clergy in labours of learned and pious men, particular districts, deserve little who have given their days and their commendation either for the sube nights to this sacred work. But let jects on which they treat, or the us not be deceived, or mistake confi- spirit in which they are written, dence for superior illumination, or if we wished to collect examples of indolence for dependance on Divine doctrines misunderstoou, of charges teaching. It is as true now as in misapplied, of assertions without the days of Solomon, that if we foundation, of most miserable con expect to attain heavenly wisdom, fusion with respect to the tenets of we must seek for her as for silver, particular parties, and of statements and search for her as for bid trea- ridiculously absurd about some of sures; and that, in the study of the the institucious or events of the day, Sacred Oracles, we must not only we know full well in wbat quarter pray for the Spirit of wisdom and ļo seek, them; and we cannot but understanding, but bring to our aid lament tirat opportunities, which all the stores of knowledge which might be so valuable for the illus we can collect, and accompany tration of great Christian principles, them with the spirit of experience and the enforcement of Cbristian and discretion, of love and of a duties, should ever be abused 40 in-, sound mind." May the great Auflame hostility, and, to violate the thor and Source of truth himself, sacredness of truth.

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It is with no ordinary feelings of when required to state, whether the walisfaction and pleasure, that we sun moved round the earth, or the ! turn from such discourses in the earth round the soo; " Sometimes very candid and powerful sermon of one, and sometimes the other." k Dr. \bitaker. We have here the may be, that these effusions proceed production of a gentleman, a Chris only from one of these causes; it siap, and a scholar; of one who is may be that they are the offspring accustomed to think much, and 10 of all combined. We have no he. think well; who possesses know. sitalion, however, to say, that beiJędge, and acuteness, and charily; ther singly nor conjointly have they a man of clear views and of liberal any acquaintance with Dr. Wbilsentiments, who maintains his own aker. principles with an evident convic. To imagine that the principles tion of their truth, and in a spirit of and spirit of this sermon will appear moderation which is peculiarly van in the same light to all readers as, Juable, because it is extremely rare. they do to ourselves, would be to If we should begin our observalions suppose that misconception, and by stating what Mr. Whitaker's prejudice, and bigotry, are banished sermon does not contain, we should from the world. On some points, say, that it deals out no invective the most honest and upright and against Dissenters ; that it does not devoted minds can never be brought altempt to widen the divisions which to coincide; and, perhaps, if we vohappily prevail about chach go- should analyse every sentiment of veroment; that it does not exhibit this publication, we should be cope to public scorn and contempt any strained to acknowledge that there order of men by the imputation of might be room for discussion beprinciples which they disavow and tween the author and ourselves : but abbor. The reader will find in this we must add, that we could, in such address no vulgar declamation aboot a case, desire nothing beller than'to the horrors of Calvinism ; no "pro- conduct the argument in the spirit scription of persons, whom it is the and temper of which he has fur fashion to reprobate under the title nished so good an example, of Evangelical Clergy, Schismatics The text is, Acts vii. 20. "Sirs wiibin the Church, &c.; no wanton ye are brethren, why do ye wrong. and unprovoked insults upon Bible one to another?" Societies; no canting and whining The preacher begins by a rapid about the dangers to be encountered sketch of the general benefits of by this Protestant Church, and this Christianity, as a rule of temper Christian State, on account of the un. and conduct, and proceeds by a fettered circulation of the Scriptures very easy and natural transition to of truth. No! should this article the rancour and fierceness which fall into the bands of any person men making profession of Christia whose delight is in dainties of that anity so often exhibit in debating on description, he must travel elsewhere. its principles. His object is, rather The author of the sermon before to shew the disposition with which us belongs to a higher class of in- doctriitos sbould be canvassed, than tellect. Whether it be poverly of 10 enlarge upon the doctrines themmatter, or bitterness of spirit, or the selves: yet he justly considers it a mere innocence of genuine folly, subservient to his plan, to state the which makes the pulpit and the subject of a most important debale press groan under such precious lu. which for some years has agitated cubrations as have now been men• the Church of England. tioned, we cannot exactly decide :

* One great source of this evil," he obwe should be disposed, on the ground serves, " appears to have been with many. of imparaiality, 10 answer in the, at least a very crude conception, and or words of a very young philosophes, course a very confused statement of the

muestion. Before 'sou venture en attack 'shew something of his manner of Calvinist, said' & prelate, Bistiop Horsley, reasoning. who to the infinite loss of theological learn

If " any system of doctrines which may ing is now no more: at least take sime to appear to be revealed in insulated

' passages understand it. From inattention to this fair of Holy Scripture, can clearly be proved to

and fundamental canon of controversy, the be inconsistent with the moral-attributes of principles of the debate have been perplex the Almighty, then are we warranted in colt ed, while the unskilful assailants

under iliis cluding, nay, we are bound to conclude that sweeping term, have attacked without distinction, 1st. The peculiarities really be be applied to the presenų subject, I would

our interpretation is wrong Now as a test to longing to that system : 2dlý. Some of the ask this plain question ; Supposing that the genuine doctrines of Christianity, which are everlasting destinies of a race of inferior received by Arminians thenselves; and Silly. mural agents were placed at the disposal of A load of inputed trash which belongs only

a inan, what feelings would such a coudoct; to the dregs of Antinomianism.

as these propositions suppose, excite; what « But the real peculiarities of the great conclusions would it lead 10; with respect to theologian and profound reasouer, (for such his character as a just and merciful being? he was), who gare name to this system, if one answer, and one ouly, can be retumed he may be permitted to state them for himself, are limited to the following proposic sumption in favour of any opinion ibat it has

to such a question, and it is no small pres tions. # That, by a sovereign act of his will, the on its side. But this analogy is atempted

the common sense and feeling of mankind Almighty did from all eternity predestinate to be eluded by arguing, (and sorry I am ið 3 certain portion of the human race to ever

Say That the opinion has received ioo mueti lasting happiness, without any antecedent

countenance from theologians, untinctured respect to their future character and con- with Calvinism), that ibe moral attributes of duct. Han

the Almighty are of two high and transcenda That in the fulness of time he sent luis' ant a nature to permit our reasoning from Son into the world, to offer himself as a

these qoalities, as they exist imperfectly in propitiatory sacrifice for the elect alone. ourselves

, to the same qualities as they are Chat, whom he had predestined to happiness conceived to subsist with transcendant

. ex as an end, he predestined to boliness as a cellence in the nature of the Supreme means. That in consequence he bestows

Being. with the same limitation his grace and Holy

“ This, I fear, is equivalent to saying, that Spirit, as the instrumental cause of faitlio we can forn no idea of the moral attributes repentance, and obedience upon the elect.

of the Divinity whatever, an opinion in which Next, that grace is efficacious, a softer these reasoners will find thenselves mwam term for irresistible, whence it follows, that vily symbolizing with Bolingbroke bimself. the will of man is wholly passive in the work. ; But I would ask, how we arrive at the

" And lastly, that they who have once received this Divine gilt can never fall" conceptions we have of these attributes in

the Deity ? Surely thus :-We experience certaius qualities in our own nature, very

imperfect it is true, but still existing, which We have been much accustomed

we denominate justice and mercy. We disto see these great questions settled

cern palpable symptoios of the same quali and concluded in the compass of a ties, though still in a degree far short of few flippant pages. But this author perfection, iu God's natural and moral gna is a man of real learning and talent, vernment of the present world. At the same and does not, therefore, profess to time we are assured in the Word of Gosti confutę and overthrow with such that these attributes belong to his nature in's hasty and sweeping decision: those, a degree absolutely perfeot. We are ansa in general, who talk loudest about ious there:fore to acquire not adequate ideas, demonstration, are the worst quali.

but the best which our limited understand fied to demonstrate. Mr. Whitaker ings can antain 10, of these perfections; and

how is the process to be conducted? We contents himself with a few general begin with our own nature, analyse eluese reflections; but they are 'weighty qualities as they exist in our own hearts

, re'. and judicious, and far more to the innve evérg imperfection (of wlich in nur* purpose than volumes of angry dise selves we discern so large a portinn), pulation. The following exract will superade to the whole an idea of intuity CHRIST, OBSEky. No. 156.

15 L i.

Pp. 2, 3.

“On the moral attributes of the Deity, us, as a Governor and Judge, is we can only reason with safety in this analo- clearly revealed. He will render to gical method, and the result must necessarilğ every man according to his works, be, that the ideas of these qualities in the He that believeth and is baplized, Divinity and in ourselves differ only in de shall be saved, and he that belier. gree; that, speaking in all hunility, they eth not shall be damned. No anaare homogeneous in both, do not differ, that is, as time from space, or mercy from jas- logy can be drawn from the provis tice; anil consequently, that a conduct which dential dealings of the Almighty, we should instantly pronounce to be unjust while we continue upon earth, to and cruel in man, would in a much higher the case of future rewards and pudegree be liable to the same imputation in a nishments, and for this reason : being of whose nature we predicate infinite

“ The symptoms of irregularity, and arbi justice and goodness. But neither are we compelled to resort to this mode of defence trary appointment visible in the Divine at: by the apparent sense of any considerable ministration at present, are parts of a terdand connected portion of Holy Scripture.” poral scheme only, and will be completely

rectified at the last day, by that final act of pp. 4,5. He proceeds, next, to consider the bath been committed, of him shall the more

distributive justice; when to whom much support wbich the Calvinistic sys- be asked! On the contrary, a previous and tem is supposed to derive from the arbitrary allotment of the final destinies of eighth and nioth chapter of the moral agents, is by the very terms incapable Epistle to the Romans; and con- of being rectified, and in spite of all that tends, that the argument of St. Paul sophustry and subtlety can urge, gives up has no reference to the personal and the Author of it (I use the expression with final acceptance or reprobation of humility and reverence, thongli for the pairs individuals. *It is certain, indeed, pose of removing the charge), to isputa that in some respects, the dispensa. and merciful Being. pp. 6, 7.***

tions inconsistent with all our ideas of a just tions of God are strictly arbitrary, or dependent upon his sovereign Such is the reasoning of Dr. Wbit. will alone : thus be determines the aker on this abstruse subject. period in wbich we shall severally To us it appears, that not a exist, the country in which we shall little confusion arises on this subject, live, the constitution of the body, and especially in the explanation of and the general character of the the ninth chapter to the Romans, by mind : thus also, he coafers upon notions radically erroneous with reone country many temporal or spi- spect to the Divine will. The Su. ritual privileges, which belong not preme Being never acts upon a printo another. These and similar ap- ciple of caprice: the determinativos poiniments, are settled by the will of his will are according lo the eter, of God, and are independent of nal laws of holiness and equity; they human interference. Such, accord- violate no rule of infinite wisdom ing to the reasoning of St. Paul, was and of infinite purity. When we the nature of the Divine proceedings read that he hath mercy od whom with respect to Jacob and Esau; the he will have mercy, and whom he language of the thirteenth verse, will he hardeneth, or leares to the (chap. ix.) does not apply to the hardness of their hearts, must we of persons of Jacob aad Esau, but to necessity conclude that the words iheir posterity; and it has reference imply an arbitrary resolution, inde not to their eternal, but to their pendent of circumstances. He has temporal state. To these earthly laid down the terms on which alone dispensations it is, that the high he will have mercy. It is bis will to expressions of the Apostle must be receive the penitent, as it is also his. understood to refer; they are in-will--and it is just in both cases deed mysterious and sincompreben- to leave to their own devices them, sible. But with respect to the con- who, like Pharoah, are deliberately dition of a future world, the man- impenitent. ner in which God will deal with Let us now follow the reverend

con.

author in his observation's about the his Word, 'must ever bave been left to human will. After confessing

g the jectuté. This dreadful calamity has fallen obscurity and difficulty of the sub- with peculiar weight upon the will of mah, as ject, he proceeds in these terms :

applied to spiritual things. - What is the

extent of the slıock which it has received by 171“* In the first place, therefore, it must be the fall, whether in this single direction of observed that no small perplexity has arises its powers it has been reduced to utter inac. from the very terms of ile dispute, de libero, tion, or what portion, if any, of its general apd de servo arbitrio; whereas, had the energies it retains, I still not now inquire. question been stated de arbitrio sive de nullo -Suffice it to say, that since Arminians arbitrio, the controversy, would bare pro- themselves consider the will of fallen man ceeded on its own merits. Since, if man 'as a distempered 'urgati, bolli the's and their has the faculty of will at all, it must be free: antagonists agree in the necessily of an bealfor in what does this quality consist, but in ing hand to restore it to the exercise of its the power of making elections, of chusing functions. In the nature and application of and rejecting; if, therefore, it have lost this the remedy, huwever, they are wholly at facully, it is not in a state of servitude, but issue: for while both admit that Divine grace of non-existence, at least, in a state of sus

must precede and excite the will to spiritual pended existence. One of the best of our objects as well as attend its progress, the puets, from inattention to the difference be disciples of Augustine, whomiri this article tween an abstract quality and a concrete

Calvin las implicitly followed, contend that being to which it belongs, has fallen into a the recipient is passive as a stock-that the confusion of ideas, which will precisely illus- will is mored by suideling analogous 10 Å trale me tueaning on the present subject ; mechanical impulsemand, that it does ia no * Obedient slumbers that can wake and degree co-operate in the workio Now, as siis weep?" Now a sluinberer (the concrete) can faculty cannot in strictness be said to exist awake, and continue to exist, though not where it does not act, it would have been in the state of a stumbérer ; but of the ab. more ingenuous, as well as more consistent stract slumber it cannot be predicated that it to maintain at once, that the will of man has awakes at all. Ceasing in slumber, it ceases

no concern whatever in the work of justific to be. And thus precisely, if the will is no cation--that, as it fad antecedently been longer in a condition to exercise its proper autibitated by sin, it was subscquently and functions, if it can no longer elect, chuse, wholly superseded by grtice :- Tuis, how. reject, it can with no proprieig be said to be

ever buld, would, at least, have been intelli in a state of bondage, it is become a non. gible.”; pp. 7-9. entity.--Thos 'much for the terms of the

"Whalever disabilities have been incurred question. And with respect to the fact, by the will in consequence of originnt or ac, That we do really possess such a faculty; tual transgression, it is the first office of iliat'a power neither mechanical nor curpos grace to remove to restore that disordered real has an absolute command of every mus faculty to its intermitted functions, that is, io cle in the human body, (one perhaps only restore it to its existence in the heart; and in excepted); that whatever may be allowed for consequence of that freedom which is necesare the operation of notives, we naturally refer sasily incident to the exercise of the will, to nothing, suspect nothing beyond this fa- to accompany.it through the whole of 415 culty, as exercising a proper co-action over progress, and to prevent it, by its powerful its operations, we have the sanje evidence as yet resistible operations, from falling, su jar of our own existence, namely, consciousness as is consistent with rural agency. p. 9 m itself, one of those first principles at wbich, The controversy on these points if all hypothetical reasoning do uut modestly has certainly been maintained with) stop short, it will soon be lost in the maze of a sufbcient portion of acrimony: scepticism and error. ** We are dealt with, says Bishop Butler, the second part of his sermon to re

and the preacher therefore employs as if we were free; therefore we are freean inference' which if we attempt to'evade,

commend a more peacefui and Chrisa we are driven upon the impiety of admitting

tian spirit. 11431 ibat man is déceived ni the constitution of

Among the reasons i which have his nature by its Author. Every faculty, tended to aggravate the mischietis however, of that nature beurs marks of some of religious debate, he adverts para great and original disorder; the cause of ticularly to the spirit and Habiis'ofe wlich, bad it aot pleased God to reveal it in the age :-+ló superticjal reading and 1. Vi

L 281.** CO) down

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