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From this we learn, that Christophe Hayti. The principles of this code are laid on the 26th of March, 1811, as- in justice, equity, and humanity. The lasumed the title of king, and has bourers have been restored to tbe rank of since surrounded himself with all freemen. Industry is encouraged, as the the usual appendages of royalıy. by law, as the source of vice. In short,
parent of virtue ; and idleness repressed But perhaps we can in no other way
the traces of the foriner odious system hare give our readers so complete an idea vanished for ever from the soil of Hayti." of the state of order and civilization The Government does all in its power to which prevails in Hayti, as by encourage agriculture, as the grand source laying before them an analysis of of prosperity. But, besides this, various mathis work.
nufactures have been established, with a It commences with a calendar for the year, fair prospect of success. Great attention is containing all the usual information which paid to morals and manners. Marriage is calendars are intended to yirë, and, among honuured, protected, and encouraged: no the rest, the Saints' Days of the Romislı ca Haytian who is unmarried can fill any lendar. We have also the Festivals of the place of distinction. Divorce is not per. Patron Saints of the 54 parishes into which mitted. The Catholic religion has resumed Christophe's dominions are divided, as well its splendor: the hierarchy consists of an as the National Festivals, of which there are archbishop, three bishops, and a curè in each seven, viz. the Festivals of Independence; of pasish. Great encouragement is beld out to the Foundation of the Monarchy; of the Co foreign merchants to settle in Hayti: the ronation of the King and Queen; of the birthe king is ready even to assist them with days of the King, Queen, and Prince Royal; capital, and many have already received and of Agriculture,
important aid from bim.“ This is, perhaps, The calendar is followed by a very brief in the present day, the only government, sketch of the kingdom of Hayti. The prin- which, in consequence of the strict order ciples of the feudal government, we are told, introduced into the finances, not only owes are unknown'; but titles of hereditary nobi- nothing, but, on the contrary, is a creditne lity, and the royal and military order of St. for immense sums." Henry, are the recompences destined for We now conie to the “ Livre Rouge,” the those who devote their lives to the public" Court Calendar," of Hayti. service, or who shed their blood for their The first chapter is entitled “ the Royal king and country. A great Council of State, Family," and gives the usual particulars and a Privy Council composed of the great respecting Sa Majesté Henri Roi d'Hayti et dignitaries and other officers of the kingdom, Sa Majestè Marie-Louise Reine d'Hayti; consult on such matters as the king submits their children, of whium there are four, two to them. The business of the state is con song and two daughters ; and the princes of ducted by foor Ministers, viz. of War and the the blood. Marine, of the Finances, of Foreigu Affairs, The second chapter contains the names aad of Justice; and a Secretary of State. The and titles of the great officers of state. We elite of the army, equipped with the utmost give a specimen :care, forms the Royal Guards. The army it " Son Altesse Royale Monseigneur le self is inured to water and well disciplined: Prince Noele, Colonel General des its battalions are always complete ; its offi Gardes Haytiennes." cers of tried valour and skill; and the mili “ Sa Grace Monseigneur le Duc de tary employment is that which is the most Plaisance, Grand Marechal d'Hayti." highly honoured in Hayti: it is the great "Son Excellence Mopseigneur le Comte object of the ambition of parents for their de Limonade, Ministre des Affaires children. “ The legislation consists of a code Etrangeres et Secretaire d'Etat.“ of laws, simple, clear, precise, and adapted " Son Eminentissime et Reverendissime to the manners, nsages, and character of the *Monseignear l'Archeveque, Duc de people." " An agricultural code, a thing on. l'Anse, Grand Aumonier du Roi." exampled among utlier nations, which it ling “M. le Baron de Sicard, Grand Maitre occupied the main solicitude of the king to des Ceremonies." form, kegulates the reciprocal duties of pros The third chapter contains a list of the prietors, tenants, and cultivators; the police nobility, consisting, besides the princes of of the plantations; the culture and preparu. the blood, of three « Princes du Royaume," tion of the different products of wie soil, eight dukes, (wenty counts, thirty-seven and, in short, the whole rural economy of barops,' and eleven chevaliers."
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The fourth chapter gives us the House Pope has been supplicated to confirm these hold Establishment of the king, queen, ecclesiastical appointments. prince rogal, and pri..cesses royal, and the The ninth chapter is entitled the “ Miliking's household lroups. We observe heretary Organization of the Kingdom," and an enumeration of no less than nine royal occupies fifty-seven pages.
It contains • palaces and eight royal châteaus. One of list both of the army and navy; the army the palaces is called “ Le Palais de Sans consisting of fifty batialions of different Souci," and one of the châteaus, arms, and the nary of two rear-admirals, Château des Delices de la Reine." We two w chefs de division," two “ capitaines find the usoal, number of chamberlains, des vaisseaux," four" capitaines des fregates," « ecuyers," secretaries, librarians, pages, &c. "grands, renouis,' " aides des ceremonies,!! The tenth chapter gives a list of the ingove nove of palaces, plıysicians, surgeons, tendants and officers of the Gnances, cus4 dames do palais," &c. &c. The “ Maison toms, &c.; of the surveyors of gardens, Militaire du Roi' consists of the “ Etat walers, forests, buildings; of the directors of Major General," a corps of horse artillery, the mint; superintendants of weights and two companies of body guards, three squa- measures, &c. drons of light horse, and a regiment of The eleventh chapter contains the." Ors grenadier infantry, consisting of five bat- ganisation Jadiciaire ;" a list of the “Cons talions.
Souveraine," and the barristers and solicitors The fifth chapler contains a list of the of the superior courts; of the judges and graid council of state and the privy council officers of the courts of admiralty, and paro. The grand council of stale forms also the chial jurisdictions; and of the notaries, sur. bigh court of justice for the trial of royal or' veyors, and auctioneers. poble delinquens, and of public function, The twesth chapter details the regulations aries charged witli malversation in office. of the post-office. To it is also committed the trial of treason The thirteenth chapter is entitled “ Itable attempts or conspiracies; and it formus, struction publique." There is a royal milie zporeovero, a court of appeal from the infe. tary school established ut Cape Henry, the sicr tribunals.
professors of which are paid by the Govern. The sixth chapter contains an account of ment. They teach reading, grammar, gen." the royal and military order of St. Henry. graphy, history, military tactics, saathemaThe order is enduwed with an annual in- tics, drawing maps, fortifications, &c.; and come of 300,000 livres.
the pupils are trained to all kinds of miliThe seventh chapter contains a detail of tary exercises. In every town or village of the different departments of the state, the the kingdom there is established a schoel, secretary of state's office, the chancery, the where are taught the French and Latin landepartment of war and marine, that of the guages, geography, history, mathematics finances and the interior, that of justice, and drawing, and « les arts d'agrésent." The that of grand admiral.
King gives to each ground for • school The eighth chapter is entitled “ The house, rewards the most zealous teachers, Clergy.” Here we are told that the Roman and gives annual prizes to the most distia, Catholic religion is the only one recognized guished scholars. and publicly exercised at Hayti. The
The fourteenth chapter is entitled " Les Archbishop (who was consecrated by the Beaux Arts," and contains a list of the Royal Archbishop of Palermo) has a chapten, a Academy of Music, and of the " peintres du seminary, and a college, attached to his Roi." metropolitan see, which are all well en The fifteenth chapter gives a list of the dowed. He has also three archiepiscopal performers at the “ Theatre Royal;" and palaces assigned to him. The bishops have the sixteenth, a list of the persons who have each a chapter and a seminary, endowed charge of the royal breeding studs, and locks with considerable revenues. " The royal of sheep. aud parochial church of Sans-Suuci," we . The whole closes with an account of the are told," is a majestic structure, erected by “ Etiquette of the Court ; "the ceremony of the king, and stands a monument of his presentations and audiences; of leree days, royal munificence and piety." The pare. which are fixed for every Thursday, ai len chial duties are staled to require a numerous in the morning; and of drawing-room days, clergy, but Hayti" stands in need of evan. which are fixed at hve in the afternoon of gelical labourers." Encouragement is lield the same day. Petitions may be presented out to pious priests 10. repair thither. The to the King, to which an answer will be
given on the following Thursday, One of perties at least as fairly acquired as the rules is this, La bienseance ne permet those bought in France at the na. pas que l'oo salue personne devant leurs tional sales and confirmed to the purMajestés.”
chasers by the new constitution ; This long sketch refers, it is true, ex that they will exchange the ease, clusively to that part of St. Domingo the comforts, the luxuries, of their which is under the government of present situation — the pride, and Christophe; but we are assured, pomp, and circumstance of their that the organization of that part military array--for the tender merwhich is under Petion, though dif- cies, already 100 well known, of ferently and somewhat more mo French planters, attorneys, manadestly constructed, is not less com.
gers, overseers, and drivers. But, plete. Perion bears the title of Presi
we repeat, we are no longer left to dent, and shares his power with a conjecture on this point. We have popular assembly. No titles of nobili. seen and read the original dispatch, ty have been adopied by him. There of which the following is an extract: exist, however, the same gradations a dispatch, which would reflect credit of military rank, the same distribu on the bureau of any minister of state tion of administrative offices, the in Europe. It is from Le Comte de same care in keeping up and dis. Limonade, the secretary of state and ciplining a military force, and the minister for foreign affairs of Chris same solicitude on ihe grand subject tophe (we beg his pardon, Henry 1.), of public instruction. It is to be to M. Peltier in London ; and is doubted whether Hayti, if a few dated from the palace of Sans-Souci, years of peace were granted to her, the 10th June, 1814.would not possess the most-generally Sir,--Your dispatches of the instructed population on the face of 21st of March, 5th of April last, and the globe.
their duplicates, reached me by the Wilt any man believe, that such a English brig Vigilant, Captain Flanpeople as this are either to be cao nagan, which entered the port of joted or forced into the wearing Cape Henry on the 19th of May, again of the French yoke? But we and by the Bedford, Captain Stuckare not left to our own conjectures field, and the Smolensk, Captain or inferences on this point. Gene- Jowsey, which entered yesterday, ral Desfourneaux, indeed, complains bringing me your Ambigus, Gaof a want of precise information, zettes, and other papers, &c. and pleases himself and the Cham “ I have laid these dispatches ber of Deputies with we know not before the King, who heard them what absurd and unfounded hope, read with all the attention which that not only will the good and loyal they merit. chiefs do homage to France, but • The details which you give us that the intelligent, the wealthy, the of the great events that have taken valiant population of St. Domingo, place in Europe, and particularly in (the swords still in their hands France, has afforded the King much with which they asserted their in- satisfaction. The King, who had dependence in the hearts'- blood of attentively observed the train of one of the most numerous and best events which took place after the appointed armies which ever in any retreat of Napoleon from Moscow, period of the world crossed the Ais and successively those of Germany, lantic,) will permit a French force had concluded that Napoleon, with to prescribe to them the hours and out the entire support of the French conditions of labour, and to reinstate people, by a levy en masse, could the planter and his cart-whip in never make head against bis numer their former plenitude of abused rous, enemies, who were so much
power; --that they will relinquish, at the more formidable, because they the bidding of these intruders, pro- were instructed by experience; beCumst. OBSERY. No. 153.
cause they had long standing quarrels mous quantity of colonial produce to revenge; because the safety and which issues from the ports of bis the honour of their thrones were at kingdom. stake; because they felt the necessity “ You must have seen, from vaof unitiog, to form a mass of active rious acts of his Majesty's Governforce which nothing could with: ment, since his accession to the stand. His Majesty, calculating the throne, ibat his Majesty has never immense fosses sustained by the confounded the French people with French, and the new sacrifices which the Governments which oppressed it would have been necessary to them. 'To peaceable merchants be make, foresaw that if Napoleon was has always offered security, protecnot seconded by the people, he tion, and commerce, at the same would inevitably sink. His Majesty time that he was determined to repel thought, besides, that if Napoleon every kind of enemy who should fell, he would not fail to bury him- attempt to reduce us to slavery. self under the raing; but his Ma “ You may declare, sir, as you jesty could never have divined that are now authorized to do, that his he would have closed his career in à Majesty will with pleasure receive magner so little worthy of a soldier. the vessels of Fr merchants His Majesty's prognostics have been which shall be legally cleared out partly verified in the subjogation of for the ports of Hayti ; they shall the implacable enemy of the world; be protected and treated like the but the repose of the world will never subjects of other friendly powers be secure while Napoleon lives. who trade peaceably with Hayti,
“ In the return to philanthropic provided they punctually conform principles, which the Governments to the laws of the kingdom. You of Europe appear desirous of adopt- may give this assurance to the ing, his Majesty perceives new means French merchants, and even pubof security to his kingdom. His lish it in your journals. Majesty, however, since the expul " A new order of things arises : sion of the satellites of Napoleon his Majesty embraces the consoling from the soil of Hayti, has never bope of finding a just and philanceased preparing himself for war, thropic government, which, conand for the most obstinate resistance, vinced that force is powerless to rein the event of an invasion of his duce as to subjection, will not forget, kingdom. His preparations have among our claims, that of baving been still farther augmented by ihe combated its most implacable enemy complete organization of bis troops, from the commencement of his reign the provisioning of his fortresses, and to his fall, and never having listened other means of defence; which have to any of ose proposals which his been recently taken since tlre first agents from all countries have made overtures for peace beiween Napo- us. His Majesty flatters bimself leon and England through the me. that he will find humane sentiments diation of Austria, which we learned in a Sovereign instructed by mishere from the newspapers ; and fortune. especially in consequence of the va " In our state of uncertainty as rious notices and valuable informa. to the measures of the new Sovereign tion which you have given us, and of France, with regard to us, we which have enabled his Majesty to cannot take any direct course of take all suitable measures.
step, as you invited us, until we are * If, on the one hand, the policy of positively informed as to his intenHis Majesty has led him to measures tions. It is for you, sir, who with of prudence required by bis safety, unbounded attachment and fidelity he has not, on the other, neglected have constantly defended the inte to cause cultivation to flourish, as rests of the too-long-unfortunate you will be convinced by the enor- Monarch whom you serve; it is
for you, who are much attached to in order, we shall all be paid out
despot of Europe.'
• I confess the reasoning appears The feelings entertained in the sound. For my own part, I hope south of St. Domingo are not less I shall so far close my affairs, that I unequivocal than in the north : wit- shall not be an eye-witness to the ness the following letter from an tragical scenes that must take place English merchant of Port-au-Prince, here. The two parties, those of the capital of Petion's govern- Petion and Christophe, can bring ment, dated 1st of August, 1814.
into the field upwards of 60,000 “The present is to give you some fighting men, in the event of a idea of our situation and prospects French invasion; and the soldiers since the late great change of are inured to faligue and danger. affairs on the continent. I really In truth, I have witnessed, in the anticipate with feelings of horror, siege of this city, acts of brathe scenes of bloodshed and mas- very in whole regiments, that would sacre that must take place in this do honour to the finest troops in island, in the event of the French Europe. All their forts and strong attacking it. The people of this places in the mountains are filling island, according to their present with cured provisions of the counfeeling, could not hear with patience try, and ammunition. Such is the any proposal from France inconsis- present state of Hayti, and such the tent with principles of independ. preparations making for human de
I have been on intimate struction, and all under the admi. terms with President Petion for nistration of an enlightened, viryears, and can assure you, a more 'tuous man. My soul sinks withvirtuous and amiable man I never in me when I contemplate it. 'The knew. He is the idol of the people, idea of destroying so many humar and their confidence in him is un beings, is neither charitable in conbounded: but even he would be ception, nor is it easy in execution.' removed from power, were he sup- A few months will decide, whether posed capable of a wish to transfer the finest country in the Western ihis colony to France. Our infor- World is to become a dreary desert, mation leads us to expect an allack or a flourishing state.” about December. It has been offi. Is it possible that the king of France, cially notified by Government, that himself just escaped from exile, on the first appearance of the ene- should give his fiat to an attempt to my, fire will be communicated to restore slavery in St. Domingo, with all the buildings in the cities, and the prospect of all the blood and every thing destroyed. With this misery which such an attempt 'must information we have the consoling occasion ? We fear it is. The copromise, that whenever the enemy lonial party are so powerful at Court, is driven out, and the finances put and in the House of Peers, that be