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aware myself, that the Magogian to prove the truth of an alleged hisdescent of the Scythians, and through torical fact. Now, what such a them of the Franks, rested upon any demand has to do with " exercising better authority than a mere random the reason and the faith of Chrisassertion of the comparatively mo- tians," I cannot comprehend, I dern historian Josephus.
can discern neither “ reason This demand, however, which I "faith,” in admitting the exposibad deemed sufficiently reasonable, tion of a prophecy to be the right is censured by your correspondent one; when the whole of that expoM.J. A. in your number for the July sition rests avowedly upon an alof the present year, as being very leged historical fact, which has never much the contrary: and the ground been authenticated, and which (I of his entertaining such an opinion shrewdly suspect) never will and is this ; no commentator since the time never can be authenticated. Yet of Christ has demonstrated the com- the authentication of this alleged pletion of any one prophecy, and, in fact is absolutely necessary for Mr. the nature of things, such completion Penn's system. If I were to atis at present incapable of demonstra. tempt to shew the exact accomplish
ment of the prophecy relative to the must confess myself unable to enlargement of Japhet, by adducing perceive, how the remark of your some modern nation which had been correspondent at all bears upon the very greatly enlarged; I plainly question now before you. He has should do just nothing at all, unless manifestly confounded together two I previously demonstrated, that the very distinct things : the proof of an
modern nation, adduced as an inhistorical fact, and the proof that a stance, was descended from Japhet; commentator has rightly interpreted a for, if, all the while, it were sprung prophecy. Now I fully agree with him, from Shem or Ham, whatever might that the latter is incapable of absolute be its enlargement, it would afford demonstration : but what has that no proof that the prophecy had been to do with the former? I was not so accomplished. Just so with Mr. absurd as to call upon Mr. Penn to Peon: however soundly the French demonstrate the propriety of his in- may have been beaten by the Rusa terpretation : I simply called upon sians, we can have no evidence him to prove the truth of a circum- whatsoever that the prediction relastance alleged as an historical fact. tive to Magog has thereby been fula This I might equally request him to filled, unless it be first shewn, that prove, had he never writien a syl- the French are descended from lable on prophecy. If he had, in any Magog. Until that be done, we historical publication, for instance, are completely fighting in the dark. asserted the Mugogian descent of the Your correspondent, by way of Scythians, I might just as much have further helping Mr. Penn out of his demanded a proof of the assertion as difficulties, says, that, as the ScyI do now. This demand has, in fact, thians did prevail in the north of nothing to do with his explanation Europe, they might have been the of prophecy, quoad explanation of ancestors of the Franks. Now, what prophecy. Mr. Penn asserts, that has this remark to do with the ques. the Scrihians were the children of tion in hand? The litigated point is, Magog : I ask him to prove his as- not whether the Scythians were the an. sertion. His being able, or unable, celors of the Franks, bai, whether Mato do this, does indeed materially gog was the ancestor of the Scythians ? affect his exposition of the prophecy; The Scythic descent of the Franks but that is only an incidental cir. is indeed an undoubted historical fact, cumstance. I never asked him to so that your correspondent aeed not demonstrate, that his exposition was have used the hesitating woru might: the right one ; I oply. requested him but this brings us not one jot nearer
to the nucleus of the question, unless the Scythians were not descended we can further establish, as a second from Magog, but from an entirely undoubted historical fact, that the different Patriarch. Hence the Scythians themselves were descend- French, who are undoubtedly the ed from Magog.
children of the Scythians, are, of Your correspondent cannot much course, descended from that different have studied the merits of the case, Patriarch to whom I allude: and, when he asserts that the dispute, consequently, not being the descendwhether the Scythians were origio- ants of Magog, they cannot be ally a nation of Europe or a nation meant by the Magog in Ezekiel's of Asia, seems entirely beside the prophecy. present question. In the first place, The pedigree of the Scythians : there is no dispute about the matter, may easily be traced on the direct unless he should be adventurous authority of history: but it cannot enough to advocate the idle dreams be done, except at considerable of Jornandes about the northern length. Be not, however, alarmed, Scandinavian bive: and, in the se. Mr. Editor, at this portentous deas cond, so far from being beside the claration. I can as little spare time question, the origination of the Scy. at present for regularly drawing out thians is a matter of prime import- this genealogy, as you can spare ance to it. Moses assures us, that, room for it: so that your pages need: in the primeval settlement of the not fear an invasion from the chiworld, Europe, or the isles of the valrous warriors of Caucasus. What Gentiles, was peopled by the de- has been said may serve to shew, scendants of Japhet. Hence, if the what it was intended to shew, how Scythians were an original Euro- dangerous it is to attempt the ex. pean nation, they must have been position of a prophecy which rests the children of that Patriarch ; the upon the genealogy of nations, with yery point wbich Mr. Peon is re out first carefully studying that quested to prove. But the Scythians genealogy.
AN INQUIRER were an original Asiatic nation : and their primitive seats, after the dispersion from Babel (I speak of the
No. LXIX. unmixed Scythians of Touran, not of the mingled race that remained in Rom. viii. 7.- The carnal mind is Iran), were the defiles of the three enmity against God; for it is not Caucasi, and the intervening moun
subject to the law of God, neither tainous country that stretches all the
indeed can be. way from Upper India to the Euxine When the old men among the Jews, Sea. These valorous Asiatics were who had seen the glory of the first not the settlers, but the invaders, of temple, beheld the inferiority of the Europe: nor did they enter that second, they lifted up their voices country, until the Celts, and other and wept. How much more cause tribes of the stock of Japhet, had have we for sorrow, if we compare previously colonized it. Such being man, in his original state, as he the case, though it be an undeniable came out of the hand of God, crehistorical fact that the Franks, and ated in righteousness and true holiother Gothic nations, were descended ness, with what he now is,-a fallen from the Scythians; it yet remains and ruined being, with the marks of to be proved by Mr. Penn, that the sin, corruption, misery, and death, Asiatic Scythians themselves were every where stamped upon him! descended from Magog.
Sin came into the world by Now this he will never be able to Adam's transgression. He fell
, and prove, for the very best possible all his children are born into the Teason in the world: it may be re same state of corruption and misery gularly shewa, step by step, that to which that fall reduced him.
Man now possesses a nature which Spirit against the flesh, and these “is very far gone from original are contrary the one to the other.” righteousness;" a nature which is even What could have been said more enmity against God, and which,until plainly to shew, that by flesh the renewed by Divine Grace, is not, and Apostle means something evil in its cannot be, subject to his law. Oli nature, and opposed to all that is that we may be induced by this good—to all the holy motions of the view of our condition to seek after Spirit of God? And he proceeds to that grace of God's Holy Spirit inform us what are the fruits of which can alone cleanse us from these opposite principles : “ The sin !
works of the flesh are manifest, I. But what are we to understand which are these, adultery, fornicaby the carnal or fleshly mind, men- tion, uncleanness, lasciviousness, tioned in the text ?
idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variThe terms flesh and spirit are ge- ance, wrath, strife, seditions, herenerally opposed to each other in sies, envyings. But the fruit of Scripture; and in such passages, the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longthe spirit evidently means not mere- suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, ly the soul of man, but the spiri. meekness, temperance. And they tual frame of mind wrought in the that are Christ's, have crucified the believer through the power of the flesh, with the affections and lusts." Holy Ghost. The flesh, therefore, From all these passages we learn, which is opposed to it, must mean that mankind are born in a dethe state in which the mind of man praved, sinful, ruined state; that in is by nature, when left to himself, that state the mind is fixed only and not influenced by Divine grace. upon earthly things ; that the works Thus, they that are after the flesh natural to man are those which are do mind the things of the flesh; but sinful, such as arise from lust, vanithey that are after the Spirit, the ty, pride, anger, selfishness; that in things of the Spirit:”- that is, they this state he is entirely unfit for that are in their natural state do heaven, and incapable of enjoying mind only the things belonging to its happiness ;- but that God has this life ; but they that are spiritual, been pleased to send his Holy Spithat are renewed in the spirit of their rit into the world, to guide, bless, minds, do mind spiritual ihings. “But and sanctify those who truly receive now," the Apostle adds, " ye are not the Gospel of his Son; that in them in the flesh, but in the spirit, if so is engrafted a spiritual principle, a be that the Spirit of God dwell in holy and divine nature, causing you. Now, if any man have not them to “mind the things of the the Spirit of Christ, he is none of Spirit,” to “put off the old man," his :". and to be thus "spiritually with his corrupt deeds, and to put minded is life and peace;" while "to on the new man, which after God is be carnally minded is death."—We created in righteousness and true also find flesh and spirit opposed to holiness.” Thus they become “new each other in our Lord's discourse creatures in Christ Jesus:" " old with Nicodemus, in a way which things pass away; behold, all things shews that flesh means that state in become new." They “crucify the which all men are by the constitu- flesh, with the affections and lusts,” tion of their fallen nature, without Tbey " walk after the Spirit,” and the renewing and sanctifying agency bring forth the fruits of the Spirit. of the Holy Spirit.
II. Having thus explained what There is a passage in St. Paul's is meant by the carpal or fleshly Epistle to the Galatians, which is, if mind, as opposed to the spiritual, I possible, still more express: "Walk come now to consider in what sense in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfill we are to understand the Apostle, the lusts of the flesh. For the flesh when he says that this carnal mind lusteih against the Spirit, and the is enmity against God.
1. We are not to' suppose that ir- dislike God; and he would shew religious men are enemies to God, even a personal dislike to Him, did according to the view which they he clearly see His hand restraining, form of his character. When they correcting, and punishing him, when regard hiin as a great, wise, and acting agreeably lo bis own evil good Being, exerting these attributes passions. in their own behalf and that of 2. Again: when it is said that the their fellow-creatures, they may carnal mind is enmity against God, even feel a certain degree of com we are not to understand that it has placency in thinking of him; they no qualities which are in any de. may admire his works, and praise gree to be commended, or that it is him for his bounty. If a person equally addicted to all kinds of evil, with these views were told that his or that there is no difference in the mind was naturally at enmity with degrees of corruption and guilt ex. God, he would be apt to repel the isling in different persons, What charge, and to appeal confidently to is meant is, that there is a strong his own beart. In explaining the bias in all men to sin; a natural and meaning of the Apostle, therefore, powerful tendency to approve and we must be careful not to confound do those things which God has the view we may have formed to forbidden, and to dislike those duties ourselves of the character of God, which God has required. Let inen with that which really belongs 10 be left to the genuine workings of him. In the character wbich irre their own minus; let them be se. ligious or worldly men usually form strained by no fear of punishment, of him, his supreme authority as or excited by no hope of reward; Governor of the world, his ipfinite and they will certainly follow, not holiness as hariny sin, and his jus- a course of holy obedience to God, tice in punishing it, are kept out of but of sinful indulgence: they will sight. Their imaginations frame a be careless of God's favour, sensual, being like themselves, who will be or proud, or vain, or self-willed; very merciful and indulgent to sin. they will be inmersed in foolish ners; who will allow them to live in and sinful pleasures, doing some of a great measure as they please, pu- other of lhe works of the flesh, and nishing only the sins which would being far from bringing forth the be very injurious to society, yet easi- fruits of the Spirit. ly forgiving even these, and ready to III. Having thus explained the grant eternal happiness to all his meaning of ihe text, let us now creatures, especially to themselves, consider the confirmation it derives though strangers to a life of real from what we experience in ourpurity and holiness. Besides, the selves, or witness in others. enmity of the "carnal mind” against Let us then consider, as in the God is not to be considered as a sight of God, what dispositions are personal dislike, but as a dislike of natural to ourselves; what views and his government and laws, particu- desires are most congenial to our Jarly those which restrain us from hearts, and take the deepest root doing what we should have pleasure there. On such a review, shall we in doing, or require us to do what find that the love of God has been our we feel no inclination to perform. first and ruling principle; that our Oor dislike to these is in fact en. chief desire has been to glorify his mity against God, for it strikes di- name, and to fulfil bis commands; recily at his authority: and in that we have been strongly and uni
way is the enmity of the carnal formly concerned to know his will, mind explained in the text: "it is and that, when we knew it, we set not subject to the law of God.” ourselves always with readiness and Whoever, therefore, dislikes the pu- cheerfulness to perform it; that we sity of God's law, may be said to found no reluctance in our hearts to
this course, no drawing of the incli force; how dull and lifeless do our nation another way; but that it spiritual affections become; how was easy and delightful to us, be- readily are we engaged in what cause we were following the strong ministers to the flesh; how cheerand natural bias of our mind; and fully does the time pass which is that it would have been painful for spent in vanity and folly; how tedius to have acted otherwise? And ous the hours given to devotion ! is this the character of others as To what do the words entertainment, well as ourselves ? Are the sins pleasure, happiness, point, in the committed in the world committed common language of the world? Is through ignorance merely? Does it to things which have any relation the sinner repent of them, and for. to holiness? And do, we not find sake them, as soon as he hears they that, with the world, we ourselves are contrary to the Divine will? are perpetually making a false esti. Do the children around us discover mate of things, and setting up false a strong tendency, even from in- standards of right and wrong? Are fancy, to what is right? Have we not our affections and desires at war only to point out to them the path with our reason and conscience, and of duty, that they may walk in it with the word of God? Is not a Do we see in them a natural dislike holy life necessarily a life of selfof evil; a love of what is good; a denial, requiring constant and uninspirit of meekness, patience, and termitting pains and watchfulness? long-suffering; an indifference to the Do we not feel, that, in order to love pomps and vanities of the world; a and serve Christ, we must crucify relish for holy subjects of conversa. the flesh with its affections and lusts, tion? Do we see them, as they we must become new creatures in grow up, agreeing to bring forth Christ Jesus? Do we not find conthe fruits of righteousness, and stant occasion 10 reprove ourselves, striving to glorify God, and to pro- to set before our minds the strongest mote the happiness of their fellow- motives and most alarming dangers, creatures? In fine, is the world, in to fix a guard on all our passions consequence of this virtuous dispo- and affections, and to pray earnestly sition with which every one is born, for Divine help? And after all, are this natural bias to what is good, a we not too often foiled ; and do we grand scene of purity, kindness, not find (such is the strength of our meekness, patience, humility, of Di. corruption), our labour often fruitvine zeal, and holiness, and love? less, and ourselves compelled to cry These questions require no answer. out, “ wretched man that I am, It is too plain how much the state who shall deliver me from this body of the world is the very reverse of of death?” all this, and how clearly it points Behold, then, the carnal mind, out that corrupt disposition which is which is enmity against God. They patural to man as its cause.
who are truly endeavouring to serve Bui let us bring the matter home God, feel and lament it; while they, to our consciences. Do we not find who are giving way to every sin, it difficult to do what is right? Do may perhaps deny its existence; not the strongest motives fail here, for it is only by resisting it, that the seeing that even eternal blessings, strength of this corrupt principle is joined with the clear view of worldly discovered. But it is time to coninterest, are often insufficient to in- sider what improvenient may be duce us to exert ourselves in doing reaped from the view that has been the will of God? And when we do taken of this subjecti attempt this, how many difficulties 1. Let us learn humiliation. To present themselves, wbich are in- be at enmity with God, the Founcreased by an unwilling mind; how. tain of truth, justice, goodness, and soon do spiritual motives lose their purity-and that not incidentally. CARIST. OBSERV. No, 153.