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fixed to the Second Part of the ther with the Psalter or Psalms of Homilies," where a change of Les. David, pointed as they are to be sons, at the discretion of the offici- sung or said in Churches ; and the ating minister, is not only permite Form or Manner of making, ordaining, ted, but encouraged.

and consecrating of Bishops, Priests, Now " the Second part of the and Deacons," herein before menHomilies". was “ set out by the tioned to be joined and annexed authority of Queen Elizabeth *," to this act; and shall be applied, in the year 1500 t, but not sanc- practised, and put in use for the pu. tioned by Parliament: I conceive, nishing of all offences contrary to therefore, that the Admonition” the said laws, with relation to the appealed to by the " Country Cu- Book aforesaid, and to no other." rate," could in no respect super The penalties, which were desede the Liturgy, which was sanc nounced by the act of Elizabeth tioned by the Act of Uniformity against a wilful non-conformity to the passed in the year 15591. But, Liturgy of that day, are hereby dewithout any discussion of that ques- nounced against a wilful non-confortion, it is most certain, that the mity to the present Liturgy. These Admonition" cannot justify a depar. penalties, as they affect beneficed perture from the present Liturgy, sons, are : for the first offence, forwhich was made a part of the feiture of a year's profit of all his law of the land by the Act of preferment, with six months' imUniformity passed in the year prisonment for the second offence, 1662. This statute (14 Car. II. a year's imprisonnient and deprivacap. iv. sect. 21) enacts, “ that the tion ipso facto-and, for the third several good laws and statutes of offence, deprivation ipso faclo, with this realm, which have been for- imprisonment for life. The punishmerly made, and are now in force, ment of a person not beneficed, is, for the Uniformity of Prayer and for the first offence, a year's impriAdministration of the Sacraments sonment-for the second, imprisonwithin this realm of England, and ment for life. See 1 Eliz. cap. ii. places aforesaid, shall stand in full sect. 4-8. force and strength, to all intents and Thus much may suffice for the purposes whatsoever, for the esta. illegality of the practice concerning blishing and confirming of the said which the “ Country Carateinbook, intituled The Book of Common quires. On its incompatibility Prayer and Administration of the Sac with the solemn promises and encraments, and other Rites and Ceremo- gagement of the clergy, and on the nies of the Church, according to the bad consequences that might other. Use of the Church of England : toge- wise result from it in a religious and

moral view, I forbear to insist at * Honilies, Oxford Edit. 1802, page 125. present. | Bishop Tomline on Article xxxv.


cap. ii.

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Tothe Editor of the Christian Observer, should receive ils deserved atten.

tion from those to whom it is adAs a resident in the city of Oxford, dressed; but I have little hope I feel extremely desirous that the that the appeal will be productive Judicious advice of “RUSTICUS," which of much improvement, unless the appeared in your highly-esteemed Heads of Houses, the Proctors Miscellany for Docember last and Tators of the respective.col

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leges (who constitute the guardians bring in true bills of all such oreand governors of all minors of their dits and demands as are yet unpaid body) do resolve on measures simi- them, to the respective tutors or lar to those adopted by their pre- governors concerned, at or before decessors in office, as exhibited in the twenty-first day of July next the following copy of a folio bill, after the date hereot, under ihe peheaded with the University Arms. nalties aforesaid to be inflicted upon

all such as shall neglect or refuse " At a General Meeting of the the same.

Vice-Chancellor, Heads of Houses, Roger Mander, Vice-Chancellor.” and Proctors of the University of Oxford, June 23d, 1701.

You are aware, sir, that young men " Whereas, all undergraduates are sent to the Universities from the and minors whatsoever are strictly age of sixteen to twenty years-a accountable, in all their matters of period of our lives which more bargain and expense, to their re. especially requires the counsel and spective tutors and governors; and example of wisdom and experience, ought not, by the laws and usages of and not unfrequently the restraints this place, to be trusted or dealt of authority, to form a character of with for any sum or thing exceed. worth and usefulness. But it is ing five shillings in value, without much to be deplored, that youths, on the approbation of the said tutors their entrance at the University, are and governors; and that, notwith- considered men, and gentlemen; and, standing, several persons have of late without regard to the situation and presumed to trust and deal with circumstances of their

parents, young scholars, for very considera- many of whom are far from alluent, ble sums of value, to the great de. they soon form an acquaintance triment of many of them, and the with persons whose incomes far exinsufferable affront to public dis- ceed eir own, and whose style of cipline :

expense they are led to rival.' The “ These are straitly to charge consequence is, loo often, that, from and require all manner of persons, the facility of credit with the tradeswhether privileged or not privi- men, &c. they soon find themselves leged, of what trade or occupation involved in extensive, unnecessary soever, that, from the day of the debts. It is a painful task to me date hereof, they do not buy, sell, to enter into a detail of follies trust, or bargain, with any undergra- which some may term" the generous duate or minor whatsoever, that thoughtlessness of youth;" but, as hath his residence or name in any a father, as a Christian, I feel mycollege or hall in this University, self impelled to relate a recent infor any sum or thing above the said stance or two “ of the growing exvalue of five shillings, without the pensiveness of a college education,” knowledge or express approbation of with the hope that they may serve as his tutor or governor respectively, a beacon to all whom it may concern. under the penalty of being proceeded The widow of a schoolmasagainst (by disprivileging, dis- ter, whose numerous family obcommoning, &c. according to the tained Royal patronage, was enabled, quality of the person, and nature of through the munificence of her bethe offence) as a perturber of the nefactor, to send one of her sons to peace and good government of this the University. The poor mother place. We likewise further re- vainly hoped to see this beloved quire and command all such as have youth a respectable clergyman, and irusted or dealt with undergraduates, calculated that sixty or seventy without the knowledge of their pounds per annum, together with respective tutors, beyond the value what he would receive from the of five shillings aforesaid, that ibey foundation, would amply cover all

his expenses, and enable him 10 fumes and soap; and an immense bill appear as a gentleman; but, sad to for boots and shoes, having between tell! after he had been at the Uni- thirty and forty pairs of boots with versity a little more than a twelve him. The father's letter to a permonth, it was found that he had son in Oxford concluded thus : contracted debts to the amount of " With many tears I state the six hundred pounds! Her prospects thoughtless extravagance of my were consequently blasted, and she graceless son, wbich has compelled was compelled to procure a subal- me to borrow a large sum of money teru's commission for him, and send from a friend; but what I feel most him abroad, leaving his creditors severely is, it deprives me of the unpaid.

means of supporting my aged moAnother instance of the baneful ther, which I have done for some effects resulting from the expensive years.". habits of the undergraduates, I have Surely, sir, such instances as lately witnessed in the son of a these, of which I fear there are clergyman who held a living of about very many, loudly call for the imfour hundred pounds per annum, in mediate attention of every Head of Herefordshire. The young man, a House in both Universities. Such after taking his bachelor's degree, a clergy man as this, must necessarily received ordination, and a curacy in be in that pitiable situation describe Wales of eighty pounds a year, ed by “Rusticus," " if summoned to which was his whole income. visit one of the poor of his flock, While at college, his father had whose case calls for 'charitable allowed him one hundred pounds assistance, when the recollection of a year, and he supposed that this bills unpaid, only contracted through allowance had covered all bis ex. extravagant habits, checks his bepenses ; but before the young man nevolence, and he is reluctantly had been at his curacy six months, forced to say, ' Be ye warmed, or he was arrested by his wine-mer. be ye clothed,' while he cannot give chant for one hundred and forty them those things which are needful pounds. I read a letter from the to the body." To cure these evils, worthy father on this distressing although it might be impracticable occasion; stating, that it wrung to resort to the law I have quoted him to the heart to see his above, yet surely much might yet be only son on the eve of imprison- done: might not, for instance, some ment; and he with difficuliy dist such expedient as this be adopted, charged the debt and costs. This namely, that the Vice-Chancellor, was, however, bul the beginning of Heads of Houses, &c. should enact his sorrows, for shortly afterwards a law, that henceforth all persons the tailor was proceeding by law dealing with members of the Unifor the payment of upwards of an versity should annually, or oftener, hundred pounds; and finding there deliver an account to the tutors of were more debts still, the distressed their respective demands, that they parent was advised to collect the may be regularly transmitted to the whole of his son's bills, and agree parents, with a view to their early to some method of liquidation. The and punctual discharge. Many of aggregate amount of the debts was the young men, be it remembered, found to exceed eleven hundred probably never before possessed pounds : among the items were, the ten pounds at one time, and have confectioner's bill, nearly one hun. not been accustomed to habits of dred pounds, for dinners, desserts, economy: when, therefore, they &c.; seventy pounds for watch-seals, have the uncontrouled disposal of rings, and broaches; forty-five a large annual sum, not having pounds for whips and spurs; up- learnt the value of money, it is too wards of thirty pounds for per- often dissipated in a very thought


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less and sinful manner : while, inevitable consequences, which will addition to this, by the facility of follow the habits of thoughtless excredit, the inconsiderate youth is travagance in which they indulge; plunged into difficulties which prove we must abandon the hope that they inextricable. Many advantages, I ever will spontaneously institute a think, would result from the adoption new mode of conduct. But, adand steady enforcement of some such mitting, as I do, the weight of these regulation. Not only would the arguments, and happy as I am to money intended for the necessary col- add my testimony to that of "Rustilege expenses be applied to that ob- cus,” ihat there are many of our ject, instead of being wasted on wo academical youth who recognize the men, gigs, horses, &c.; but bodily authority of the Christian Observer; health, and vigour of mind, would be many who are anxious to regulate preserved and strengthened ; babits their conduct by the rules of the of industry, integrity, economy, and Bible; there still are circumstances self-denial, would be formed and esta which cause, in my mind, very blished: and these advantages would serious doubts, whether these amiaaffect not only the individual and ble delinquents are likely to set his immediate connections, but about the cure of their own would extend themselves to every lady; whether, for such a purpose, department of church and state. the voice of persuasion will have

PHILO PATRIA, sufficient power, unaided by the

arm of authority.

It is well known, that young men To the Editor of the Christian Obserrer. are sent to college at a very early

age. The majority of freshmen are Experto crede,

seventeen or eighteen years old ; The friends of true religion, and some younger. Add to this, that those of the Church of England in the investiture of the academical particular, are deeply indebted to robe may almost be considered as your correspondent Rusticus for his the moment of emancipation from paper, in a former Number, on the authority. For, although a congrowing Expensiveness of a College formity to certain rules is indispenEducation.' Having been myself a sable; although the Dean perempsufferer by the evils which he de- torily requires the attendance of the plores ; and having observed the undergraduate at chapel, and the pernicious consequences of them in Tutor at lectures; and although many, besides myself; I am much flagrant offences may subject him to rejoiced to find the subject discussed severe punishment from the officers in the pages of the Christian Ob- of the college or the university ; server ;-discussed, as it is by your still there are many, and not uncorrespondent, with the spirit of a important, parts of his conduct, left gentleman, no less than with the entirely to his own discretion. He affectionate piety of a sinceré may keep a horse, and a servant; Christian.

he may give frequent and expensive As far as any reformation can be entertainments; he may even avowexpected to originate with the under- edly neglect the proper studies of graduates themselves, nothing, I the place; and yet, conforming to think, can be added to the excellent the rules I have mentioned, and remarks of “ Rusticus." If they re- perhaps to some others of the same main uninfluenced by his eloquentap- nature, he may not only escape peal to their hopes of future usefulness censure, but be considered, to use in the ministry; to the concern they the college phrase, “a regular must feel for the general interests of man.” religion; to the deep but unavail. The conclusion, to which I am ing sorrow, the grievous but in- led by these facts, is the following



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and it is no less true because a account of the practices we lahackneyed observation--either, that But comoon example gives it would be adviseable not to send a sauction to them; and the ab-, our young men to college at so sence, to say the least, of all dise early an age; or, that the authority couragement on the part of their of ibe tutor should be more ex superiors, adds incredibly to the erted.

force of that sanction. If the auYour correspondent will perhaps thority of their superiors were extell me, that he is writing to young erled in an opposite direction, they men who stand in no need of disci- would, I am persuaded, find little pline; who are influenced, in the difficulty in contending with the main, by right principles; and common example. who only require io be reminded, That the luior of a college has it, that those principles should be in his power greatly to curtail the brought into action

Be itso.

expenses of bis pupils, admits not of, And from hence I draw a very a doubt. At the college of which I strong argument in favour of my am a member, the cook presumes position. If they, whose disposi- not to send a dioner or supper to tions and general conduct the rooms of any undergraduate, formed upon principles which without the writien permission of constitute ine surest preservative bis tutor. This permission is rarely, froin evil, and the strongest incite. withheld, excepi as a punishment ment to good conduct, are betrayed for recent irregularity. If a disinto practices unworthy of their cretionary power of this nature is Christian profession; how needful lodged, as it undoubtedly is, with is it, that ihose who live not under the tutor, I appeal, sir, to the good the influence, nor, in fact, recognise sense of your readers, whether it be the authority, of scriptural injunc. not a vain pretence that the restitu. tions, should be restrained by com tivu of stricter discipline in our pulsory means from practices which universities is an impracticable meatend, not only to their own ruin, but, by their example, to that of It must also be allowed, that the others also! Besides, if authority undergraduate's bill is, in many were used, who would be the first to cases, swelled to an enormous size, give effect 10 its exertions? They, without any fault of his own, from no doubt, who know, by implication the extravaganı charges of the uniat least, from the records of infalli- versjiy tradesmen. These persons ble truth, the indispensable duty of are subject to many bad debts from submission to their superiors; they, the members of the university; and who have been instructed that they the method which they take to “must needs be subject, not only reimburse themselves is, notoriously, for wrath, but also for conscience that of raising their prices to an sake.” Others might comply with exorbitant height. Is it not obvious the injunction from a fear of the that this evil might be much corpenal consequences of disobedience; rected, if the tutors of colleges resothe Christian would do so from an lutely refused to employ any tradesapprobation of its fitness and excel. man who gave credit io the under lence, and from the habitual desire graduates beyond a certain amount? of his heart to conform in every But, besides those to whom auparticular with the will of God. thority is entrusted, there are others if the standard of right conduct who might contribute much to the were thus erected, young mien of removal of those abuses which this character, I doubt not, would form the subject of our present conbe the very first 10 rally round it. sideration. I speak principaliy of Many of them probably have secret the Fellows of colleges resident in misgivings, if not serious regret, on the university; most of whom hare



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