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sidered as a remark substantially derate of others, and humble to-
Let us taken place amongst mankind are enumerate some of the more promithose in which the seat of honour nent supposable motives for emulahas been, through some untoward- tion. 1. The pure love of success, inness of circumstances, usurped ; or dependent of all personal considerawhere the line of excellence itself tions, which having led tbe aspirant has been wholly fantastical or erra. to say, “I wish to gain such or such tic. And if the different conse a point of excellence, or, if you quences of a true and an usurped please, such or such a place of emielevation may not be fairly exempli- nence,” cannot miss of being disapfied in the contemporary characters pointed in failure, and pleased in the of a Cicero and a Cæsar, let us at attainment. Discard this amongst least behold them in the philosophi- the unworthy motives, you must cal humility of a Newton and the discard at once in all cases the pleapert conceit of a Voltaire. Upon sure arising from all kinds of games, the footing of these principles your to which schools of emulation bear correspondent cannot be surprised indeed a very close resemblance. at finding the introduction of emu- In serious pursuits, you must discard Jation into the system of education, all pleasure arising, for instance, not so much acquitted of all its from success in the various profesenormity, as commended for its high sions: nay, it is a question whether utility. The systems of Bell and you must not, on this discarding Lancaster, (with the latter indeed as plan, identify the pleasure felt by distinct from the former, the writer is a skilful anatomist in the success of but imperfectly acquainted) seem his operation, with a bestial satisfacto be on this ground peculiarly com. tion in the writhings and shrieks mendable. Notonly are the objects of his agonizing patient. Still, of improvement confessedly of the however, vilify the love of success bighest kind, but of all systems of as you please, you will never ideneducation ever devised by, we were tify it, except accidentally, with the going to say ever inspired into, love of superiority over others: for man, these seem to be the best for the love of success would follow a securing his proper place to every man lo Robinson Crusoe's island, individual pupil under instruction with not even his man Friday for a And let pride, let the most selfish spectator. 2. Take, as another mopassions, have given the first impulse tive for emulation, the love of praise to the pupil, he'may safely be ex or commendation. This is also essenpected to come forth (and experience tially different from a love of supealready confirms the expectation) riority over others. For you may delivered from those over-weening bestow the meed of commendation conceits with which he entered the on your child in a closet, and it may school; knowiog of himself, consi. be never associated at all with the
notion of eminence over others. colleges and halls,” this motive for When, therefore, it happens to be honourable contest is strongly, so associated at school, is it not fair though secretly, operative, there can still to suppose that the two motives be little question : and perhaps it may be completely dissevered in the would reflect more credit than we beart of the pupil; and that he may might expect upon the still remainbe uncontaminated with the baser ing amiable qualities of our fallen feelings of ambition, whilst he is nature, were we to know how large nevertheless deeply conscious of the a number of youthful students at Corda favor pulsuns, laudumque im- both our universities and our larger mensa cupido? It is true, the love schools, if diligent at all, are subof praise is in itself a questionable stantially kept so by this motive; principle. It is, like all other origi- and to whom the accidental, and nal principles in the mind, just not disagreeable, elevation of rank what it is made by the breast which would be no sufficient stimulus to holds it. We are taught to look, as industry at all, were it pot for this our bighest reward, for that dread more excellent and paramount conhour " when every man shall have sideration. The news of a son,
first, praise of God.” To be “ made a second, or third, at a college or spectacle to angels,” was no mean university examination, is music to honour to an Apostle. Laudari a parent's ears: and would your corlaudato diro, an_allowable respondent destroy that system of pleasure to a heathen. The praises education which beguiles a youth of the good are a permitted pleasure, far onward in the path of uninviting in moderation, to the Christian. The but useful ecience, and inspirits him commendations of the bad only, are to a lively and honourable conflict inherently and essentially unworthy with his peers, that he may sound and dangerous of pursuit; though that note so cheering, and lay his even where they are capable of pro- hard-earned honours at an honoured nounciag a just sentence, as in works father's feet? You ask, Why does of art,
&c. great moralists are the parent himself take pleasure in agreed that the meed of admiration the success of his son? For the same may be, if bonestly obtained, reasons which will very soon come honestly enjoyed. But the pupil to influence even the moderately of Dr. Bell needs not this last re- reflecting mind of the student himfinement. It would be hoped, that self; not because he has contrived like a little king in his territory, to beat half a dozen sturdy heroes Dr. Bell "can do no harm” at Bald- to the ground, and bas, by dint of win's Gardens; and the pupil, in jockeyship, passed in the course. desiring his commendation, desires such or such a candidate for the assuredly praise from one who is, in common prize; but because he has a very high sense, "the minister of attained certain solid excellencies God io him for God.” Surely then, of which his place is only the criteto “ have praise” of his master, may rion and the iudex ; because it be a laudable motive for emulation proves his time, his labour, his in the mind of the scholar, and one, talents, have not been spent in vain ; at least, which is different from the because he has established a characmere love of superiority over others. ter which will stick by him for ever
It cannot surely demand more than after in life; because he has qualifi. the mention of a third motive for ed himself for useful and honourable emulation, viz. a desire 10 please, stations, and has acquired at once gratify, or reflect credit on one's a knowledge, a zeal, a courage and friends, to prove it to be a legitimate an use which will hereafter make ground for emulous exertion, and the sound philosopher, the able one also totally distinct from all lawyer, the skilful physician, the feelings of pride. That, both " in correct merchant, the enterprising
Christ. OBSERY, No. 147.
mariner, the accomplished soldier, to youthful energy. Now this forthe deep and "thoroughly furnished" midable objection, I apprehend, will theologian.-Tbis motive for an ac be easily found to stand upon a mere tive emulation touches indeed upon contusion of terms, aod the whole another and principal ope, which, difficulty to shrink into nothing, as in some measure embracing all when we state to ourselves the act the rest, and more or less involved, of emulation as capable of being we may hope, in the feelings of every wholly dissevered from its motives ; candidate for literary or anyother kind those motives as varying indefinitely of honourable distinction, need only according to the temper and state be alluded to, viz. the love of that of mind of the pupil ; and the high excellence itself, of which the desire and transcendent motive above-menand the pursuit has already entered tioned, that of promoting the glory into our definition of emulation. of God, as being perfectly consistThat which we have seen may be ent with the strictest, most enerdesired on so many other and vary. getic, and most unceasing exercise ing accounts, may also, your cor of the act of emulation.
" Whe. respondent will allow, be desired ther ye eat or drink, or wbatsoever and loved for its own sake. The ye do, do all to the glory of God," means, the measure, of its attain- says the great Apostle and Example ment will be found not only in imi- of Emulation in the best of causes. lating, but in surpassing others. Did that illustrious Minister of InWich ebis motive in view, your spiration deem an excision of the correspondent allows of imitation; natural appetites of hunger and and with the same inolive, therefore, thirst necessary, in order 10 “ eat he will surely allow of an endeavour and drink to the glory of God?" 10 outstrip our neighbour.-But a Though he “ kept under his body, fifth motive, the last I shall men and brought it into subjection” to tion, and that which I will join hand his greal designs, did he “ forbid to and heart with your correspondent marry, and command to abstain from in endeavouring to infix in the meats which God had created to be breast of every candidate for dis- received with thanksgiving?" No. tinction, every pupil of emulation, And yet, in allowing the fulfilment is the desire of promoting the glory even of these natural appetites, in of God. In distinctly assigoing this subordination to the great end of as a conceivable motive for enula- God's glory, he was allowing that tion, and the only ultimate one which is most questionable, as beallowable on Christian grounds, I longing only to the sensitive part of am conscious at least of an attempt nature. How much farther then to relieve much of the embarras would he have been from disallowing which has so long over-hụng this other principles which belong to the doubtful question.“ How should higher, the rational, the spiritual emulation be a proper ground for substance within us! How liitle did exertion,” it has been repeatedly he seem to apprebend, in his own asked, “ when, to a Christian, no le- case, the noble feelings of an elegitimate principle or end of action valed emulation to be at all inconcan be assigned, but obedience to sistent with the great end of the the will of God and a desire of glory of God! And how much,'may promoting his glory?” And I fear I be excused for saying, would he your correspondeni himself would have been surprised at those who, triumphantly enjoin the inculcation allowing the subordinate application of this grand principle of action and proper use of every other indiupon the mind of his pupil, and vidual principle, both of mind and then laugh at the puny addition, not body, cannot content themselves to say base commixture, of a subsi- without excluding one of the most diary emulation, as an jucentive active, most universal, most essen
tial and indestructible principles to his will as its measure, and the from a subordinate use, or indeed promotion of his glory as its ultifrom any use at all.
mate design. This grand motive of promoting
(To be concluded in the next Number.) the glory of God, cannot indeed be too often reiterated both in these pages and from the mouth of every Christian instructor of youth, as the Tothe Editor of the Christian Observer. only legitimate ground for emulation,or indeed any species of exertion The Rev. R. Aspland, in his “ Exin any cause. Without it, even the postulation" with the Rev. II. H. exertions of a Paul would have been Norris, relative to the connexion of nothing, and worse than nothing. Unitarians with the British and Let the objects of his emulation have Foreign Bible Society, makes the continued what they were, the no- following statement:
" A few, blest ever presented to the human though, I believe, only a few, Unitamind; if his motives for pursuing rians have been kept out of the these objects had been selfish, had Bible Society by observing that its been merely, for instance, to obtain proceedings did not agree with commendation, though from the wise its principle. Its principle, that of and good, nay, even merely to gra- circulating the Scriptures, the whole tify his native feelings of benevo. Scriptures, and nothing but the Scriplence, or, if possible, merely to tures, they cordially approved; but effect his own salvation; if bis mo- they conceived that in two particutives, otherwise púre as light, only lars the proceedings' did not tally had excluded that single, and with with the principle.” him paramount, ambition, to promote 1. “ The Society professes to cir. the glory of God, they would, in culate the Bible without note or that omission, have experienced a comment;' whereas the authorised loss greater than the whole sum of version, which only they use (I their excellencies: his high attain. speak of course of England) has a ments in temperance, courage, self- perpetual commentary, in the form denial, humility, long-suffering, ge- of tables of contents, at the head of nerosity, and even respect for the each chapter. How small soever will of God would have lost their be the degree in which these ab., proper place : and his loved charity stracts of the chapters interfere itself, not coupled with and founded with the private Christian's liberty upon a predominant love to God of judgment, they are certainly at and his glory, would have been but variance with the profession and " as sounding brass and tinkling title of the Bible Society. cymbal.” I need not apply this rea 2. “The Society professes to cirsoning to those inferior subjects of culate the pure Word of God, and emulation which we must attribute yet distributes the English Version, even to the purest plan of an ordi- which contains some evident misnary education. I need not carry it translations, some false readings, on to shew the necessary subordina- and at least one interpolation." tion of every species of emulation to Having, sir, admitted into the just and legitimate motives. Neither pages of your valuable miscellany so need I use any further argument to much discussion on the general subpress on your correspondent my ject, you will, probably, be induced own conviction, that of all motives 'to accept the preceding paragraphs. for emulation, the one which alone They are a specimen of the objeccan lawfully hold the ascendant in tions existing against the British the devout Christian's mind, of and Foreign Bible Society, in a whatever age, is that which has the quarter which will of late excited, love of God as its ground, obedience with regard to this subject, but little
notice, and which continues to ex. fession, which displays, with equal hibit comparatively few symptoms distinciness, the words “ authorised of glowing attachment and fervour; version." From the manner in jt ought in justice to be added, of which Mr. Aspland introduces these virulent hostility.
latter words, a stranger might infer, I am still more confident that you that they mark our “ proceedings." will assign such objections to the not our “ profession;" whereas Mr. class already shewn to be worse than Aspland must be perfectly aware futile; and that, like all the rest, that they mark both-a circumstance they will serve to establish your which demonstrates, in opposition various reasonings on behalf of an to the charge, that, whatever be the institution justly considered, both at character of the Society in other rehome and abroad, as the glory of spects, it lays a just claim to the the nineteenth century and the praise of consistency. Grapting, for carnest of unspeakable blessings to argument's sake, that the “ autho. generations yet unborn.
rised version” is deformed by as Mr. Aspland has cited a charge, many“mistranslations," "false readwithout either sustaining or con- ings,” and “ interpolations," as the fuling it. If he concurs with me in hardiest Unitarian ever imputed, pronouncing the latter practicable, and, consequently, that the Society's I wish he had himself accomplished constitution is radically corrupt; the task : for what charge can be this is certainly the point at which inore serious, and, in particular cir- censure should have paused. Even cles, more prejudicial, than one then it might not have followed, that which alleges, that “the proceed- the objector was bound, in duty, 10 ings do not lally with the princi- withhold his support; since a better ple?” Sorry wculd the individual version, from a purer text, is not who now addresses you be, if his likely soon to acquire the patronage name, however humble, were found requisite for extensive circulation, in close alliance with an institution wbile the “authorised version," with so palpably mismanaged. Let the all its faults, is surely better than accuser prove his charge, and he none, having already conducted will find it easy to remove the offi- millions, and being capable of concers of the British and Foreign ducting millions more, into the paths Bible Society, if not from their em- of righteousness and into the kingployment, at least from the place dom of heaven. which they now occupy in the To return from this digression, I feelings of a grateful (but it should ask, Would the friends of the Soseem deluded) public. That a man ciety, constituted as the Society is, of Mr. Aspland's acuteness (to say bave had it in their power to vindinothing of his apparent esteem for cate their practice, if they had prethe Society) should for a moment sented the Bible in a version different propose to sustain the charge, is , from that which they have excluscarcely credible. It has no strength sively employed? On the contrary, except for its own destruction. would they not have risked their
The question at issue, we should undertaking, and ruined their credit? recolleci, is simply this; “ Are the These questions, I apprehend, are proceedings of the Society at vari- perfectly fair and relevant; the ance with its profession? ” Ia sup- charge being, not that the Society port of the affirmative, we are re- proclaimed, as it did from its origin, a minded of " the tables of contents” determination to employ exclusively of " some mistranslations," of " some the"authorised version, but(mirabile false readings,” and of “one interpo. dictu !) that such determination has lation.” To this we reply: 'I be been adhered to with inviolable prewords “ without note or comment" cision. It is obvious, therefore, that contain merely a part of our pro, the Society has redeemed its pledge,