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with these dispositions, they were sume a new.shape. In these parts, safe ; but if destitute of them, they in the great mass of the people, not could have no good hope, whether superstition, but practical atheism they communicated or not. In some and profane neglect of all Gospel instances, I have administered the Ordinances, are two much the order Lord's Supper in private, with such of the day, while the generality satisfaction and refreshment, that it profess to approve Evangelical Dochas almost seemed as if Heaven was Irine;. on which account I am encome down into the sick apartment, titled, as well as Parochus, lo the and that perhaps in a mean cot- sympathy of my brethren. tage.

Parochus does not seem to know, If Parochus will dwell frequently, that the Dissenters and the Church and with all possible plainness, on of Scotland never administer the the nature and right use of the Sa- Sacrament in a private manner, or crament, in his public ministry, any occasion whatever, for which I and proceed (as undoubtedly he has commend them not. In the Luthebegun) to enforce, in a scriptural ran churches, I suppose it is more manner, all the grand essential common to administer it to persons

truths of the Gospel, he may in a on dying beds, than in the Church little while witness a great revolu- of England. tion in the views of his parishioners;

CLERICUS RUSTICUS. and, in some, superstition inay 18

MISCELLANEOUS.

ON THE PRINCIPLE OF EMULATION.

itself. For instance, a desire to ex

cel merely in the vain ornamental (Continued from p. 87.)

1 .. endowments of body or · mind, in The circumstances under which the worldly grandeur and power, 'in the principle of emulation is carried into means of gratifying forbidden 'or effect, are,, as I haye said before, delusive desires of any kind, is of the only source either of its good- itself, independent of all other consiness or its badness. And that we may derations, wrong and mischievouš, briąg it down closer to the field of and indicative of our corrupt and common observation and experience, depraved nature. The very object I shall crave your attention to three of pursuit proves a' wrongness of circumstances in particular, which motive; and when possessed; it can seem to, comprise all that is neces. only administer to those baneful sary to be attended to in its exercise. passions which led us to desire it. 1. The subject, or the pursuit in which it can hardly be expected that the excellence is desired. 2. The mo- temper in which such a pursuit will tide for yobich it is desired.. 3. The be conducted, can be better than the temper in which that desire is pro- object of it; and most frequently secuted. To, which might be added, the meaus used for its attainment, also, the means of prosecuting it, will be those of which ine lives of but for the obviousness of the right a Philip or a Bonaparte will furnish or the wrong under that head. i. us with the best examples.” A much

Of course no emulation can be more moderate emulation, concerned good, but that in wbich the prize is about objects which may only posa lawful one, and the improvement sibly tend to good purposes-such as sought after is a thing desirable in wealth, or mere worldly pre-emipence of any kind--will justly be foremost in the ranks of those who deemed, if admissible at all, yet have deserved well of their fellow. highly dangerous; because, though countrymen and fellow-creatures ; the motive may be good and the will your correspondent still say, means lawful in the pursuit, yet such This is a dangerous subject of emuobjects are greatly apt to occupy lation : even here the end does not the mind with inferior motives, and sanctify the means ; or rather, that draw it to the use of baser means. he can conceive no motive for which It would, therefore, be far better to even such a pre-eminence can be warn the pupil altogether of the sought, no spirit in which it can be danger of riches, and the tempta- pursued, no' means tliat can be used tions of place and power, than 10 in the pursuil, which can possibly excite his emulation towards them, render an emulation, in benevolence by the prospect of contingent use. itself, an innocent act? Let him fulness, and possibly of glorifying proceed, then, one step further ; let God. His emulation will naturally him advance to the actual attainenough tend to such attainments in ments of a solid Christian piety, mature life, without being strongly and conformity to the image, cha. reminded of them in youth. But racter, and conduct, of our Blessed

your correspondent prepared to Master. If an emulation, even on hold the same language, in respect this bead, does not quite satisfy your to the higher pursuits of knowledge correspondent, or quiet his fears as and science, and the arts which to the motive, the temper, or the adorn and civilize human life? Will means, by which it may be carried he think the bias towards these az on, I must propose to end the distainments so natural, so enticing, so pule with Si. Paul himself. Nothing engrossing, and so entangled with can be clearer than the reference wrong motives in the pursuit, illicit made by that great Apostle to this means, and an unsanctified temper, very principle of emulation, as exas to render them an unfit object for ercised towards the high and noble the aspiring emulation of his pupil? subjects of which he was ever in Or if he, with difficulty, allows that pursuit. Secared, it is true, in even such pursuits can be conducted great measure, by the very bature properly, or ought to be presented of those subjects, from the abuses Lo the emulation of mankind, I shall to which this principle is doubtless expect he will more readily allow liable, he could take pleasure in that the still bigher attainments of referring those heights of labour wisdom, and a solid practical expe- and Christian patience which, rience in the affairs of life, may be through grace, he had attained, made a worthy subject of emulation to the standard of other persons, He will see that the worthiness of joined with bim in the same race. the object, in this case, almost whol. Though unworthy motives and ly precludes the danger of abuse tempers could, even in this departthrough a wrongness of motive, of ment, occasionally intrade themmeans, or of temper, in the pursuit. selves; though some could or preach However, let him proceed still a Christ out of envy and strife," and step higber in the scale. Suppose some could, in an evil spirit, “love to the subject of emulation to be that have the pre-eminence," and even of an ability and a disposition to aspire "to be full, to be rich, to reign bless, to enlighten, to improve, to as kings" over the infant church ;console, the human race. Suppose yet nothing hindered this great, this the object be to outstrip each other aspiring Apostle, conscious of the in acts of charity and benevolence; purity of his designs, from re10 snatch from each other the prize joicing in his own pre-eminence of of having been the most useful in a better kind; nor even from apour day and generation; and to stand pealing to the same emalation in

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others, as a means of provoking grand ulterior subject of emulation, them to exertion. His was the glo

“ were not wise.'

He still knew rious pre-eminence of martyrdom; that, considering all his advantages, a pre-eminence in humility, in suf- be was below what he might have fering, in labour, and successful en been. His very attainments beterprise for the cause of Christ. yond others humbled him, because Though his converts “ had ten ihey appeared so few. His gifts, thousand instructors in Christ,” yet “the abundance of his revelations,” his was the pre-eminent boast of carried him in endeavour, even far having" begotten them in the Gos. beyond his success.. And whilst pel.” And when they were falling even he was in some danger from short of the pure, the lofty, standard pride, in this high career; whilst which he had set up for their, and even to him “the thorn in the flesh, for his own exertions, he writes, and the messenger of Satan," was neexpresses himself with the utmost cessary " 10 buffet him," " lest he urgency, to the Church, lest his joy should be exalted above measure;" in them, and their progress, should yet his conduct proved how admibe in any degree belied; and “ Jest rably the strength of his faith, and ke, not to say they, should be ashamed the sharp antidote against exaltation in this same confident boasting." which he bore about him, secured These expressions, which, with a him against the inroads of his subtle 'multitude of others, indicative of the enemy; and he was enabled to reasame exalted and disinterested zeal, lize, to embody, in his own experiseem to carry our ideas of this great 'ence, that most stupendous of all master of inspiration, up to the very paradoxes, “ I am not a whit behind bigtiest rank of created intelli- the very chieftest apostles, though gences, lead even your

I be nothing." spondent, sir, I am persuaded, to Perhaps, sir, this might be the 'no unfavourable suspicions of the proper place for binting very Apostle's purity of mind. There 'shortly, that we have, in these obserseemed to be a guard upon it, vations, some clue for unravelling stronger than of triple steel, against the sense of those most difficult all the approaches of an un“godly words, xyaos and its derivatives, so jealousy." His high sense of the frequently in use amongst the sacred source of all his excellencies, the penmen, and so frequently in dispute consideration by whose strength they amongst their readers. It may be were obtained, and to what end sufficient, that I humbly offer my they were directed (a feeling which opinion of the radical meaning being may be cherished in every other ' nothing more or less than this very career of lawful “ striving for mas- word,“ emulation;" a desire, & tery'); maintained in his mind a pursuit, of excellence according to bumility, a thankfulness, a charity, some given and appropriate standard. which kept pace with bis utmost al. The object, the motive, the temtainments and most heroic achieve- per of the pursuit, will exactly dements of zeal. He had still a higher fine its lawfulness or unlawfulness. standard of excellence before him. And thus at one time we shall have He did not “ count bimself as yet the Graos of an apostle, a martyr, to have apprehended,' neither as and even of the Divine Master of being already perfect." Far less both; at another time, the endless did he “ dare to make himself of the 'catalogue of $y201, which are most number, or compare himself with properly ranked amongst the works those who commend themselves;" of the flesh, and have their example, and who, merely“ measuring them their origin, and their end, in the selves by themselves," or by each regions, and with the prince of other, without reference to the darkness. bighest standard of all, and the But it is still of moment that I should say something a little more class-id have it to say, I have been vexplicit upon the second point which "first; in other words, the mere spihas been atready touched upon in- rit of rivalry and contention, as a cidentally," viz." the "motives" upon motive for surpassing others, dewhich alone in eniulation, even re- "serves all that can be said against it. specting a lawful object, can pro. It is, in truth, that spirit of pride, perly be carried "on. Methinks Iso congeoial to our fallen nature, isear Thür Correspondent saying, which is the commonest abuse of ** This is the only point I contend 'this most 'necessary pripciple of for. I had confined eniulation by emulation. But then this moniny very definition to the mere de- tive for exertion exists, whether sire, the mere motive, of attaining called forth or 'not, by the particusuperiority over others; and there. Iar act of educational emulation. It

fore emulation, call it what you 'is a corrupt tendency peculiarly
will, which has not tlike for its mó- berent in some'natures, and more or
live is a principle on which I have less common to all, which, wheiher
Hotspoken, and with 'which I have you present the legitimate object of
nothing to do." This, sir, might be emulation before them or not, will
a sufficient answer to the foregoing, be sure to find vent; and most pro-
observations, so far 'forth as they bably in a way infinitely less bene-
imply an accusation of your corres- "ficial to themselves and society,
podderit, but for one circumstance. than in the pursuits of a well or-
Had his been a mere speculation, 'a 'dered school. Every thing in na-
merè logical and precise statement 'ture will afford occasion for the ex-
of an abstract notion, that accusa- 'ercise of a naturally contentious and
tion would be thost unjust 'which rivalrous disposition. In childhood,
should alter the terms of the propo- it will cry for the prettiest plaything,
sitiơn, and theh'aitack it as it held the largest plum, the newest feather,
by' the opponent. This, however, the first plate, and highest place.
is not so. Your correspondent'affects lo manhood, it will secretly pine
no abstraction; he is speaking of a for the finest house, or tallest horse.
plain, general, and, as to logic, or fáttest child, or most splendid
somewbat indefinite notion. But he service. In private life will appear
points to an example of what he all the real littleness, and in public,
means. His main'stress is on actual all the pretended greatness of ambi-
experience. And he adduces the tion.
modern systems of education, and
those of Dr. Bell and Mr. Láncaster, 'And thou, great Cobban, to thiy Tatest

breath,
especially by náme, as containing shalt feel the ruling passion strong in death.
and fostering the very principle
against which tie points his sentence 'Be the object worthy or unwor-
of exclusion. To the practice, 'thy, or even none at all, if that can
therefore, of those and such like be imagined, the motive will still
systems, we must look for the object lurk behind in actual or salient ope-
at once of attack and defence. These ration. And when you have strip-
must be defended against the allega- ped y qur nursery of every possible
tion of your correspondent. And it competitor, or dispatched your
is in reference to these that I wish 'adult to La Grande Chartreuse, what
to shew, or rather to hint, what are, will you bave effected by this me-
and what are not, suitable motives chanical mode of eradicating pride?
for the exercise of that spirit of emn. You will have just changed its con-
lation on which they unquestionably plexión; and that wretched self-
proceed.

esteem which had been at the bolAssuredly the mere love of supe. tom of all, will now, cameleou-like, riority" for its own dear sake,” the walk forth in all the self-sufficiency mere desire of being first in the of solitary genius, or in the most

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fatal, as well as most inconsistent of, great reason. be looked uponas;one: all its modes, an incurable spiritual of the best and most compendious pride. It must be owned, that the correctives and antidotes to pride, reduction of this mean principle, or in the whole moral and rational rather abuse of principle, which be- pharmacopæia.,, Grant that pride. longs to some naturęs much more or a mere selfish love of superiority. than to others, is one of the most may have been, it is pity.it should weighty problems in the wbole have been, the first moving cause theory of morals.. And were. I pec. of the contest, in question, , how soaded with your correspondent, does the contest itself operate backthat to exclude emulation from , ward on its cause? Why, it immedi. schools went any way towards so diately brings the aspirant in contact desirable an object, I should go far with his competitors. If conducted with him in the prosecution of his with only .common impartiality. it plan. . Certainly, the example, he immediately determines, his place... alleges within bis own experience, amongst them. The ideal clouds of i. of a family educated without it, . superiority which had been floating 11 would afford subject of curious inves- around his imagination, or bearing tigation. And without hinting at him and his casile-aloft in their ime.. the fate which sometimes attends the palpable folds, are instantly diesia. repetition of a single successful expen pated. He who aspired to be first riment, particularly when against who bad always till now. rin, the... the common experience of all man, pride of his heart, fancied bimself: kind, I think the question might so, sinks to the second, or perhapsus safely be , ventured on this issue : the twentieth place; and what beruk If the branches of that family shall comes of his fancied, superiority have been universally found less. The happy .candidate for honous ir liable to the usual symptoms of attains one he least expected, she ». pride, less forward, less pertina.. honour of knowing himself; and if a...) cious, less self-confident, less petulant few experiments do not prove him. in the treatment of others, less 10 have been a vain selfish, mortal at.. jealous of their own rights, less de. bottom, under any discipline, incars. sirous of distinction, Jess versed in pable of any but his former selfisli i the arts of obtaining it, manifestly motives, and, therefore, now a fit 60, than all other families within and worthy subject for the sapatby). the acquaintance of your corres- of despair, they will baye, the pondent; then let his plan proceed happy effect of educing those better : at least to a second experiment, and and purer, motives, for exertion, the only further condition I will re- . which before lay hid, under the quire is, that it shall be tried upon weight of bis ruling passion. In .. some's

'sterner natures, than I may be the search for support under past ! allowed to soppose were made the disappointment, his eyes may at ..! subject of the first trial. For the length be opened to the real qualities subject of an important experiment of lhat excellence which he was be-:. like this, let us not have recourse to fore blindly pursuing; his taste may, the family of an Emilius,

take the lead of his pride in the pur. The question we are trying, stands suit; he may feel a .conscious and .. in fact-thus:--Has emulation, in its surely noble pleasure in sharing application to practice, 'the .etfect of that pursuit with those whose tried increasing pride? Or may it not superiority has led bim to respect... take place, and fully operate, with them; and in the best possible. ; out the motive of pride for its sup-, sense he may realize the truly wise port! The first question may, I and philosophical moderation of the... am fully persuaded be maintained in heathen, In optimis rebus magni the negative. So far from emulation sunt ii, qui sunt marimis proximi. tending in practice to augment the . Without pretending to the dignity feelings of pride, it may with of an apophthegm, may it not be coo.

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