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naparte; an inference which is strengthened can Government is determined to maintain by the arrival of Monsieur at Frankfort, and its unreasonable aud absurd pretensions on by the report of his having been invited to re; this point; that it is determined to interpose pair to the head-quarters of the Allies. between British traitors and the justice of
Since the publication of oựr last Number, their country, by potting to death a puman the fortresses of Dantzic on the Vistula, of ber of loyal British subjects guilty of no of, Torgau and Wittenberg on the. Elbe,, offence but that of bearing arms in their counts Gorcom in Hollaud, and of Buis-le-duc in try's defence. The alleged effoct of an Amerin Dutch Brabant, have fallen into the bands can act of naturalization is opposed by the of the Allies. Almost the whole of Austrian concurrent voice of all the nations of EuBrabant has been overrun by them; and rope, and by the received maxims of poblic Brussels, its capital, is in their possession, law. In this country we frequently inatum Ostend aud. Antwerp, are still occupied by ralize foreigners, but we never consider the the French; as is Hamburgh, which last act of naturalization as extinguishing the place, however, is closely besieged.
righus of the native state to their allegiance : Murat, the king of Naples, bas agreed to it is for them to weigh the effects of beara join the cause of the Allies; luis occupancy of ing arms against her. The general law of the throne of the Two Sicilies being guacan nations admits of no dispute on this points teed to him, and his dominions being en. It is also one of the enactmeots of the Code larged on the north,
Napoleon, that no Frenchnian can in any The articles of the treaty imposed by Bow case, lose, his quality of Frenchiman, and if naparte on Ferdinand VII. have been die he bear arms against his country be shall vulged. They stipulate for the simultaneous suffer death. It is difficult, therefore, to evacuation of Spain by the English and conceive on what monstrous perversion of all French; for ibe maintenance of maritime known law, or of right reason, Mr. Madison rights, as, established by the treaty of U, builds this extraordinary pretension to die trecht; for the honours, prerogatives, and vest. Britain of all right to the allegiance of property of the followers of king Joseph ; ber natural born subjects, by merely granting and for the conclusion of a treaty of com-, them a certificate of American naturalization..
? merce between the two powers., The treaty.
The President has announced to Congress bas. been unanimously rejected by the that. Lord Castlereagh, in declining the meer Cortes.
diation of Russia, had expressed the readi. UNITED STATES.
ness of the British Government to treat-di'We had room in our last Number to advert rectly with America, either in London or at bụt briefly to the President's Message Gottenburgh, on principles of reciprocity not 1o Congress, on the opening of the session. inconsistent with the established maxiins of There is one point in that Message which public law; and that he had accepted this merits particular attention. Some British proposal, selecting Gottenburgh as the theasubjects, to the number of 23, having been tre of negociation. In the mean time, a takep fighting in the American ranks, were
rigid enibargo has been imposed on the porto sent to Great Britain to be tried, for their of the United States. The act imposing it. treason. The American Government im was preceded by a long message from the mediately subjected to close imprisonment President, assigning the reasons for the mea23 British subjects, declaring that they
sure :--The laws then in force tended to fashould answer with their lives for any pu
vour the British, and thereby to prolong the nisliment that might be inflicted on the Bric' war;--supplies of the most essential kind tish traitors. The Governor of Canada, found their way not only to British ports and
3 soon as he was made acquainted with this British armies at a distance, but to fleets and proceeding, selected 46 Amuricais, whom be. troops in their neighbourhood and infesting placed in strict confinement, and on whoin he their coastss—and British goods found their notified that it was his inception to retaliate way easily into American ports. any severity exercised by the American We stated, in our last Number, that the Government on the British prisoners confined Canadian campaign had closed. This stateas hostages. Mr, Madison adverted to this ment, however, has proved to be incorrect. We Jast proceeding in his Message to Congress, have accounts, that subsequently to the rest and stated, that in order to prevent all doubt, treat of the American army under General " of our adherence to tbe retaliating resort Wilkinson, from Lower Canada, Fort Niagara imposed upon us, a correspouding number had been satprised and taken by our troops; of Britist officers of war in our bands were and that a large American force, under Geimmediately pot into close confinement, to neral Hall, having been collected at Buf. abide the fate of those confined by the ene, falo, to cover the · Americau frontier, wy. It seems, therefore, that the Apueri whicla liad thus been laid open, was allacked
and completely defeated by the British. antagonists. The General, meaniwlile, was It was "supposed the consequence of this contined to his bed, emaciated to a skeleton, defeat would be, that the American ship unable to sit on his horse, or to move ten ping on Lake Erie would be destroyed. In paces, without help. He labours very hard deed, it was strongly rumoured that a severe to prove that the Americans obtained a des storm, wbichi had uccurred on the lakes, cided victory. The result, however, - was, lind rendered this attempt superfluous, by
that be called a council of war, who gave it destroying most of the American navy; not as their unanimous opinion, that the attack only on Lake Erie, but on Lake Ontario also. on Montreal should be abandoned, and the
The official account which the American army return to the American shore, to take Government has prevailed on itself to pub- up winter-quarters. General Wilkinson is Jish, of the discomfiture of the attack on anxious to shew, that this retrograde moveLower Canada, is in the very highest de ment was produced not by deseat, but by gree ludicroas. General Wilkinson tells us, the want of provisions; and particularly by that he was harassed in his advance by his not having been joined by an expected a corps of the enemy. “ I was tempted to reinforcernent under General Hampton. halt, to turn about, and put an end to his General Hampton, however, justly pleads teazing ; but, alas! I was confined to my that it would hare made bad worse, to have bed." The second in command was also ill; joined himself to an army without the means 80 he determined to push forward. “ The of subsistence, especially as he had it not in enemy," he says, “ deserve credit for their his power to bring any with himn. In his zeal and intelligence, which the actire and dispatch to General Hampton, requiring his universal hostility of the male inhabitants of co-operation, General Wilkinson tells him:the country enabled them to enploy to the WJ am destined fo, and determined on, the greatest advantage." He then tells 118 of attack of Montreal, if not prevented bg the enemy continuing to scratch them, which some act of God." He then describes the brought on a considerable action; in which route he means to take, until he obtain footthe Americans, superior by his own account hold on Montreal Island. * After which," in nuinber to the enemy, braved, with unci. somewhat in the Bobadil style, " our artita' ampled valour, a fire of two bours and a half, lery, bayonets, and swords, must secure vur without quitting the held or yielding to their triumph, or provide us honourable graves."
GREAT BRITAIN. For some days rumours were very preva. On the 12th instant, the Custom-house ia lent respecting a change of administration, Thames-street was completely consumed by in consequence of a difference of opinion in a fire which appears to have broken nut accia the cabinet, as to the propriety of instructing dentally. A large amount of property, and Lord Castlereagh not to treat with Bona an immense quantity of valuable recorda parte. It was said that Lord Liverpool, being have been destroyed ; and great inconveaverse to any such instruction, tendered his nience and delay have been caused to the Tesignation, which was not accepted, and commercial world. The business of the Cngthat the affair ended in the acquiescence of tom-house has been removed for the present the majority of the Cabinet in bis Lordship’s to the Commercial Sale-rooms in Mincingo policy of leaving Lord Castlereagh,un fettered, lane. to act according to circumstances. We state The Rev. Dr. Middleton is appointed the this as the mere rumour of the day, without new bishop of India. preteuding to vouch for its accuracy.
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. D; Yopomens; and CLERICUS RUSTICUS, will be inserted. AN UNKNOWN INQUIRER; D.; JUNIOR; A. M. a.; repauos; J. G.; P.; A CONSTANT
KEADER; the Account of Mr. Macforlane ; J. C. ; AN OLD ENGLISH CURATE ; EBO.
RIENSIS; AN ELDERLY GINTLEMAN ; S. ; and Edward, are under consideration. We have been favoured with the letter of Joseph Crustield, but not until the Reviews in
the present number were printed off. We shall pay due attention 10 Iris suggestions. We have received several answers to the letter of Ii in vur last Number, and shall tako
early measures for ascertaining the facts of the case. We should be glad to receive que
thentic information upon it from our anonymous Correspondent, “ Cælebs married ” is not the production of Mrs. H. More, as the ambiguity of the Pub : Jisher's advertisement had led a Correspondent to suppose. It is only neessary to ope" the book to be convinced of this. ERRATA.-Last Number, p. 47, col. 1, 1, 17 from bottom, for was read has been.
p. 57, cul. 2, 1. 23, dele Hackney Ausiliary,
For the Christian Observer. “ The world by wisdom knew not
God: who chose the foolish things ON THE CONNECTION BETWIXT THE of the world to confound the wise." INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL POWERS.
Since the information of the New * I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and
Testament was given, not to contrabring to nothing the understanding of the dict, but to elucidate, the statements pradent." 1 Cor. i. 19.
of the Old, the true interpretation
of these passages must needs be TNDERSTANDING being the that which preserves their harmo
prominent, feature which dis- nious correspondence, and reconciles tinguishes man from the inferior their seeming contrariety. We are creation, it is not surprising that he therefore to believe, that before life should value it highly; or, even and immortality were fully brought without the sanction of Scripture, to light by the Gospel, the rea tbat he should deem himself bound searches of reason were of no innot to bide so precious a talent in a considerable use in attaining the napkin, but is bestow on it that knowledge, and directing the pracculture by which it may be im- tice, of duty ; and that, even in our proved. Neither can we wonder, state of clearer information, they that in a revealed code of Divine are capable of conferring substantial Laws
, vouchsafed for the regulation good. Yet, if they are isolated and of human conduct, a right manages separated from Divine Truth, they ment of the excellent gift of reason are now, as they were prior to the should be recommended. Apply Christian era, feeble and even erfthine heart unto instruction, and ing directors in spiritual concerns. tbine ears to the words of know. Allow me to submit to the consi. ledge; buy the truth, and sell it deration of your readers a few renot: also wisdom, and instruction, marks, illustrative of these two poand understanding."" Wisdom is sitions. Let 118 ask, first, How far the principal thing; she shall be as is the cultivation of the intellectual an ornament of grace about thy powers conducive to the improvepeck, and a crown of glory on thyment of the moral part of our nabead."
ture? and, secondly, What are the On the other hand, under the moral evils to be apprebended, from elearer dispensation of the Gospel, the improvement and exertion of the we find human wisdom considerably intellect, when unaccompanied by depreciated, and, in its discoveries faith in revelation? and instructions relative to spiritual 1. They who have improved theic kaowledge
, represented as a weak understandings are capable, it will and incompetent guide. “ Where not be denied, of making consideris the wise ; where is the disputer of able advances in the study of patuthis world? Hath not God made ral religion. From the order which foolish the wisdom of this world their habits of attention and investiCHRIST. OBSERV. No, 147,
gation have instructed them to ob- concessions; and in that view may serve in the visible creation, in the grant, that there is nothing in these mazy circuits of the planetary orbs, doctrines, as there is in the mysteries the faithful returns of day and night, of Christianity, which unassisted the alternation of seasons, the sym.
reason seems not at least capable metry and correspondence of parts of acquiring. in individual animals and plants, From an improved understanding, and the general resemblance among several subordinate principles of duty the tribes and families of each ; they might, in like manner, be derived, may infer that the world does not without the aid of revelation. A exist fortuitously, but is the work of sense of honour, a regard to utility, a great intelligent Being. This first a perception of the beauty of virtue, cause is God; and from an observa- are, in their most improved state, tion of the general and simple laws found only in cultivated minds. Haand resemblances, which pervade bits, as well as principles, favourdifferent parts of the creation, they able to morality, may be expected are further led to a belief in the 20 accrue from mental culture. The UNITY of the creating power ; while solidity which it establishes is unhis beneficence is not less clearly favourable to volatility and inconsipointed out by the adaptarion of deration. It enthrones reason amidst surrounding objects to convenience the passions; and it at once elevates and pleasure.
and purifies the character, by inMen of improved understandings stilling a preference of the refined are, likewise, capable of reasoning tastes to the sordid appetites. They, on the immortality of the human too, who habituate themselves not ' soul. From a perception of its in- to ACT, without foreweighing constinctive hope of faturity, and of sequences, will be less apt rashly the natural apprehension of punish. to 'sin, without foreweighing conment excited by remorse; from the sequences. illimitable progress in intellectual Now, if these beneficial tendenand moral improvement, which mancies of an improved understanding seems capable of making, beyond were, like a tremulous lamp shining the narrow circle of his present in a dark place, though doubtless a being; from the imperfect adjustfeeble, yet a partial, substitute, for ment of reconi pence to virtue and the Gospel, in times preceding its vice on earth; and, finally, from appearance; especially among the the universal concurrence of man. Jews, who could combine them with kind in the belief of immortal life: the knowledge conveyed by the from this body of evidence they Mosaic dispensation; they are still might infer, with tolerable assurance, not wholly unworthy of notice, as the probability of a future state. adding their humble aid to the pow
These two articles of natural be- erful influence of Christianity, in Jief might constitute, in their minds, cherishing the growth of morals
. It some substance of religious princis is satisfactory to find, that in some ple, sufficient to plant at least a broad lines, natural and revealed reslender guard on their conduct. ligion proclaim the same truths; that
It were idle here to object, that reason and the Gospel unite in inwherever these refined opinions ex- culcating the same general princiisted in the ancient world, they were ples. And while we build our benot, in fact, the deductions of rea lief on a stronger foundation of evi. son, but vestiges of the original dence, and practise morality from faith imprinted on the minds of our more cogent motives than the vnfirst progenitors, and afterwards aided understanding could fornish, partially obscured, or absorbed, in it is expedient for beings naturally the corruptions of idolatrous wor- frail and encompassed with dangers, ship. We are at present making to arm themselves with the lighter
defenses, as well as to buckle on the nuating power, of external allurelanger shield, for keepiog their hearts ments, we shall not feel disposed to ia safety.
wonder, that they, whose only guide II. But, secondly, if mental cul- to moral conduci is the light of unture be not thus united to faith in assisted understanding, should enlist. the grand doctrines of Revelation; their director in the service of pasor if we rely on it as the exclusive sion, and gather strength in iniquity teacher of religious truth, and as the from bis sophisticated arguments, sole pledge for the integrity of moral Hence, on rejecting Christianity. conduct, we shall find it to be at. there is a progressive descent in tended with various, and these for- error; Deisis degenerate into Scepmidable, evils.
tics, and Sceptics wander onward may recollect, that in stating to the gloomy confines of Atheism: its advantages, they have been enu- arguing themselves more and more merated as probable, not as neces out of their natural theology, or sary, or, in any case, actual results. labouring to darken their doubts We have considered it in its happiest into positive unbelief, since even possibility, not its most frequent con- these disturb them in unlimited insequences. We well know that wis. dulgence. They rush into a deeper dom, far from leading, in general, and a denser shaile, hoping still more its disciples of the ancient world, 10 ellectually to cover deeds that are such conclusions as we have slated, evil. conducted the larger number of them llence have so many pens, 90 to scepticism in principle, and to a many voices, been employed (would very imperfect and perverted prace that we had not to say, ably em-' tice: so that most justly was it obe ployed !) in defending error with inserved, “ the world by wisdom genious false reasonings, and in difknew not God,” and “the wisdom fusing the lustre of plausible excuses, of the world is foolisbuess with or of captivating language, over the God.”
native frightfulness of vice. Hence Nor is this imperfection of unas have so many minds, endowed with sisted reason, as manifested in wild genius, and enriched with science, theories and vicious practice, less misapplied these good gifts to the observable among many of the un- mischievous purposes of giving vent
christian wise men whom modern to their spleen, dignity to tbeir am• times have produced. While, under bition, or eloquence to their resent
the benign influence of Christianity, ment: of adding classical refinement we frequently meet with instances to bacchanalian revelry; or of scatof amiable rusticity and of virtuous tering deceitful flowers along the ignorance, it is no prodigy to be. 'path which decoys the innocent from hold, in characters who proudly the home of pleasantness and peace. shut their eyes against the light, an The same strong passions which imDoprincipled intelligence, a combi- pelled them to the steeps of intelnalion of science and profligacy. lectual renown have, under different It, in times of old, the school of circumstances, urged them to rush Epicurus disgraced the name of headlong upon temptation ; and the pbilosophy, later days have not been same wisdom wbich, if held in a without their learned teachers of simple and pure heart, would have irreligion, and subtle apologists of been powerfully persuasive in recomliceo viousness; equally calculated mending a course of rectitude, belo exhibit to the theatre of the world, comes, in, a depraved bosom, the the weakness and fallibility of human apologist of a departure from it*. wisdom.
• Madame de Stael and her Edinburgh And indeed, if we reflect on the Reviewer have explained this unnatural and natural force of evil inclination, and portentous union of talents and vices, by on the multiplicity, as well as insic affirwing, that the guilt imputed to talents