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7. Discuss the alleged unsuitability of English for rime. At what periods has rime been most in favour ? Give the opinions of some lead. ing writers against the use of rime.

8. · Describe the vocal chords, their anatomical position, and their share in vowel utterance. Describe the position of the vocal organs in the utterance of the primary vowels and the neutral vowel.

9. Explain the statement that morphological differences between types of language indicate psychological differences ; and, in illustration, set forth Sayce's own classification of languages into six types.

10. Examine and answer the question where the highest utterances of the lower animals differ from man's speech. 11. Write an essay on any one of the following subjects :

(a) The subjectivity of the canons of literary appreciation. (6) We climb like corals grave by grave

That have a pathway sonward.' (c) The relation of philological studies to literary art and criticisin. (d) 'Great wits madness near allied.'


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The figures in the margin indicate full marks.


1. Give in Sanskrit a brief outline of the plot of the Kadamvari, Part I.

2. Under what king and when did Báṇabhatta flourish ? What 6 works besides the Kadamvari have been ascribed to him ? From what source has he taken the nuclens of his great work?

3. Mention in brief all the different theories put forward by different 10 scholars to fix the probable date of Kalidása. Which of the many theories appears to you to be most consistent with the probabilities of the case :

Give your reasons in detail. 4. Explain the following with clear reference to the context in each 18

case :-


सर्बवेदिनमनादिमास्थितन्देहिनामनुजिघृक्षया वपुः ।
केशकर्मफलभोगवर्जितं विशेषममुमीश्वरं विदुः ।।
यस्य किञ्चिदपकर्तुमक्षमः कायनिग्रहहोतविग्रहः ।
कान्तवक्तसदृशाकृतिं कृतौ राहुरिन्दुमधुनापि बाधते ॥




क्रियेत चेत् साधुविभक्तिचिन्ता
व्यक्तिस्तदा मा प्रथमाभिधेया ।
या खोजमां सार्धायतुं विलासः
तावत् तमा नामपदं बहु स्यात् ।।
मुहूर्त्तमात्रं भवनिन्दया दयासखाः
सखायः स्ववद वो मम ।
निवृत्तिमेष्यन्ति परं सूदुरुत्तरस्तयेव
मातः सुतशोकसागरः॥
इष्टापूर्तविधेः सपत्नशमनात् प्रेयान् मघोनः सखा
येन द्योरिव वजिणा वसुमतौ वीरेण राजन्वती ।
यस्यते वयमग्रतः किमपरं वंशम वैवस्वतः
सोऽयं खां तनयप्रियः परिणतो राजा शमं याचते ॥
मातुरेव शिरश्छेदो गर्भाणां चापकर्तनम् ।
रानां च सवनस्थानां ब्रह्महत्यासमो वधः॥






(1) What is the अलंकार in extract (6)?

(2) In extract (e), derive राजन्वती quoting Panini's rule. Can the word be correctly used in the sense of “having a king”?

(3) In extract (f), derive ब्रह्महत्या, quoting Panini's rule in support of your answer. Can the word for be ever used in Sanskrit without an उपपद? Give your reasons.

5. Translate the following into English with clear reference to the .context in each case.


सुखं हि दुःखान्यनुभूय शोभते
घनान्धकारेष्विव दौपदर्शनम् ।
सुखात् तु यो याति नरो दरिद्रताम्

মী मृतः स जीवति ॥
दारिद्रयावि,यमेति तत्परिगतः प्रभ्रश्यते तेजसो-
निस्तेजाः परिभूयते परिभवानिवदमापद्यते ।
निर्विणः शुचमेति शोकविहतो बुद्धया परित्यज्यते
निर्बुद्धिः हयमेत्यहो निधनता सर्वापदामास्पदम् ।।


(c) वृधल राक्षसोऽपि खलु निजस्वामिनि स्थिरानुरागत्वात् सुचिरमेकत्र संवासाच्च ज्ञातशौलानां नन्दकुलानुरक्तानां प्रकृतीनामत्यन्तविश्वास्यः, प्रज्ञापुरुषकाराभ्यामुपेतः महायसम्पदा युक्तः कोषवलवान् इहैवान्तनगरे वर्तमानो महान्तं खल्वन्तःकोपमुत्पादयेत् । दूर्गकृतस्तु वाखकोपमुत्पादयपि न दुःखसाध्यो भविष्यतीत्यतोऽपक्रामन् उपेक्षितः।

(d) एवमुक्ता दीर्घमुधाज्च निश्वस्य वाध्यायमाणलोचना सनिर्वदमवादौत् । राजपुत्र, या तदा तस्थामतिदासणायां हनिशायामेभिरतिनृशंसैरसुभिर्न परित्यक्ता ते मामौदानौं परित्यजन्तौति दूरापेतम् । नूनमपुण्योपहतायाः पापाया भगवानन्तकोऽपि परिहरति दर्शनम् । कुतश्च मे कठिन हृदयायाः शोकः। सर्वमिदमलोकमस्य दुरात्मनः शठहृदयस्य ।



6. Contrast the characters of the two minisiers of state, Rákshasa and Chanakya. To what circumstance does Rákshisa attribute bis own failare and the success of his rival in the plan pursued by each ?

The answer should be written in Sanskrit.)




विद्युल्लेखा कनकसचिरौर्वितानं ममाब्दाः
व्याधूयन्ते निचुलतसभिर्मञ्जरीचामराणि ।
धर्माच्छेदात् पठुतरगिरो वन्दिनो नौलकलाः

धारामारोपनयनपरा नैगमाश्चाम्बुवाहाः ॥ Explain the above sloka and gire the derivations of the words ofar, घन्ट, and नेगम.

8. How according to the legendary story was the heroine of the विक्रमोर्वशी brought into existence ?

9. Reproduce in your own language in Sanskrit, from the drama of the मुद्राराक्षसम् , the substance of the interlocution in which चन्द्रगुप्त and arra are represented as simulating a quarrel with each other. What was the secret motive of the temporary separation that followed the quarrel?

10. “Kalidasa, Çudraka and Bhavabhati--assuredly these are the greatest names in the history of the Indian drama. So different are these men and so great, that it is not possible to assert for any one of them such sopremacy as Shakespeare holds in the English drama."

The above is the opinion of a distinguished American Sanskritist about the three great dramatists of India. What is your own view of the opinion ? Justify or impugn the opinion as yon think proper.


5 10


11. Translate into Sanskrit :

(a) There mast not only be a conquest over likings and dislikings, but what is harder to attain, a triumph over adverse repate. The man, whose first qnestion, after a right course of action has presented itself is, “ What will people say, ” is not the man to do anything at all. But if he asks, " Is it my duty"-he can then proceed in his moral panoply and be ready to incur men's censures and even to brave their ridicule.

(6) Duty is first learned at home The child comes into the world helpless and dependent on others for its health, nurture and moral and phy. sical development. The child at length imbibes ideas, under proper influ. ence it learns to obey, to control hiinself, to be kind to others, to be dutiful and happy. He has a will of his own, but whether it be well or ill directed depends very much upon parental inflnences.

12. Tarn into Sanskrit :


दिमागसएणं दाणदप्मेण दन्तौ
सजलजलदलीलामुव्वहन्तो णदन्ति ।
कसहरभरणं जाअकम्पा तुरन्ता
गहिदजअणसज्जा संपदन्ते तुरङ्गा ॥


(1) Explain the terms Prakrit and Sanskrit with reference to the incient langurge of India. How are the modern Sanskritic vernaculars related to the so.called Prakrits:



The figures in the margin indicate full marks.


1. Sam up in your own words in Sanskrit Mammat:i's answer to the objections raised in the following extract :

"ननु रितादिगुणभेदात् भिन्न प्रयत्नोच्चार्याणां तदभावादभिन्नप्रयत्नोच्चार्याणां च शब्दानां बन्धेऽलङ्कारान्तरोत्पत्तिहेतुः शब्दलेशोऽर्थमेषति विविधोऽप्यर्थालङ्कारमध्ये गणितोऽरितिकथमयं




Refer to the context and explain in Sanskrit :(a) "यदि वाच्यवाचकव्यतिरेकेण व्यङ्गयव्यञ्जकभावो नाभ्युपेयते तदाऽसाधुवादौना नित्यदोषत्वं कष्टवादीनामनित्यदोषत्वमिति विभागकरणमनुपपन्नं स्यात्" ।

(b) "ननु वाच्यादसम्बर्द्ध तावन्न प्रतीयते, यतः कुर्ताश्चत् यस्थ कस्यचिदर्थस्य प्रतीतेः प्रसङ्गात् । एवञ्च सम्बन्धात् व्यङ्गरव्यञ्जकमावोऽप्रतिबन्धेऽवश्यं न भवतीति व्याप्तखेन नियतधर्मिनिष्ठत्वेन च त्रिपालिङ्गात् लिङ्गिज्ञानमनुमानं यत् तद्रूपः पर्यवस्थति" ।

(c) "अनन्वितोऽर्थोऽभिहितान्वये पदार्थमात्रेणान्वितस्न्विताभिधाने, अन्वितविशेषस्त्ववाच्य एव इत्युभयनयेऽप्यपदार्थ एव वाक्यार्थः ।


3. Under what sub-classes of acter wonld you place the following, and why ?

(i) भम धम्मिय वौसत्यो सो सुणो अज्ज मारिओ देण । गोलाणइकच्छकुड़गवासिणा दरिअ सौहेण ।


उपोढरागेण विलोलतारक
तथा गृहीतं शशिना निशामुखं ।
यथा समस्तं तिमिरांशुकं तया
पुरोऽपि रागाद् गलितं न लक्षितम् ॥
आपतन्तममुं दूरादूरीकृतपराक्रमः ।
वलोऽवलोकयामास मातङ्गमिव केशरी ॥
मुनिर्जयति योगीन्द्रो महात्मा कुम्मसम्भवः ।
येनैकचुलुके दृष्टो दिव्यौ तौ मत्स्यकच्छपो ॥



4. Name and define the alankáras in the following :-

धन्यासि वैदर्भि गुणैसदार-
र्यया समाकृष्यत नैषधोऽपि ।
इतः स्तुतिः का खलु चन्द्रिकाया

यदब्धिमप्युत्तरलौकरोति ॥ (ii)

प्राकृष्टिवेगविगलभुजगेन्द्रभोगनिर्मोकपपरिवेष्ठनयाम्बुराशेः । मन्यव्यथाव्युपशमार्थमिवानु यस्य

मन्दाकिनी चिरमवेष्टत पादमूले ।।

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