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righteousness of men, whether Jews or Gentiles, who maintain, know, the truth, yet live in unrighteousness; inasmuch as the knowledge of 19. God is manifest in them, for all mankind have some knowledge of God, since God hath manifested it to them. For his invisible attributes from the 20. creation of the world are sensibly discerned by his works (a), both his eternal power, and divinity; so that they, men, are without excuse, 21. inasmuch as knowing God they have not honoured him as God, or given him thanks expressive of their dependence on him; but have become vain in their reasonings, have cherished vain conceits, and their uncomprehending heart hath been darkened. Calling themselves wise, they 22. have become fools, and have changed, disparaged, 23. the glory of the imperishable God by the semblance (6) of an image of perishable man, and of winged creatures, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things.

Wherefore also God gave 24. them


in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves; who exchanged the truth of God, 25.

(a) Deum agnoscis ex operibus ejus.-Cic. Tusc. i. 28.

(6) It is notorious that in the Holy Scriptures the preposition av is frequently used to signify by, while I question if any instance be found of its being joined with andarlety in the sense of changing one thing into another, which is properly expressed by eis, as in v. 26.

lost the knowledge of the true God, in falsehood,
by false representations, and worshipped and

served the creature beyond the Creator, who is 26. blessed to the ages of ages. Amen. For this

cause God gave them up to disgraceful passions;
for both their females changed the natural use,

the use of nature, into that which was against 27. nature; and likewise the males also, leaving the

natural use of the female, burned in their desire
toward one another, males with males doing
that which was unseemly, and receiving in
themselves the reward which was due for their

misconduct, namely, the loss of God's favour. 28. And as they did not approve of retaining God

in acknowledgment, chose not to acknowledge God,

therefore God gave them up to a reprobate 29. mind (a), to do what is not proper, being filled

with all unrighteousness, debauchery, wicked-
ness, greediness, evil; abounding in envy,

murder, contention, deceit, malignity; whis30. perers, slanderers, 'impious, insolent, proud,

boasters, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, 31. uncomprehending, unfaithful, unaffectionate, un32. placable, unpitying (6); who acknowledging the

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(a) “ So I


them up to their own hearts' lusts.” — Ps. lxxxi 13.

(6) In the preface to the Catilina of Sallustius we find an account of the vices then prevalent at Rome, which fully justifies the Apostle's expressions" Avaritia fidem, probi

just judgment of God, that they who do such things are deserving of death, the utmost sentence of God's wrath, yet not only do them, but also have complacence in those who do the same.

Wherefore thou art inexcusable, O man, every Ch. II. one, whether Jew or Gentile, who judgest, who art severe to mark what is done amiss. For in what thou judgest another, thou condemnest thyself; for thou, who judgest, dost the same things. But we know that the judgment, the 2. sentence, of God is according not to any imaginary distinction, but to truth, against all those, who do such things. But thinkest thou this, o man, 3. who judgest those that do such things, and yet dost the same, thinkest thou that thou wilt escape the judgment of God? Or dost thou despise 4. the riches of his goodness and forbearance and long suffering, not knowing that the goodness

tatem, cæterasque artes bonas subvertit; pro his superbiam, crudelitatem, deos negligere, omnia venalia habere, edocuit. -C. 10. “Rapere, consumere, sua parvi pendere, aliena cupere; pudorem, pudicitiam, divina atque humana promiscua, nihil pensi neque moderati habere."-C. 12. “Lubido stupri, ganeæ, cæterique cultus non minor incesserat; viri pati muliebria, mulieres pudicitiam in propatulo habere.”-C. 13. Likewise the histories of Tacitus and Suetonius, are full of the same enormities.

and forbearance of God leads, is designed to lead, 5. thee to repentance? And that according to thy

hardness and unrepenting heart thou treasurest to thyself wrath, divine punishment, in the day of the wrath and revelation and righteous judg

ment of God, in the day of judgment, when the 6. wrath and justice of God will be manifested? who

will render to every man according to his deeds; 7. to those who in patience of good work, patiently

continuing to do what is right, seek glory and

honor and immortality, to them God will give 8. everlasting life; but to those, who are possessed

with a spirit of contention, and disobey the truth, live in opposition to the known will of God, and obey unrighteousness, follow such things as are unlawful, to them are reserved anger, the dis

pleasure of God, and wrath, divine vengeance. 9. Tribulation and anguish is denounced against every

soul of man who committeth evil, both of the Jew first, and also of the Greek, the Gentile. 10. But glory and honor and peace, happiness, are

assured to every one who doth that which is

good, both to the Jew first, and also to the u. Greek, the Gentile. For there is no respect of 12. persons with God. For as many Gentiles as

have sinned without being under a law, shall also perish without the sanctions of law; and as many Jews as have sinned in, living under, a law,

shall be judged by that law (a). (For not the 13. hearers of the law are righteous before God, the Jews, who have been taught the law of Moses, are not for that reason justified; but the doers of the law, they who live in obedience to the spirit of the law, be they Jews, or Gentiles, shall be justified, shall be esteemed righteous. For when 14. nations, which have not a revealed law, do by nature, by the sense of their natural understanding, the things of the law, observe in effect those moral duties which the law enjoins, these, not having a law, are a law to themselves(b); who by their con- 15. duct shew forth the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness with them, and their reasonings among themselves, the conclusions of their own reason, accusing, or else excusing them) in a day, at that day, when God 16. shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my Gospel, agreeably to the terms of that Gospel which I preach. But if thou be 17. called a Jew, and rely upon the law of Moses, and boast of being one of the race favored by God, and know the will of God, and discrimi- 18. nate the things that differ, observe the distinctions

(a) The expressions arouns and svojos are used nearly in the same manner, 1 Cor. ix. 21.

(6) Nec est quisquam gentis ullius, qui ducem naturam nactus ad virtutem pervenire non possit.-Cic. Leg. i. 10.


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