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of things lawful and unlawful(a), being taught 19. out of the law, and have trusted thyself to be a

leader of the blind, a light of those in darkness, 20. an instructor of the unwise, a teacher of chil

dren, of such as are beginning to learn (b); if thou have trusted thyself to be one having the form,

the very pattern, of the knowledge and of the 21. truth which is in the law; if this be thy boast,

thou, who teachest then another, teachest thou

not thyself? Thou, who preachest not to steal, 22. dost thou steal? Thou, who biddest not to commit

adultery, dost thou commit adultery? Thou, who abhorrest idols, dost thou commit sacrilege, dost thou who art so jealous of the honor of God,

violate the sanctity of the places appropriated to 23. divine worship? Thou, who boastest in the law,

dost thou by transgression of the law dishonor 24. God who gave it ? For the name of God through

you, through the misconduct of you Jews, is blas

phemed, reviled, among the Gentiles, as it is 25. written (c). For circumcision indeed profiteth,

if thou observe the law ; but if thou be a trans

(a) Lev. C. 10. See also Phil. i. 10, and Barrow, v. 2. fol. Serm. 2.

(6) In the same sense are elsewhere used the words νηπιοι, νεανισκοι, παιδια.-1 Cor. iii. 1, 1 Joh. ii. 14.

(C) The Apostle seems to allude to the sense, rather than to the words, of Scripture, as 2 Samuel, xii. 14, Is. lii. 5, Ezek. xxxvi. 23.

gressor of the law, thy circumcision becometh equivalent to uncircumcision. If then the uncir- 26. cumcision, the Gentiles who have not entered into the covenant of the Mosaic law, keep the righteous precepts of the law, the righteousness required by the law, shall not his uncircumcision be reckoned for circumcision, shall not such a one be justified as if he were a Jew under the law ? And shall not his natural uncircumcision which 27. accomplished the law, judge thee, rise in judgment against thee (a), who through the letter of the law, and the rite of circumcision, with all those advantages of which thou buastest, art a transgressor of the law ? For not he who is 28. in

appearance a Jew, is entitled to the name and privileges of a Jew; nor is that circumcision, which is in appearance, in the flesh, entitled to the name and privileges of circumcision. But 29. he who is a Jew in secret, in his heart, he is a real Jew; and the real circumcision is the circumcision of the heart (6), in spirit, not letter, that which is available to the reformation of the mind, not merely conformable to the letter of the law; whose praise is derived not from men, who see only the outward actions, but from God, who knoweth the heart. What then is the supe- Ch. III. riority of the Jew, in what consists the privilege of

(a) Matt. xii. 41.

(6) Deut. x. 16, Jer. iv. 4.

the Jew? Or what is the advantage of the

covenant of circumcision? It is much every 2. way. For first, the Jews are distinguished be

cause they have been entrusted with the oracles of God, they were the chosen people, to whom was

delivered the revealed will of God through Moses 3. and the Prophets. For what if some Jews have

been unfaithful, have not maintained their faith in God, but have disregarded his laws ? Shall their faithlessness annul the faithfulness of God,

shall their disobedience make the promises of God 4. of no effect? Be it not. But rather let God be

acknowledged true, and every man false ; as it is written(a), “ That Thou mayest be justified in

thy words, and mayest overcome when Thou “ art judged,that the righteousness of God may 5. be made manifest upon trial. But if our un

righteousness establish the righteousness of God, what shall we say? Is God unjust who displays his anger? (I speak according to man, in sup

posing that God can be unjust, I adopt the lan6. guage of men.) Be it not. Since how shall

God judge the world, if he punish not according to men's unrighteousness, however their

unrighteousness may eventually become instru7. mental in promoting the glory of God? For,

some one might say, if the truth and righ

(a) Ps. li. 4.

8 .


teousness of God hath abounded to his glory through my falsehood and unrighteousness, why am I still also judged and condemned as a sinner? And why should we not, as we are falsely slandered, and some affirm us to say, that “Let us “ do evil that good may come ?” Whose condemnation, if they do such things, is just ? In what respect then are we Jews superior to the Gentiles ? Not at all, we have no merit of our own to boast ; for we have previously charged both Jews and Greeks, Gentiles, all to be under sin; as it is written, that “there is not a 10. “ righteous man, not one; there is not one who 11. “ hath understanding, there is not one who

seeketh God to know his will and to obey him ; “ all have gone astray, they are together be- 12.

come worthless, useful to no good work; there “is not one who doeth good, there is not so “much as one: their throat(a) is an open 13. “ sepulchre; they have deceived with their “ tongues; the venom of serpents is under their " lips; whose mouth is full of cursing and 14.

bitterness, poison ; their feet are swift to shed 15. “ blood; destruction and misery is in their ways, 16. "and the


of peace they have not known; 17.

(a) This and the five following verses are not found in the existing copies of the Hebrew psalms; but are in the Septuagint version of Ps. xiv., from whence they have been adopted into the Vulgate, and the Prayer-Book.

18. “there is not any fear of God before their 19. “ eyes.” But we know that whatsoever the law,

the scripture, saith, it saith to those under the law, as in this instance the psalms above quoted are addressed to Jews, that every mouth may

be stopped from boasting, and that the whole world 20. may be amenable to God; inasmuch as from

the works of the law all flesh shall be unjustified before Him; for through law is the knowledge of sin, the law having declared what things are

sinful, they, who have known the law, are in21. el'cusable if they commit them. But now, under

the Gospel dispensation, without a law, to the Gentiles also, who have not been under the law, the righteousness and goodness of God has been

manifested; as it had previously been testified to 22. the Jews by the law and the Prophets. And

the righteousness and goodness of God through faith in Jesus Christ is extended to all, and is effectual to salvation over all who believe Jesus to be the promised Messiah, the propitiation for

the sins of all who obey his precepts; for there 23. is no distinction of nations. For all have sinned,

and are in themselves bereft of the glory of God,

the glorious promises of God to the righteous, 24. being justified gratuitously by his grace, by God's

unmerited favour, through the redemption which 25. is in Christ Jesus; whom God pre-ordained to

be a propitiatory offering through the faith in his

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