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but here we are in Chalcedon distressed and now we are told that we may go home. and groaning for the Church oppressed by They however who have thrown everything schism. into confusion, who have filled the world with tumult, who are striving to rend churches in twain, and who are the open assailants of true religion, perform priestly functions, crowd the churches, and as they imagine have authority to ordain, though in truth it is illegally claimed by them, stir up seditions in the church, and what ought to be spent upon the poor they throw away upon their bullies.

Wherefore since we are in receipt of no reply we have thought it necessary to inform your piety by this present letter, before God and Christ and the Holy Ghost, that if any one shall have been ordained (before the settlement of right doctrines) by these men of heretical opinions, he must necessarily be cut off from the whole church, as well from the clergy as the dissentient laity. For none of the pious will endure that communion be granted to heretics, and their own salvation be nullified.

And when this shall have come to pass, then your piety shall be compelled to act against your will. For the schism will grow beyond all expectation, and thereby the champions of true religion will be saddened, unable to endure the loss of their own souls, and the establishment of those impious doctrines of Cyril which the contentious are desirous of defending.

Many indeed of the supporters of true religion will never allow the acceptance of Cyril's doctrines; we shall never allow it, who all are of the diocese of the East of your province, of the diocese of Pontus, of Asia, of Thrace, of Illyricum and of the Italies, and who also sent to your piety the treatise of the most blessed Ambrose, written against this nascent superstition.

To avoid all this, and the further troubling of your piety, we beg, beseech, and implore you to issue an edict that no ordination take place before the settlement of the orthodox faith, on account of which we have been convened by your Christ-loving highness.

CLXVIII. Third demand of the same, addressed from Chalcedon to the sovereigns. We never expected the summons of your piety to meet with this result. We were honourably convoked, as priests by prince; we were convoked to ratify the faith of the holy Fathers; and therefore, in due obedience to a pious prince, we came. On our arrival we were no less faithful to the Church, nor less respectful to your edict. From the day of our arrival at Éphesus till the present moment we have without intermission followed your behests.

As it seems, however, our moderation, in these times, has not been of the slightest use to us; nay, rather, so far as we can see, it has stood very much in our way. We indeed who have thus behaved have been up to the present time detained in Chalcedon;

But you are not only their emperor; you are ours too. For no small portion of your empire is the East, wherein the right faith has ever shone, and, besides, the other provinces and dioceses from which we have been convened.

Let not your majesty despise the faith which is being corrupted, in which you and your forefathers have been baptized; on which the Church's foundations are laid; for which most holy martyrs have rejoiced to suffer countless kinds of death; by aid of which you have vanquished barbarians and destroyed tyrants; which you are needing now in your war for the subjugation of Africa. For on your side will fight the God of all if you struggle on behalf of His holy doctrines and forbid the dismemberment of the body of the church: for dismembered it will be if the opinion prevail which Cyril has introduced into the Church and other heretics have confirmed.

To these truths we have often already borne testimony before God both in Ephesus and in this place. I have furnished information to your holiness, giving an account as before the God of all. For this is required of us, as is taught in the divine Scripture both by prophets and apostles; as says the blessed Paul "I give thee charge in the sight of God, who quickeneth the dead, and of Lord Jesus Christ, who before Pontius Pilate witnessed a good confession; " and as God charged Ezekiel to announce to the people, adding threats and saying, "when thou givest him not warning, blood will I require at thine hand.""

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In awe of this sentence, once again we inform your majesty that they who have been permitted to hold churches, and who teach the doctrines of Apollinarius, Arius, and Eunomius, perform all sacred functions irregu larly and in violation of the canons, and destroy the souls of all who approach them; if, indeed, any shall be found willing to listen to them. For by the grace of God

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whose Providence is over all, and who wishes all men to be saved, the more part of the people is sound, and warmly attached to pious doctrines. It is on their account that we grieve.

And in our anguish and alarm lest the plague creeping on by little and little should attack more, and the evil become general, we thus instruct your serenity, and continue to give you exhortation; we implore your or the illustrious assembly, I was at once majesty to yield to our prayers and to prohibit any addition to be made to the Faith of the holy Fathers assembled in council at Nicæa.

And if after this our entreaty your piety reject this doctrine, which was given in the presence of God, we will shake off the dust of our feet against you, and cry with the blessed Paul, "We are pure from your blood." I For we cease not night and day from the moment of our arrival at this dis

tinguished council to bear witness to prince, nobles, soldiers, priests and people, that we hold fast the Faith delivered to us by the Fathers.

CLXIX. Letter written by Theodoretus, bishop of Cyrus, from Chalcedon to Alexander of Hierapolis.

We have left no means untried, of courtesy, of sternness, of entreaty, of eloquence before the most pious emperor, and the illustrious assembly, testifying before God who sees all things and our Lord Jesus Christ who shall judge the world in justice, and the Holy Spirit and his elect angels, lest the Faith be despised which is now being corrupted by the maintainers and bold subscribers of heretical doctrines; and that

charge be given for it to be laid down in the same terms as at Nicæa and for the rejection of the heresy introduced to the loss and ruin of true religion. Up to this time however we have produced not the slightest effect, our hearers being carried now in one direction and now in another.

Nevertheless all these difficulties have not

I

with

been able to deter me from urging my point, but by God's grace I have pressed on. have even stated to our pious emperor an oath that it is perfectly impossible for Cyril and Memnon to be reconciled with

me, and that we can never communicate with any one who has not previously repudiated the heretical Chapters. This then is our mind.

1 Acts. xx. 26.

The object of men who "seek their own not the things which are Jesus Christ's "is to be reconciled with them against our will. But this is no business of mine, for God weighs our motives and tries our character, nor does He inflict chastisement for what is done against our will. Be it known to your holiness that if ever I said a word about our friend either before the very pious emperor branded as a rebel. So intensely is he hated by the court party. This is most annoying. The most pious emperor, especially, cannot bear to hear his name mentioned and says publicly "Let no one speak to me of this man." On one occasion he gave an instance of this to me. Nevertheless as long as I am here I shall not cease to serve the interests of this our father, knowing that the impious have done him wrong.

My desire is that both your piety and I myself get quit of this. No good is to be hoped from it, in as much as all the judges. trust in gold, and contend that the nature of the Godhead and manhood is one.

All the people however by God's grace are in good case, and constantly come out to us. I have begun to discourse to them and have celebrated very large communions.

On the fourth occasion I spoke at length about the faith and they listened with such delight that they did not go away till the seventh hour but held out even till the midday heat. An enormous crowd was gathered

in a great court, with four verandahs, and I preached from above from a platform near the roof.

All the clergy with the excellent monks that when we came back from the Rufiniare on the contrary utterly opposed to me, so anum, after the visit of the very pious emperor, stone throwing began and many of and false monks. my companions were wounded, by the people

The very pious emperor knew that the mob was gathered against me and coming up assembling improperly." to me alone he said, "I know that you are Then, said I, "As you have allowed me to speak hear me with favour. Is it fair for excommunicated heretics to be doing duty in churches, while I, who am fighting for the Faith and am therefore excluded by others from communion, am not allowed to enter a church?" He replied "What am I to do?" I said, your comes largitionum did at

"What

Dated by Garnerius at the end of September or begin. Ephesus. When he found that some were

ning of October 431, before the order had been given for the withdrawal of the Easterns and the entry of the other party to consecrate a bishop.

cf. II. Tim, iv. 1.

1 Phil. ii. 21.

i.e. Nestorius.

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assembling, but that we were not assem- for that letter as is right charged the above bling, he stopped them saying, 'If you are named very godly bishop to fight for the not peaceful I will allow neither party to Faith laid down by the blessed fathers asassemble.' It would have become your sembled in council at Nicæa, and not to piety also to have given directions to the allow any corruption to be introduced into bishop here to forbid both the opposite party those invincible definitions which are suffiand ourselves to assemble before our meeting cient at once to exhibit the truth and to together to make known your righteous sen- refute falsehood. So your holiness rightly, tence to all." To this he replied "It is not justly, and piously advised, and the recipient for me to order the bishop;" and I answered of the letter followed your counsel. But "Neither shall you command us, and we many of the members of the council, to use will take a church, and assemble. Your the word of the prophet, "have gone aside," piety will find that there are many more on and have altogether become filthy," for our side than on theirs." In addition to this they have abandoned the Faith which they I pointed out that we had neither reading of received from the holy Fathers, and have the holy Scripture, nor oblation; but only subscribed the twelve Chapters of Cyril of "prayer for the Faith and for your majesty, Alexandria, which teem with Apollinarian and pious conversation." So he approved, error, are in agreement with the. impiety of and made no further prohibition. The re- Arius and Eunomius, and anathematize all sult is that increased crowds flock to us, and gladly listen to our teaching. I therefore beg your piety to pray that our case may have an issue pleasing to God. I am in daily danger, suspecting the wiles of both monks and clergy, as I witness alike their influence and their negligence.

who do not accept their unconcealed unorthodoxy. To this plague smiting the Church vigorous resistance has been offered by us who have assembled from the East, and others from different dioceses, with the object of securing the ratification of the Faith delivered by the blessed Fathers at Nicæa. For in it, as your holiness knows, there is nothing lacking whether for the teaching of evangelic doctrines, or for the refutation of every heresy.

CLXX. Letter of certain Easterns, who had
been sent to Constantinople, to Bishop
Rufus.
To our
most godly and holy fellow-
minister Rufus, Joannes, Himerius, Theo- sorrows
doretus, and the rest, send greeting in the
Lord.'

True religion and the peace of the Church suffer, we think, in no small degree, from the absence of your holiness. Had you been on the spot you might have put a stop to the disturbances which have arisen, and the violence that has been ventured on, and might have fought on our side for the subjection of the heresies introduced into the orthodox Faith, and that doctrine of apostles and evangelists which, handed down from time to time from father to son, has at length been transmitted to ourselves.

And we do not assert this without ground, for we have learnt the mind of your holiness from the letter written to the very godly and holy Julianus, bishop of Sardica,

1 After pointing out that superscription, style, expression, sentiments, and circumstances all indicate Theodoret as the writer of this letter, Garnerius proceeds "The objection of Baronius that mention is made of Martinus, bishop of Milan, when there never was a Martinus bishop of Milan, is not of great importance. Theodoret at a distance might easily write Martinus for Martinianus, or a copyist might abbreviate the name to this form." The date of the letter is marked as after the order to the bishops to remain at Constantinople, and be fore permission was given them to return home. The Letters were also written to Martinianus of Milan, to John of Ravenna, and to John of Aquileia, but only that to Rufus is extant. Rufus is probably the bishop of Thessalonica.

For the sake of this Faith we continue to struggle, despising alike all the joys and of mortal life, if only we may preserve untouched this heritage of our fathers. For this reason we have deposed Cyril and Memnon; the former as prime mover in the heresy, and the latter as his aider and abettor in all that has been done to ratify and uphold the Chapters published to the destruction of the Church. We have also excommunicated all that have dared to subscribe and support these impious doctrines till they shall have anathematized them, and returned to the Faith of the Fathers at Nicæa.

But our long-suffering has done them no good. To this day they continue to do battle for those pernicious doctrines and have impaled themselves on the law of the canon which distinctly enacts "If any bishop deposed by a synod, or presbyter or deacon deposed by his own bishop, shall perform his sacred office, without waiting for the judgment of a synod, he is to have no opportunity for defending himself, not even in another synod: but also all who communicate with him are to be expelled from the church." Now this law has been broken

1 Ps. xiv. 3.

1

both by the deposed and the excommunicate. death," and all similar passages belonging For immediately after the deposition and to the manhood of the Christ. Any one the excommunication becoming known to may perceive how these statements correthem, they performed sacred functions, and spond with the impiety of Arius and Eunothey continue to do so, in plain disbelief of Him who said "Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven."'

mius; for they, finding themselves unable to establish the difference of substance, connect, as has been said, the suferings, and the terms of humiliation, with the Godhead of the Christ.

And be your reverence well assured that now in their churches the Arian teachers preach no other doctrine than that the supporters of the "homousion" at present hold the same views as Arius, and that, after long time, the truth has now at last been brought to light.

With this we have thought well to acquaint your holiness at once, but in expectation of some favourable change, we have waited up to the present time. But we have been disappointed. They have continued to fight for this impious heresy, and pay no attention to the counsels of the very pious emperor. On five separate occasions he has met us, and ordered them either to reject the Chapters of Cyril as contrary to the Faith, or to be willing to do battle in their behalf, and to shew in what way they are in agreement with the confession of the Fathers. We have our their illustrious successors, Eustathius of proofs at hand, whereby we should have shewn that they are totally opposed to the teaching of orthodoxy, and for the most part in agreement with heresy.

For in these very Chapters the author of the noxious productions teaches that the Godhead of the only begotten Son suffered, instead of the manhood which He assumed for the sake of our salvation, the indwelling Godhead manifestly appropriating the sufferings as of Its own body, though suffering nothing in Its own nature; and further that there is made one nature of both Godhead and manhood, for so he explains "The Word was made flesh," as though the Godhead had undergone some change, and been turned into flesh.

2

And, further, he anathematizes those who make a distinction between the terms used by apostles and evangelists about the Lord Christ, referring those of humiliation to the manhood, and those of divine glory to the Godhead, of the Lord Christ. It is with these views that Arians and Eunomians, attributing the terms of humiliation to the Godhead, have not shrunk from declaring God the Word to be made and created, of another substance, and unlike the Father.

We on the contrary abide in the teaching, and follow in the pious footprints, of the blessed Fathers assembled at Nicæa, and of

Antioch, Basil of Cæsarea, Gregory, John, Athanasius, Theophilus, Damasus of Rome, and Ambrose of Milan. For all these, following the words of the apostles, have left us an exact rule of orthodoxy, which all we of the East earnestly desire to preserve unmoved. The same is the wish of the Bithynians, the Paphlagonians, of Cappadocia Secunda, Pisidia, Mysia, Thessaly, and Rhodope, and very many more of the dif ferent provinces. The Italians too, it is evident, will not endure this new-fangled doctrine; for the very godly and holy Martinus,' bishop of Milan, has written a letter to us, and has sent to the very pious emperor a work by the blessed Ambrose on the incarnation of the Lord, of which the teaching is opposed to these heretical Chapters.

And be it known to your holiness that Cyril and Memnon have not been satisfied with corrupting the orthodox Faith, but have trampled all the canons under foot. For they have received into communion men excommunicated in various provinces and dioceses. Others lying under charges of heresy, and of the same mind as Celestius and Pelagius, (for they are Euchitæ, or Enthusiasts3) and therefore excommunicated by their diocesans and metropolitans, they have, in defiance of all ecclesiastical discipline received into communion, so swelling their following from all possible quarters, and shewing their eagerness to enforce their teaching less by piety than by violence. For when they had been stripped bare of piety they devised, in their

What blasphemy follows on these statements it is not difficult to perceive. There is introduced a confusion of the natures, and to God the Word are applied the words "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken ;"3 and "Father, if it be possible let this cup pass from me," the hunger, the thirst, and the strengthening by an angel; His saying "Now is my soul troubled," " and my soul is exceeding sorrowful, even untoily, was associated with Pelagius at Rome. Both were con

me;

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1 Matt. xxvi. 38.

2 Vide note on superscription. 3 cf. note on p. 114. Celestius, an Irishman of good fam.

demned at Ephesus in 431. The connexion of Pelagius with the Euchitæ may be suggested by the denial of the former of original sin and the depreciation by the latter of baptism as producing no results.

344

extremity, another sort of force, walls of have carefully examined its purport, and we flesh, with the idea that by their showers of have discovered that its contents are quite in bribery they might vanquish the faith of the accordance with our own statements, and enFathers. But so long as your holiness puts tirely opposed to the Twelve the Twelve Chapters, forth your strength, and you continue to fight, against which up to the present time we have as you are wont, in defence of true religion, continued to wage war, as being contrary to none of these devices will be of the least true religion. Their teaching was that God avail. We exhort you therefore, most holy the Word was carnally made flesh; that sir, to beware of the communion of the un- there was an union of hypostasis, and that scrupulous introducers of this heresy; and to the combination in union was of nature, and make known to all, both far and near, that God the Word was the first-born from that these are the points for which the thrice the dead. They forbade all distinction in blessed Damasus deposed the heretics Apol- the terms used of our Lord, and further conlinarius, Vitalius, and Timotheus; and that tained other doctrines at variance with the the Epistle in which the writer has con- seeds sown by the apostles, and outcome of cealed his heresy and coloured it with a heretical tares. The present script, however, coating of truth, must not in simplicity be is beautified by apostolic nobility of origin. received. For in the Chapters he has boldly For in it our Lord Jesus Christ is exhibited as laid bare his impiety, and dared to anathema- perfect God and perfect man; it shews two tize all who disagree with him, while in the natures, and the distinction between them; letter he has vilely endeavoured to harm the an unconfounded union, made not by mixture simpler readers. and compounding, but in a manner ineffable and divine, and distinctly preserving the properties of the natures; the impassibility and immortality of God the Word; the passibility and temporary surrender to death of the temple, and its resurrection by the power of the united God; that the holy Spirit is not of the Son, nor derives existence from the Son, but proceeds from the Father, and is properly stated to be of the Son, as being of one substance.' Beholding this orthodoxy in the letter, we have hymned Him who heals our stammering tongues, and changes our discordant noises into the harmony of sweet music.2

Your holiness must therefore beware of neglecting this matter, lest when, too late, you see this heresy confirmed, you grieve in vain, and suffer affliction at being no longer able to defend the cause of truth.

We have also sent you a copy of the memorial which we have given to the most pious and Christ-loving emperor, containing the faith of the holy Fathers at Nicæa, wherein we have rejected the newly-invented heresies of Cyril, and adjudged them to be opposed to the orthodox faith.

Since in accordance with the orders of the very pious emperor only eight of us travelled to Constantinople, we have subjoined the copy of the order given us by the holy synod, that you may be acquainted with the provinces contained in it. Your holiness will learn them from the signatures of the metropolitans. We salute the brotherhood which is with you.

CLXXI. Letter of Theodoret to John, bishop
of Antioch, after the reconciliation.
God, who governs all things in wisdom,
who provides for our unanimity, and cares
for the salvation of His people, has caused us
to be assembled together, and has shewn us
that the views of all of us are in agreement
with one another. We have assembled to-
gether, and read the Egyptian Letter; ' we

1 This Letter appears to be that of the Euphratensian synod. ("probat primum hæc vox ev κows, in conventu: deinde pluralis numerus ubique positus." Garnerius.)

Garnerius would date it during the negotiations for reconciliation, when John of Antioch visited Acacius at Beroa, after the Orientals had accepted Cyril's formula of faith. Schulze would rather place it after the negotiations were over.

2 Presumably the letter written by Cyril to Acacius, setting forth his own view, and representing that peace might be

CLXXII. Letter of Theodoretus to Nestorius.

To the very reverend and religious lord and very holy Father, Nestorius, the bishop Theodoretus sends greeting in the Lord. Your holiness is, I think, well aware that I take no pleasure in cultivated society, nor in the interests of this life, nor in reputation, nor am I attracted by other sees. Had I learnt this lesson from no other source, the very solitude of the city over which I am. called to preside would suffice to teach me It is not indeed disthis philosophy. attained if the Orientals would give up Nestorius. It exists in Latin. Synod. Mansi, V. 831.

1 Vide p. 279. Note.

་་

The following paragraph, found only in the Vatican MS., and described by Schulze as inept," is omitted. It has no significance. 3 Of this letter the Greek copies have perished. Three Latin versions exist.

(i) In Synod c. 20. Mans. v S9S.

(ii) In synodi quinta collatione. Mans. IX. 204.

(iii) A version of Marius Mercator from the Recension of Garnerius. The two latter are both given in Migne, Theod. IV. 486. The translation given follows the former of these two. The date appears to be not long after the receipt by Theodoret of the Chapters of Cyril.

4 cf. p. 307.

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