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with envy gave out that he had run away and lost his army. His only reply was to ask his gainsayers to send and ascertain the number of the barbarian dead, "For," said he, “even from their spoils it is easy to learn their number." At these words the emperor gave way and sent officers to investigate and report on the battle.'
fact that Constantine the eldest of Constantine's sons, and Constans the youngest, had preserved their father's faith in its integrity, and that Valentinian, emperor of the West, had also kept the true religion undefiled.
Of famous leaders of the Arian faction. THE Eastern section of the empire had received the infection from many quarters. Of the reign of Theodosius and of his dream. Arius, a presbyter of Alexandria in Egypt, THE great general remained, and then there begat the blasphemy. Eusebius, Patrosaw a wonderful vision clearly shewn him philus, and Aetius of Palestine, Paulinus and by the very God of the universe himself. Gregorius of Phoenicia, Theodotus of LaoIn it he seemed to see the divine Meletius, dicea and his successor Georgius, and after chief of the church of the Antiochenes, him Athanasius and Narcissus of Cilicia, investing him with an imperial robe, and had nurtured the seeds so foully sown. covering his head with an imperial crown. The morning after the night in which he had seen the vision he told it to one of his intimate friends, who pointed out that the dream was plain and had nothing obscure or ambiguous about it.
A few days at most had gone by when the commissioners sent to investigate the battle returned and reported that vast multitudes of the barbarians had been shot down.
Then the emperor was convinced that he had done right well in selecting Theodosius for the command, and appointed him emperor and gave him the sovereignty of the
share of Valens.
Eusebius and Theognis of Bithynia; Menophantus of Ephesus; Theodorus of Perinthus and Maris of Chalcedon, and some others of Thrace famous only for their vices, had for a long time gone on watering and tending the crop of tares. These bad husbandmen were aided by the indifference of Constantius and the malignity of Valens.
For these reasons only the bishops of his own empire were summoned by the emperor to meet at Constantinople. They arrived, being in all one hundred and fifty in number, and Theodosius forbade any one to tell him which was the great Meletius, for he wished the bishop to be recognized by his dream. Upon this Gratian departed for Italy and The whole company of the bishops entered the despatched Theodosius to the countries com- imperial palace, and then without any notice mitted to his charge. No sooner had of all the rest, Theodosius ran up to the Theodosius assumed the imperial dignity great Meletius, and, like a boy who loves his than before everything else he gave heed to father, stood for a long space gazing on him the harmony of the churches, and ordered the with filial joy, then flung his arms around bishops of his own realm to repair with him, and covered eyes and lips and breast and haste to Constantinople. That division of head and the hand that had given him the the empire was now the only region infected with the Arian plague, for the west had escaped the taint. This was due to the
1 Theodoret's is the sole authority for this connexion of the association of Theodosius in the Empire with a victory, and his alleged facts do not fit in with others which are better supported. Gratian, a vigorous and sensible lad of nineteen, seems to have felt that the burden was too big for his shoul ders, and to have looked out for a suitable colleague. For the choice which he made, or was advised to make, he had good ground in the reputation already won by Theodosius in Britain and in the campaign of 373 against the Sarmatians and Quadi, and the elevation of the young genera! (born in 346, he was thirty two when Gratian declared him Augustus at Sir mium, Jan. 19, 379) was speedily vindicated. Theodoret, with his contempt for exact chronology, may have exaggerated one of the engagements of the guerrilla warfare waged by the new emperor after his accession, when he carefully avoided the error of Valens in risking all on a pitched battle. By the end of 379 he had driven the barbarians over the Balkan range. Dr. Stokes (Dict. Christ. Biog. iv. 960) points out that between Aug. 9, 378, and Jan. 19, 379, there was not time for news to travel from Hadrianople to Mitrovitz, where Gratian was, for couriers to fetch Theodosius thither from remoter Spain, for Theodosius then in the winter months to organize and carry out a campaign.
crown, with kisses. Then he told him of his dream. All the rest of the bishops were then courteously welcomed, and all were bidden to deliberate as became fathers on the subjects laid before them.
The council assembled at Constantinople. Ar this time the recent feeder of the flock at Nazianzus1 was living at Constantino
1" Cave credas episcopum Nazianzi his verbis designari," says Valesius; - because before 3S1 the great Gregory of Nazianzus had at the most first helped his father in looking after the church at Nazianzus, and on his father's death taken temporary and apparently informal charge of the see. But in the latter part of his note Valesius suggests that ra redevrala may refer to the episcopate of Gregory at Nazianzus in his last days, after his abdication of the see of Constantinople,Atque hic sensus magis placet, magis enim convenire vide. tur verbis Theodoreti;' "Recent feeder," then, or "he who
The council was also attended by Pelagius
ple, continually withstanding the blasphemies of the Arians, watering the holy people with of Laodicea,' Eulogius of Edessa, Acacius," the teaching of the Gospel, catching wan- our own Isidorus, Cyril of Jerusalem, derers outside the flock and removing them Gelasius of Cæsarea in Palestine, who was from poisonous pasture. So that flock once renowned alike for lore and life and many small he made a great one. When the di- other athletes of virtue. vine Meletius saw him, knowing as he did full well the object which the makers of the canon had before them when, with the view of preventing the possibility of ambitious efforts, they forbade the translation of bishops, he confirmed Gregory in the episcopate of Constantinople. Shortly afterwards the divine Meletius passed away to the life that knows no pain, crowned by the praises of the funeral eloquence of all the great orators.
All these then whom I have named separated themselves from the Egyptians and celebrated divine service with the great Gregory. But he himself implored them, assembled as they were to promote harmony, to subordinate all question of wrong to an individual to the promotion of agreement with one another. "For," said he, "I shall be released from many cares and once more lead the quiet life I hold so dear; while you, after your long and painful warfare, will obtain the longed for peace. What can be more absurd than for men who have just escaped the weapons of their enemies to waste their own strength in wounding one another; by so doing we shall be a laughing stock to our opponents. Find then some worthy man of sense, able to sustain heavy responsibilities and discharge them well, and make him bishop." The excellent pastors moved by these counsels appointed as bishop of that mighty city a man of noble birth and distinguished for every kind of virtue as well as for the splendour of his ancestry, by name Nectarius. Maximus, as having partici
Timotheus, bishop of Alexandria, who had followed Peter, the successor of Athanasius in the patriarchate, ordained in place of the admirable Gregorius, Maximus - -a cynic who had but recently suffered his cynic's hair to be shorn, and had been carried away by the flimsy rhetoric of Apollinarius. But this absurdity was beyond the endurance of the assembled bishops-admirable men, and full of divine zeal and wisdom, such as Helladius, successor of the great Basil, Gregorius and Peter, brothers of Basil, and Amphilochius from Lycaonia, Optimus from Pisidia, Diodorus from Cilicia." most recently fed," will mean "he who after the events at Con-pated in the insanity of Apollinarius, they stantinople which I am about to relate, acted as bishop of Na. zianzus." Gregory left Constantinople in June 381, repaired to Nazianzus, and after finding a suitable man to occupy the see, retired to Arianzus, but was pressed to return and take a leading post in order to check Apollinarian heretics. health broke down, and he wished to retire. He would have voted in the election of his successor, but his opponents ob. jected on the ground that he either was bishop of Nazianzus, or not; if he was, there was no vacancy; if he was not, he had no vote. Eulalius was chosen in 3S3, and Gregory spent six weary years in wanderings and troubles, and at last found It was probably in 379 that Gregory first went to Constanti nople and preached in a private house which was to him a "Shiloh, where the ark rested, an Anastasia, a place of resur(Orat. 42.6). Hence the name "Anastasia " rection given to the famous church built on the site of the too strait house.
rest in 359.
i.e. the xvth of Nicæa, forbidding any bishop, presbyter or deacon, to pass from one city to another. Gregory him. self classes it among « Νόμους πάλαι τεθνηκότας (Carm.
3 Gregory had been practically acting as bishop, when an intriguing party led by Peter of Alexandria tried to force Maximus, a cynic professor, who was one of Gregory's ad miring hearers, on the Constantinopolitan Church. "At this time," i.e. probably in the middle of 350, and certainly before Nov. 24, when Theodosius entered the capital, "A priest from Thasco had come to Constantinople with a large sum of money to buy Proconnesian marble for a church. He too was beguiled by the specious hope held out to him. Maximus and his party thus gained the power of purchasing the service of a mob, which was as forward to attack Gregory as it had been to praise him. It was night, and the bishop was ill in bed, when Maximus with his followers went to the church to be consecrated by five suffragans who had been sent from Alexandria for the purpose. Day began to dawn while they were still preparing for the consecration. They had but half finished the tonsure of the cynic philosopher, who wore the flow. ing hair common to his sect, when a mob, excited by the sudden news, rushed in upon them, and drove them from the church. They retired to a flute player's shop to complete their work, and Maximus, compelled to flee from Constantinople, went to Thessalonica with the hope of gaining over Theodosius himself." Archdeacon Watkins. Dict. Christ. Biog. ii. 752.
• Helladius, successor of Basil at the Cappadocian. Cæsarea,
Stripped of his episcopal rank and rejected.
was orthodox, but on important occasions clashed unhappily
2 cf. note on iv. 15, page 119.
3 Of Berea, vide page 128.
41.e. of Cyrus, cf. p. 134. 5 For fragments of his writings vide Dial. i. and iii.
"To the right honourable lords our right reverend brethren and colleagues Damasus, Ambrosius, Britton, Valerianus, Ascholius, Anemius, Basilius and the rest of the holy bishops assembled in the great city of Rome, the holy synod of the orthodox bishops assembled at the great city of Constantinople, sends greeting in the Lord.
the whole we seem to have been delivered from the violence of our persecutions and to be just now recovering the churches which have for a long time been the prey of the heretics. But wolves are troublesome to us who, though they have been driven from the byre, yet harry the flocks up and down the glades, daring to hold rival assemblies, stirring seditions among the people, and shrinking from nothing which can do damage to the churches.
"So, as we have already said, we needs "To recount all the sufferings inflicted on must labour all the longer. Since howus by the power of the Arians, and to attempt ever you showed your brotherly love to us to give information to your reverences, as by inviting us (as though we were your own though you were not already well acquainted members) by the letters of our most religious with them, might seem superfluous. For we emperor to the synod which you are gatherdo not suppose your piety to hold what is be- ing by divine permission at Rome, to the falling us as of such secondary importance as end that since we alone were then conthat you stand in any need of information on demned to suffer persecution, you should not matters which cannot but evoke your sympa- now, when our emperors are at one with us thy. Nor indeed were the storms which beset as to true religion, reign apart from us, but us such as to escape notice from their insignifi- that we, to use the apostle's phrase,' should cance. Our persecutions are but of yesterday. The sound of them still rings in the ears alike of those who suffered them and of those whose love made the sufferers' pain their own. It was but a day or two ago, if I may so say, that some released from chains in foreign lands returned to their own churches through manifold afflictions; of others who had died in exile the relics were brought home; others again, even after their return from exile, found the passion of the heretics still at boiling heat, and, slain by them with stones as was the blessed Stephen, met with a sadder fate in their own than in a stranger's land. Others, worn away with various cruelties, still bear in their bodies the scars of their wounds and the marks of Christ.1
"Who could tell the tale of fines, of disfranchisements, of individual confiscations, of intrigues, of outrages, of prisons? In truth all kinds of tribulation were wrought out beyond number in us, perhaps because we were paying the penalty of sins, perhaps because the merciful God was trying us by means of the multitude of our sufferings. For these all thanks to God, who by means of such afflictions trained his servants and, according to the multitude of his mercies, brought us again to refreshment. We indeed needed long leisure, time, and toil to restore the church once more, that so, like physicians healing the body after long sickness and expelling its disease by gradual treatment, we might bring her back to her ancient health of true religion. It is true that on
1 Gal. vi. 17.
reign with you, our prayer was, if it were possible, all in company to leave our churches, and rather gratify our longing to see you than consult their needs. For who will give us wings as of a dove, and we will fly and be at rest? But this course seemed likely to leave the churches who were just recovering quite undefended, and the undertaking was to most of us impossible, for, in accordance with the letters sent a year ago from your holiness after the synod at Aquileia to the most pious emperor Theodosius, we had journeyed to Constantinople, equipped only for travelling so far as Constantinople, and bringing the consent of the bishops remaining in the provinces for this synod alone. We had been in no expectation of any longer journey nor had heard a word about it before our arrival at Constantinople. In addition to all this, and on account of the narrow limits of the appointed time which allowed of no preparation for a longer journey, nor of communicating with the bishops of our communion in the provinces and of obtaining their consent, the journey to Rome was for the majority impossible. We have therefore adopted the next best course open to us under the circumstances, both for the better administration of the church, and for manifesting our love towards you, by strongly urging our most venerated, and honoured colleagues and brother bishops Cyriacus, Eusebius and Priscianus, to consent to travel to you.
"Through them we wish to make it plain
that our disposition is all for peace with churches have been administered by us and unity for its sole object, and that we are full the priests of the most famous churches pubof zeal for the right faith. For we, whether licly appointed. Accordingly over the new we suffered persecutions, or afflictions, or made (if the expression be allowable) church the threats of emperors, or the cruelties at Constantinople, which, as though from a of princes or any other trial at the hands of lion's mouth, we have lately snatched by heretics, have undergone all for the sake of God's mercy from the blasphemy of the the evangelic faith, ratified by the three heretics, we have ordained bishop the right hundred and eighteen fathers at Nicæa in reverend and most religious Nectarius, in Bithynia. This is the faith which ought to the presence of the oecumenical council, be sufficient for you, for us, for all who wrest not the word of the true faith; for it is the ancient faith; it is the faith of our baptism; it is the faith that teaches us to believe in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.
with common consent, before the most religious emperor Theodosius, and with the assent of all the clergy and of the whole city. And over the most ancient and truly apostolic church in Syria, where first the noble name of Christians was given them, According to this faith there is one God- the bishops of the province and of the easthead, Power and Substance of the Father ern diocese 2 have met together and canoniand of the Son and of the Holy Ghost; the cally ordained bishop the right reverend dignity being equal, and the majesty being and most religious Flavianus, with the conequal in three perfect essences and three sent of all the church, who as though with one perfect persons.2 Thus there is neither room voice joined in expressing their respect for for the heresy of Sabellius by the confusion him. This rightful ordination also received of the essences or destruction of the indi- the sanction of the general council. Of the vidualities; thus the blasphemy of the Eu- church at Jerusalem, mother of all the nomians, of the Arians, and of the Pneu- churches, we make known that the right matomachi is nullified, which divides the reverend and most religious Cyril is bishop, substance, the nature and the godhead and who was some time ago canonically ordained superinduces on the uncreated consubstantial by the bishops of the province, and has in and co-eternal trinity a nature posterior, several places fought a good fight against created and of a different substance. We the Arians. We beseech your reverence to moreover preserve unperverted the doctrine rejoice at what has thus been rightly and of the incarnation of the Lord, holding the canonically settled by us, by the intervention tradition that the dispensation of the flesh is of spiritual love and by the influence of the neither soulless nor mindless nor imperfect; fear of the Lord, compelling the feelings of and knowing full well that God's Word was men, and making the edification of churches perfect before the ages, and became perfect of more importance than individual grace or man in the last days for our salvation. favour. Thus since among us there is "Let this suffice for a summary of the doc- agreement in the faith and Christian charity trine which is fearlessly and frankly preached has been established, we shall cease to use by us, and concerning which you will be able the phrase condemned by the apostles, I to be still further satisfied if you will deign to am of Paul and I of Apollos and I of read the report of the synod of Antioch, and | Cephas,' and all appearing as Christ's, who also that issued last year by the œcumenical in us is not divided, by God's grace we will council held at Constantinople, in which we keep the body of the church unrent, and have set forth our confession of the faith at will boldly stand at the judgment seat of greater length, and have appended an anathe- the Lord." ma against the heresies which innovators have recently inscribed.
These things they wrote against the madness of Arius, Aetius, and Eunomius; and "Now as to the particular administration moreover against Sabellius, Photinus, Marof individual churches, an ancient custom, as cellus, Paul of Samosata, and Macedonius. you know, has obtained, confirmed by the Similarly they openly condemned the innoenactment of the holy fathers at Nicæa, that, vation of Apollinarius in the phrase, “And in every province, the bishops of the province, we preserve the doctrine of the incarnation and, with their consent, the neighbouring of the Lord, holding the tradition that the bishops with them, should perform ordina- dispensation of the flesh is neither soulless, tions as expediency may require. In con- nor mindless, nor imperfect."
forming with these customs note that other
Why then do you again ask me for the condemnation of Timotheus? Here, by the Synodical letter of Damasus bishop of Rome judgment of the apostolic see, in the presagainst Apollinarius and Timotheus. ence of Peter, bishop of Alexandria, he was WHEN the most praiseworthy Damasus condemned, together with his teacher, had heard of the rise of this heresy, he pro- Apollinarius, who will also in the day of claimed the condemnation not only of Apol- judgment undergo due punishment and torment. But if he succeeds in persuading some less stable men, as though having some hope, after by his confession changing the true hope which is in Christ, with him shall likewise perish whoever of set purpose withstands the order of the Church. May God keep you sound, most honoured sons.
linarius but also of Timotheus his follower.
The letter in which he made this known to the bishops of the Eastern empire I have thought it well to insert in my history.
Letter of Damasus bishop of Rome. "Most honourable sons: Inasmuch as your love renders to the apostolic see the reverence which is its due, accept the same in no niggard measure for yourselves. For even though in the holy church in which the holy apostle sat, and taught us how it becomes us to manage the rudder which has been committed to us, we nevertheless con
The bishops assembled in great Rome also wrote other things against other heresies which I have thought it necessary to insert in my history.
confession of the Catholic faith which Pope Damasus sent to Bishop Paulinus in Macedonia when he was at Thessalonica.
fess ourselves to be unworthy of the honour, we yet on this very account strive by every means within our power if haply we may be able to achieve the glory of that blessedness. AFTER the Council of Nicæa there sprung Know then that we have condemned Timo- up this error. Certain men ventured with theus, the unhallowed, the disciple of Apol- profane mouths to say that the Holy Spirit linarius the heretic, together with his impious is made through the Son. We therefore doctrine, and are confident that for the future anathematize those who do not with all his remains will have no weight whatever. freedom preach that the Holy Spirit is of But if that old serpent, though smitten once one and the same substance and power and again, still revives to his own destruc- with the Father and the Son. In like tion, who though he exists without the church manner we anathematize them that follow never ceases from the attempt by his deadly the error of Sabellius and say that the venom to overthrow certain unfaithful men, Father and the Son are the same. We do you avoid it as you would a pest, mind- anathematize Arius and Eunomius who ful ever of the apostolic faith that, I mean, with equal impiety, though with differences which was set out in writing by the Fathers of phrase, maintain the Son and the Holy at Nicæa; do you remain on steady ground, Spirit to be a creature. We anathematize the firm and unmoved in the faith, and hence- Macedonians who, produced from the root of forward suffer neither your clergy nor laity Arius, have changed the name but not the to listen to vain words and futile questions, impiety. We anathematize Photinus who, for we have already given a form, that he renewing the heresy of Ebion, confessed who professes himself a Christian may keep that our Lord Jesus Christ was only of it, the form delivered by the Apostles, as Mary. We anathematize them that mainsays St. Paul, if any one preach to you another gospel than that you have received let him be Anathema.' 2 For Christ the Son of God, our Lord, gave by his own passion abundant salvation to the race of men, that he might free from all sin the whole man involved in sin. If any one speaks of Christ as having had less of manhood or of Godhead, he is full of devils' spirits, and proclaims himself a child of hell.
1 This rendering seems the sense of the somewhat awkward Greek of the text, and obviates the necessity of adopting Vale. sius' conjecture that the "nobis " of the original Latin had been altered by a clerical error into "vobis." If we read nobis, we may translate "you shew it in no niggard measure to ourselves."
2 Gal. i. S.
1 As to who this Paulinus was, and when this confession was sent to him, there has been some confusion. Theodoret has been supposed to write "bishop of Thessalonica," and then has been found fault with by Baronius for describing the in order to conceal the fact of Damasus and the Antiochene Paulinus the Eustathian bishop of Antioch as of Thessalonica Paulinus being in communion. But the patronage of this Paulinus by Damasus was notorious, and if Theodoret wanted to ignore it, he need not have inserted this document at all. Damasus sent it to bishop Paulinus, when he was at Thessa But, as Valesius points out, all that Theodoret says is that lonica, and calls attention to the recognition of this by Baronius (ann. 37S. 44). The letter is in the Holsteinian Col lection, with the heading "Dilectissimo fratri Paulino Damasus." Paulinus was probably at Thessalonica on his way from Rome in 383.
Photinus, the disciple of Marcellus of Ancyra, was condemned at the synod of Sirmium in 349. Dict. Christ. Ant. ("Sirmium, Councils of.") Sulpicius Severus writes (II. 52) "Photinus vero novam hæresim jam ante protulerat, a Sabellio quidem in unione dissentiens, sed initium Christi ex Maria prædicabat."