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ship contended, that Great Britain had and to protect him there, instead of dea right to demand the stipulated suc livering him up, which was their immecours, or a junction of forces with Hol. diate duty to have done : on our remonland, as far back as the year 1778, when strances, they gave only a partial satir. hoftilities commenced with France ; but faction, by ordering him to depart; and tis Majesty, sedulous to preserve the in- yet of this trivial concession his Majesty terelts of the United Provinces, did not accepted, willing at all events to prevent exact a rigid performance of the ftipula- that breach which has at length proved tions, which might have proved very pre: unavoidable : for by the interception of judicial to their commerce.
Laurens last year, the full designs of In return for this forbearance, they Holland, and the true motives of all her employed themselves in transporting na- unaccountableconduct towards this counval stores into Brest, and other ports of try, were fully revealed. It was notoFrance, reducing us thereby to the ne. rious indeed, before that event, that A. cetñty of seizing their Dips. So glaring merican agents were resident at Amsterà volation of treaties, however, was dan; but I will be free to acknowledge, fill pased over, out of bis Majesty's great I had no intimation that they were counafection to this old ally, whose true in tenanced by the magistracy of that city; terefts were so closely interwoven with much less that they had actually negotior own; and to fuch a pitch was our ated a treaty of commerce with the reindulgence carried at this æra, that these volted colonies. His Lordship then stacontraband cargoes were paid for, and ted the moderate proceedings of our gorestitution of the ships made to their vernment succeeding the detection of this owners; for that they were put altoge- treaty. Our minister coolly demanded a ther in as good a situation as if those disavowal and censure of that inftrument fores had been disposed of to the ene- from the States General, by different me. ny. Such an equitable plan could not morials; which received no answer, except have failed to ensure cordiality in future, what was contemptuous and insulting, and prevent any of those misunderstand “ That they adjudged the subject ad refe ings which have subsequently happened, rendum.” had pot French intrigue and influence From this detail of the unjustifiable been employed to prevent it: but those conduct which had all along marked the pernicious arts had succeeded so far as to proceedings of Holland, his Lordship infatuate the minds of the Dutch, and drew, as an undeniable inference, that lead them into measures directly subver- the honour of this country, as well as five of their own true interests.
its intereft, required those decisive mea: On the accession of Spain to the French fures which have been taken, and that cause (continued his Lordship) this coun. every possible affiftance Mould be granttry was not only threatened with imme- ed for the profecution of the war. He diate invaston, but saw a hostile fleet ap- concluded by moving for an address to proaching her coat, more formidable his Majesty, thanking him for his most than had ever been seen in Europe: the gracious message; profesting a forrow ficelebrated Spanish armada, in the days milar to what his Majesty felt for the neof Q. Elisabeth, was nothing to compare cefsity of commencing hostilities against with its force. Here then the casus fæ- the ancient allies of his crown acderis explained in the last treaty indifpu- knowledging with gratitude his wile and tably presented, and the ftipulated fuc- gracious conduct, in striving so long to cours were demanded by Sir Joseph avoid such a quarrel; and assuring him Yorke. But the States-General gave no of their zealous exertions against all bis fatisfactory answer to our memorial : Majesty's enemies, for the preservation they equipped a few ships indeed ; but of the nation's honour and interest. for lo far different a purpose from that Lord Lewisham seconded the motion. of affifting their ally, they were designed He observed, that the conduct of the to convoy naval stores into the ports of States-General amounted, in fact, to a France. Thus they became hoftile, when declaration of hoftilities against this couneven Deutrality itself was contrary to try long fince; though their crafty potreaty. Not contented with these infults, licy prompted them to act covertly, and - the nezt was to receive into their own screen themselves behind the sancity of harbours the pirate Paul Jones, with treaties, which they fcrupled not themtwo King's ships he had made prizes of, felves to violate. The question there.
fore was only, Whether is it better to then been involved in those fatal American engage an open enemy or a concealed disputes which were the sources of every
His Lordship attributed the ab- present embarrassment. The Manifesto, surd and unnatural behaviour of this he was credibly informed, has been pu. quondam ally to the baneful influence of blished with no other view at first, but a French gold: for nothing else could have very ridiculous idea, that it would immequite effaced from her remembrance e- diatelyindụce insurrections at Amsterdam. very trace of ancient amity and recipro Lord North answered Mr Townshend cal support; nothing else could have with great animation and success. The made her forget how she was led to con Hon. Gentleman conceives, (said his queft by K. William, and the Duke of Lordship), that King William and the Marlborough, fighting againft that afpi. Duke of Marlborough would have guardring family whose banners she now ap. ed this country from her present fitua. pears fo willing to support. The perni- tion; and he wishes for the system they cious consequence of this verfatility must pursued. No other fyftem am I conredound more to Holland than to Great scious of pursuing; for their grand ob. Britain ; for the perfidious principles of jects were, to check the ambition of the France were well known, and might be House of Bourbon, to preferve the ba. dreaded by all her confederacy, when lance of power in Europe, and preferve their fupport became no longer necessary. the confederacy with Holland.' These In this war, therefore, we were assert- have also been the aims of the present ing the real interests of both countries. government; these bave been invariably His Lordship concluded by saying, that attended to with equal zeal, though not this contest was necessary for the charac. with equal success. It is the misfortune ter of this country. We must submit to of the present reign, that the policy of the groffest ill usage, or assume the Europe has changed since the period almeans of vindicating our rights: and he luded to. We have adhered to the syhoped, in any situation, we should re- ftem of K. William and Q. Anne; but folve to redress with fpirit those injuries Holland now rejects it. Why does the which we can no longer brook with ho- Hon. Gentleman suppofe, that those
Sovereigns would have preserved peace in Mr T. Townshend declared he should America ? Not, surely, from what we oppose the motion altogether, except a. know of their characters, can he draw ny gentleman had an amendment to of- such an inference; for K. William de. fer with which could concur. prived the state of Mafsachuset's of their resorted to the subject of that memorial charter, and established a rule, by which which had been with-held from the in- it was at all times liable to be forfeited spection of the House, ftating it to have by the misconduct of their Governors, contained gross insults on the Majesty of Surely, then, he would not have feared the States General, treating Holland as to affert in America the legiNative autho. an inferior power, and irritating the feel- rity of this country. Can it be thought ings of that country into a resentment either that he would have patiently fufe which had actuated all her subsequent fered France or Spain to fupport his reconduct. He faid, that in destroying volted subjects ? or Holland to violate the trade of the Dutch, we injured her treaties with impunity? I venerate our own, for they were the carriers the character of that monarch too much of our own manufactures. We had to think so unfavourably of him. quarrelled with that nation for the sake My regret at the Dutch war, contiof national honour: but would ministers nued his Lordship, has been already answer for the immediate consequences ? professed; the interests of the two counwould they assure the House, that our tries are inseparable, and we should, in honour would not next be wounded by prudence, unite to ftem a torrent which Portugal, by Ruffia, and other conti• threatens destruction to all Europe. A mental powers ? K. William and the speedy reconciliation between us, thereDuke of Marlborough had been named fore, I ardently will. I would not by a Noble Lord : - he wished the chuse to see Holland distressed : nay, I principles of those great personages had will go further, even at this moment, been adopted by the present ministry for after every provocation, were it possible the neceflity of such a quarrel, the pre- that country should be attacked by France fent had then never exifted; we had not or Spain, I would advise to defend and
support her with the whole power of this an alliance with the House of Austria monarchy. - But, added his Lordship, might be the salvation of this country. I wish not to live to see that day, when We supported the pretenfions of the we fhall be obliged to put up with those Emperor's grandfather to the throne of insults which our honour calls upon us Spain; and we established the tottering to resent.
throne of his mother, the late EmpressHe next answered Mr Townshend's Queen; the present illuftrious head of question relative to the dispositions of that house (of Austria) might return the the neutral powers. It would be absurd compliment, and guard the throne of to apprehend any wound to the national England : the manner in which he rehonour from Portugal or Ruffia; those ceived Mr Bolts, and made him supervi. fates had received no injury from us, for of his India affairs, shews the wish he therefore could harbour no resentment has to have an East-India company; we or inimical views. Nothing of that kind might aslift his views; and a sublidy of was to be apprehended: but were it o- 1,000,000 of money might make the therwise, ftill aggression, coming from great and powerful Joseph our friend. what quarter it may, was to be relifted Mr Eyre assented to the necessity of as well as poffible. The memorial of the war; and Mewed, from a recent 1777, which had been noticed so often, transaction, that the Dutch intended no. his Lordship faid, related to a gross in. thing but hoftilities against us. By a sult offered to our dag by a Dutch go- letter from Antigua, of the 30th of No. vernor, who received some rebel priva. vember, he learned, that the Dutch Adteers under the protection of his fort, miral, on his arrival at St Eustatia, had and suffered their flag to continue flying ordered all the condemned prizes that in the harbour. Such a procedure, at a we had made there to come under his time when the independency of America stern, and immediately released them. was not acknowledged even by France, He remembered very well, in the two certainly demanded a
lalt wars, that the ministers of this counstrance; and the inftrument in question try had not used half so much ceremony was couched in spirited terms, but con- with the Dutch as the present ministry tained nothing offensive.
had; that they had seized Ibips to the Mr T. Townshend admitted, that the value of several millions, and condemned Dutch had certainly abandoned the fy. them; and he hoped, that, ere long, flem; and that, though we might be the Eustatia, that nest of pirates, would be firft victims to the ambition of the House in our hands. of Bourbon, the Dutch would certainly Ld John Cavendish said, that the case be the next. He infifted, however, that of the Dutch and of the other belligerent minifters were to blame for the present powers were very different : France had alarming want of allies, which left us attacked us, and so had Spain; and he exposed to all the fury of our enemies. had agreed to a war with them, because
Mr Wraxall did not attribute the it was inevitable : but it was not fo with want of allies to the ministers, but to the Dutch; they had not declared athe jealousy occafioned by our great gainst us; we had, on the contrary, depower at the close of the late war. He clared against them: we have not theretook a view of the different neutral fore the same reason for affenting to a courts, and pointed out their different war with them as we had against the interests and resources. The power of House of Bourbon : he therefore would Pruflia was now nothing; it was a vox es propose, (and moved it), that the House præterea nihil; it had nothing to support condoled with the King ; but instead of it now but the former reputation of its saying, that it was for the unavoidable nemonarch, who is no longer loved or re. ceflily of hoftilities, he moved this a. spected by his subjects. But the court mendment, on account of the hostilities; of Vienna, he said, was the place in and also to inform his Majesty, that they which all our addresses thould center; would take into consideration the paper's the Emperor bad an army of between 3 that he had ordered to be laid before and 400,000 men, the finest troops in them; and that, if from them they Europe; all anxious to shew their zeal Thould find that hoftilities had been un for a prince whom they idolize, and voidable, they would ttand by him with who, in the late fracas with Prusia, 1a- their lives and fortunes. crificed his martial ardour to the pacific Mr Sinclair lamented, that when our difpofition of his lately decealed motber:
enemics VOL. XLIII.
enemies were to be increased, we should has employed the most hostile and pernifind them in Holland ; that country that cious means to annoy an ancient ally, by had been raised to independence by the fo. leaguing with your Majesty's revolted ftering hand of Q. Elisabeth, and fup- fubjects, and furnishing constant and efported by succeeding monarchs of this fectual aids to your inveterate enemies. country; so that we might now, in our We acknowledge, with the highest furprise, say, with Cæfar to the best belo- satisfaction, and warmest sentiments of ved assassin, - Et tu, Brute! But he bad gratitude, your Majesty's wisdom in ennot a doubt but we Mould make these deavouring to bring the States.General new enemies repent, that they had for- back to those principles which they have ced us to wage war with them. Their deferted, and in the reluctance you have trade was extensive, and, passing by our hewn to proceed to hostile ineasures adoors, would be exposed to our armed gainst a state connected with this country vessels: they would suffer in the East and by the closest ties of mutual intereit. West Indies, where they were totally Your Majesty's great moderation and defenceless; and the herring-fishery, on forbearance strongly aggravate their conthe coast of Scotland, which, to our duet, which made the present rupture fame, was in their hands, and brought indispensably neceffary. them in five millions a year, muft neces We beg leave to assure your Majesty, sarily be interrupted : nay, the very that we mall, with the warmest and most mounds which defended them from the dutiful zeal, give every support to those ocean, might, for want of fufficient sums vigorous measures which your Majefty to keep them in repair, the revenues be. has determined to pursue. We are sen. ing exhausted by supporting fleets and fible they are founded in justice and wis. armies, and by losses in commerce, dom, and are such as the honour of your those mounds might give way, and leave Majesty's crown, and the essential interthe ocean to deluge the country, Spirit efts of the nation, require." on our side would enable us to face our
The King's Answer. enemy with honour, and he doubted not but we should do it with success : de “ My Lords, spair was not known without doors; he I thank you for this very dutiful and was glad it was to be heard of only with- affectionate address. in those walls.
I have the fullest reliance upon your The House divided on the motion for support; and I trust, that the vigorous the amendment: Noes 180, Ayes 101. exertions I am determined to make, will,
Another amendment was moved by under the providence of God, defeat the Lord Mahon; which being negatived designs of all my enemies, and procure without a division, the original motion to my people the bleflings of a safe and was then put, and carried.
honourable peace.” The LORDS Address.
The COMMONS Address. “ Dio Jovis, 25o Fanuarii, 1781.
“ Moft Gracious Sovereign, Most Gracious Sovereign,
We, your Majesty's inort dutiful and We, your Majesty's molt dutiful and loyal subjects, the Commons of Great loyal subjects, the Lords Spiritual and Britain in Parliament assembled, return Temporal, in Parliament aflembleil, beg your Majesty our humble thanks for leave to return your Majesty our humble your most gracious metsage, and for thanks for your most gracious message, having been pleased to communicate to and for having been pleased to communi. this Houte your Majesty's public decia. cate to this House your Majesty's public ration, of the causes and motives which declaration, setting forth the causes and have obliged your Majesty to direct let. motives which have obliged your Majesty ters of marque, and general repritals, to to direct letters of marque and general be issued against the States-General of reprisals to be issued against the States. 'the United Provinces and their subjects. General of the United Provinces, and Permit 119, Sire, to affure your Majetheir subjects.
fty, that we take a moft sincere part in the We observe, with much concern and concern and regret which your Majesty just indignation, that the governing part expresses, for the unavoidable necessity of of a nation, whom the ties of common hostile measures against the ancient friends interest, and the faith of mutual engage and natural allies of your kingdoms. ments, should liave made a sincere friend,
We acknowledge, with the warmest correspondence between his Majesty's sentiments of gratitude, the wisdom and ministers, and his late ambassador at the moderation of your Majesty's conduct, Hague, and of all the memorials, comin using every endeavour, before your plaints, requisitions, manifeftoes, anMajesty proceeded to extremities, to pre- swers, and other papers, which have vail on the States-General to revert to passed between the two courts, as far as that system of found policy which used they relate in any respect to the present to govern their councils in the best times rupture, is indispensable to warrant par. of the republic, and which formed and liament in pronouncing, whether the ho. established her union with Great Britain, stilities which his Majesty has authorised for the common interest and mutual fafe: his subjects to commence against those ty of both countries.
of the Seven United Provinces, are, or We beg leave to assure your Majesty, are not, founded in justice; and, con. that your faithful Commons will, with a sequently, before they can with proprie. firm and determined resolution, support ty offer to his Majesty any advice, or your Majesty againkt all your enemies, in promise him any ailistance, in the prethe prosecution of this jost aud necessary sent conjuncture. Far, for the maintenance of the honour The sudden attack which the ministers of your crown, and of the rights and in- have advised his Majesty to begin against terests of your people.
the property of our neighbours, failing The King's Answer.
in full confidence of peace, and of their
alliance with this nation, made without “ Gentlemen,
allowing the usual time stipulated by Nothing could give me so much fatis- treaties, even between enemies, for fe. faction as this very loyal and affectionate curing the property of unsuspecting indiaddress.
viduals, in case of a sudden rupture, is a I return you my most cordial thanks proceeding which, till explained, must for the zealous assurances of the conti. appear unwarranted by the law of na. Dance of your fupport; and I affure tions, and contrary to good faith. Nor you on my part, that I never called for can we, upon the bare recommendation that support except when I was convin- of ministers, approve of such a conduct, ced, that it was effentially necessary for or determine upon the nice construction the welfare and security of my king- of treaties and reciprocal obligations, doms, and for the maintenance of the without so much as hearing what our honour of my crown, which I fall al. late allies and friends have on their lide ways consider as inseparably connected to alledge. with the interests of my people.
But the infuence of his Majesty's miThe Lords Protests, Jan. 25. 1781.
nifters in parliament has been ruch as to
obtain, not only the rejection of a motion “ Diffentient,
which has been made for this necessary 1. Because we cannot consent to in- information, but also to induce this great volve this and other nations in all the council of the nation, on a matter deeply horrors of war, but upon the clearest affecting their most important interest, to proofs both of justice and neceffity; and give a solemn opinion, without any knowit would be peculiarly inconsistent with ledge of the facts on which they have our public trust, without such evidence, pronounced with so blindfold a comto give a parliamentary fanction to a war plaisance to tlie will of the court. against the ancient and natural allies of 2. Because, however suficient the rea. this nation.
son of justice ought to be, that of expeIt is on the justice of our cause, and on diency may perhaps be more prevalent, the absolute necessity of proceeding to and is not wanting on this occasion. such extremities, that we must be an It has been the uniform and approved swerable to God and our consciences for policy of our ablest statesmen, for near a a measure which necessarily plunges mil. century, to form alliances, and to unite lions of innocent people in the utmost di- with the powers on the continent to reftress and misery. It is on this founda- fist the ambitious attempts of the House tion alone that we can with confidence of Bourbon. The Protestant republic of pray for success, or hope for the protec. Holland, from the freedom of its constition of Providence.
tution and sentiments, as well as from We conceive that a careful, and, a. its religion, has ever been deemed a vabove all, an impartial cxamination of the