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fed their flocks, Gen. xxxvii. 12, 17, 25, and are still famous for their pasture-grounds. One of these is probably the same called Zalmon in Judges, (ix. 48, 49,) and Salmon in the Psalms (lxviii. 14.)

X. To Mount Ephraim belongs the Hill of Gaash, where Joshua was buried, Josh. xxiv. 30; Judg. ii. 9; and perhaps, also, the brooks of Gaash, 2 Sam. xxiii. 30; 1 Chron. xi. 32.

XI. In 2 Chron. xiii. 4, mention is made of Mount Zemaraim, which is in Mount Ephraim; and in Joshua (xviii. 22,) we find a city of the same name, but situated in the southern part of Benjamin.

XII. When the continued chain of mountains, running from north to south, enters the territory of the tribe of Judah, it assumes the name of the Mountain of Judah, Josh. xx. 7, etc. and stretches to the southern extremity of Palestine, and eastward to the valley of the Jordan. In ancient times, it was called the Mountain of the Amorites, after the Canaanitish tribe, which had possession of it, Deut. i. 20. The mountains of this chain grow more and more barren and precipitous, as we pass from Mount Ephraim towards Jerusalem.

XIII. Not far to the south-west of Jerusalem, is Mount Perazim, of which Isaiah speaks, (xxviii. 21,) in allusion, no doubt, to the slaughter of the Philistines by David, upon Baal-Perazim. See 2 Sam. v. 18, 20, where the meaning of the name is given, The plain of breaches.

XIV. The Mount of Olives rises on the east of Jerusalem, (Zech. xiv. 4,) in three peaks, the most northerly of which is the highest point about the city. Though it no longer produces olives in abundance, it is rich in grapes, citrons, almonds, dates, and figs. A little below the middle peak stands a chapel, on the site of a splendid church, called the Church of the Ascension, built by the Empress Helena, in the fourth century. In this chapel a stone is exhibited to pilgrims, containing the impress of a human foot, three fingers deep,

said to have been left there by the foot of Christ, at the moment of his ascension. It is expressly said, however, that he ascended from Bethany, Luke xxiv. 50, 51, which village was at the foot of the mountain, on the eastern side.

The southern side of this mountain is called by the Arabs the Mount of Solomon, because that king here worshipped idols, 1 Kings xi. 7. The place where his altars stood, till destroyed by Josiah, was called the Mount of Corruption, 2 Kings xxiii. 13.

From this mountain there is a commanding view of the surrounding country; for which reason, fires were kindled on its summit by the Jews, to announce the beginnings of the months.

XV. The ridge of mountains stretching to the north-east, from Jerusalem towards Jericho, is a succession of barren rocks. The highest and most remarkable in the range, is that called Quarantania, or the Mountain of the Forty Days' Fast, from a tradition that it was the place of Christ's temptation, Matt. iv. It is very difficult of access, and is destitute, not only of trees and grass, but even of earth, being almost wholly naked rock.

XVI. South of Jerusalem, the mountains are, for the most part, barren. Near to Bethlehem, however, are olive-yards and vineyards. Bethlehem is situated on a high and pleasant hill, stretching from east to west. Further to the south-east the mountains become more bare and rugged, and in the immediate neighbourhood of the Dead Sea, they are high and exceedingly precipitous. The steepest hills and deepest valleys are in the south, where the Bedouins, or wandering Arabs, often take refuge from their enemies, and feed their flocks and herds; for though the mountains on the shore of the Salt Sea are bare rocks, the valleys between them afford pasturage. In this region is the Carmel mentioned in 1 Sam. xv. 12; xxv. 5, which still retains its ancient name. The hills further west are still called by the Christians of the Holy Land, the

Mountains of Judah, Josh. xi. 21; xx. 7; xxi. 11; 2 Chron. xxvii. 4, and have a more inviting aspect than those just mentioned.

Some miles to the north-west is the tract called the Wilderness of John the Baptist, (Matt. iii. 1; Mark i. 4; Luke iii. 3,) which is now one of the most delightful spots in Judea. A grotto is here shown as the hermitage inhabited by the forerunner of Christ. XVII. Mount Seir, which stretches to the south of the mountains of Judah, is a very desolate and barren chain of mountains. In early times it was inhabited by a race called Horites, that is, "dwellers in caves," Gen. xiv. 6, who were afterwards destroyed by the posterity of Esau, Deut. ii. 12.

XVIII. Bashan and Gilead were the names given, by the ancient Hebrews, to the mountainous district lying between the brooks Jarmuk and Arnon, east of Jordan. Bashan properly denoted the northern half of this region, and Gilead the southern; though both names have been used to denote the whole. They are often found in connexion, Josh. xvii. 1, 5; 2 Kings x. 33; Mic. vii. 14.

Bashan is full of caves, once the residence of men, some of which are still inhabited. It is also remarkable for the great depth of its valleys, though it has no lofty mountains. In Gilead the ground is higher, and rises into hills, covered, for the most part, with thick forests.

There are frequent allusions in Scripture to the cattle of Bashan, Deut. xxxii. 14; Psa. xxii. 12; Ezek. xxxix. 18; Amos iv. 1; and of Gilead, Jer. 1. 19; Sol. Song iv. 1. Even to this day they are famous in the east for the excellence of their pasture-grounds. There are also allusions to the oaks of Bashan, Isa. ii. 13; Ezek. xxvii. 6, in which tree, the country still abounds.

Mount Gilead, properly so called, stretches from east to west, at some distance to the south of the brook Jabbok. On this mountain Jacob and Laban set up a

heap of stones, as a witness of the covenant between them, from which it derived its name of Gilead, or Galeed, Gen. xxxi. 47. On this mountain, too, the army of Gideon was reduced from thirty-two thousand to three hundred, Judg. vii. 3—6.

XIX. The peak of Mount Attanes, some distance to the south of Mount Gilead, a brook being between them, is the highest point in this whole region. It is probably the ancient Nebo, or Pisgah, from which Moses viewed the promised land, before his death, Deut. xxxii. 49; xxxiv. 1; Num. xxvii. 12; xxxiii. 47, 48.

CAVES.

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PALESTINE, like all other mountainous countries which rest on a bed of limestone, abounds in caves. These, in former times, have been applied to various uses, of which we find examples in the Scripture. Sometimes they have been occupied as dwelling-places,' not only for a time, in great emergencies, as in the case of Lot, Gen. xix. 30, but permanently. We read in Scripture of whole tribes called Horites, from their dwelling in caves, Gen. xiv. 6. Mount Bashan contains multitudes of caves, which have evidently been inhabited in former times. Elijah and Elisha dwelt in caves upon Mount Carmel. It is a very old tradition, that the stable in which Christ was born at Bethlehem, was a cave; and even now, caves are often used as stables in the east. Sometimes they have been resorted to as places of concealment from pursuing enemies. Of this, repeated instances occur in Scripture, Josh. x. 16; Judg. vi. 2; 1 Sam. xiii. 6; xxii. 1, 2; xxiv. 3; 2 Sam. xxiii. 13; Ps. lvii. title. spacious cave near En-gedi is still pointed out as the one where David and his followers took refuge when they fled from Saul, 1 Sam. xxiv. 1. Sometimes they were used as burial-places, Gen. xxiii. 9, 19. In the neighbourhood of Jerusalem there are a great number of caves, once used as sepulchres, some of

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which are remarkable for their architectural ornaments. Among these are the graves of the judges of Israel, the graves of the kings of Judah, the sepulchre of Jehoshaphat, and that of Joseph of Arimathea.

PLAINS AND VALLEYS.

I. THE most remarkable plain in Palestine is that through which the Jordan flows, and which, from that river, is called the "plain of Jordan," 2 Chron. iv. 17, or the "regions round about Jordan," Matt. iii. 5; Luke iii. 3. It is also called by Joshua (xi. 2; xii. 3,) the "plain south of Cinneroth," that is, the Sea of Tiberias; and simply the "plain," 2 Kings xxv. 4; Ezek. xlvii. 8, the margin. Its modern name is El Gaur. Strictly speaking, it extended only from the Sea of Tiberias to the Dead Sea; but the word was sometimes used to denote the whole extent of country watered by the Jordan, from the foot of Lebanon to the wilderness of Paran. In some parts a multitude of rivulets, flowing from the hills which inclose this plain, cover the adjacent soil with verdure. But, for the most part, the plain of Jordan is a parched and barren waste, hotter than any other region of the country, and exceedingly unwholesome. It is inhabited only by Bedouins, and by them only in the winter.

That part of the plain of Jordan which is contiguous to Jericho and the Dead Sea, is called, in the Old Testament, the "plains of Jericho," Josh. iv. 13; v. 10; 2 Kings xxv. 5 The soil in that quarter is fruitful and well watered, but uncultivated. The only product of importance is the balsam obtained from the Zaccum tree, which is used in the cure of wounds.

II. The valley of Jiphthah-El was the boundary between the possessions of Zebulon and Asher, Josh. xix. 14, 27.

III. The plain or valley of Jezreel, in Galilee, Josh. xvii. 16, stretched southward from Nazareth and Mount Tabor. In later times it was called by the Greeks Esdrelon. In 1 Sam. xxxi. 7, it is called

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