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the see of the bishop of St. George's; so called, from the cathedral church built over the grave of St. George, a Christian, who is said to have suffered martyrdom there, in one of the early persecutions. The place is now in ruins.

46. Japho, called by the Greeks Joppa, and by the Arabs, Jaffa, is one of the oldest towns in Asia. It belonged to the tribe of Dan, Josh. xix. 46, and was celebrated for its harbour from the earliest times. The timber hewn upon Mount Lebanon, for Solomon, was floated to this port, 2 Chron. ii. 16. When the prophet Jonah fled to avoid the duty which had been assigned to him, he came to Joppa, to embark for Tarshish, Jon. i. 3. Here Peter raised Tabitha from the dead, Acts ix. 36-43; and here, in the house of Simon, a tanner, he saw a vision, indicating that the gospel should be preached, not to the Jews only, but also to the Gentiles, Acts x. 9; xi. 1. In the war with the Romans, Joppa was burnt, but soon rebuilt. Afterwards, however, it became the strong-hold of pirates, who infested the neighbouring seas, in consequence of which it was utterly destroyed. It was again rebuilt in the time of the crusades, and soon became flourishing, as being the only good harbour on the coast of Palestine. It still prospers, being the landing-place of all pilgrims who visit the Holy Land, and the port through which almost all imports and exports pass. The town is surrounded with gardens, and orchards of fig, apple, citron, and pomegranate trees.

47. Zorah was a city belonging first to Judah, Josh. xv. 33, and afterwards to Dan, Josh. xix. 41. Here Samson was born, Judg. xiii. 2, 24. Not far from Zorah, was the place called Mahaneh-dan, or the Camp of Dan, because six hundred Danites here assembled, when about to migrate towards the north, in search of a new 18sidence, Judg. xviii. 11, 12. (See p. 138.)

48. Besh-shemesh, a city of the priests, Josh. xxi. 16, situated on the borders of Dan and Judah, Josh. xv. 10, is sometimes called "Beth-shemesh, which belong

eth to Judah," 2 Kings xiv. 11; 2 Chron. xxv. 21, to distinguish it from another Beth-shemesh in Naphtali, Josh. xix. 38; Judg. i. 33, and a third in the land of Egypt, Jer. xliii. 13. When the Philistines were smitten, on account of the ark which they had taken in battle, they sent it to Beth-shemesh, where the people looking into it, a pestilence swept off a number of them. It was then removed to Kirjath-jearim, 1 Sam. vi. 19— 21. (See p. 158.) A battle was fought near Bethshemesh, between Amaziah, king of Judah, and Joash, king of Israel, in which the former was defeated and taken prisoner, 2 Kings xiv. 11-13. In the reign of Ahaz, king of Judah, the Philistines took possession of Beth-shemesh, 2 Chron. xxviii. 18.

49. There were two towns called Ajalon; one in the valley of Ajalon, (see p. 96,) in Dan, Josh. xix 42; the other in the tribe of Zebulon. Here Elon the judge was buried, Judg. xii. 12.

50. Timnath, or Timnah, situated on the northern boundary of the tribe of Judah, was one of the oldest towns of Palestine. It is mentioned in Gen. xxxviii. 12. In Samson's time it belonged to the Philistines, Judg. xiv. 1, 2; xv. 1-6; and though it appears to have been subject to David, Solomon, and their successors, we find it again in the hands of the Philistines, 2 Chron: xxviii. 18.

51. Libnah was a city of the priests, Josh. xxi. 13; 1 Chron. vi. 57, within the bounds of Judah, Josh. xv. 42. In the reign of Joram, the inhabitants of this place revolted from him, 2 Kings viii. 22; 2 Chron. xxi. 10. In the reign of Hezekiah, Libnah was taken by the Assyrians, 2 Kings xix. 8; Isa, xxxvii. 8. There are two other places of the same name mentioned in Scripture-one in the wilderness of Mount Sinai, Num. xxxiii. 20; the other in the tribe of Asher, Josh. xix. 26.

52. Makkedah was one of the royal Canaanitish cities, Josh. xii. 16, conquered by Joshua, x. 3, 9—14. In the neighbourhood was the cave where five kings concealed themselves after their defeat, Josh. x. 22—27.

53. Lachish, 2 Chron. xi. 9; Mic. i. 13; Neh. xi. 30, whose king was one of five just mentioned, Josh. x. 3, 9-14, 22-27, and whose inhabitants so long withstood Nebuchadnezzar, Jer. xxxiv. 7.

54. Asekah, Josh. xv. 35; Jer. xxxiv. 7, between which place and Shochoh, the Philistines were mustered before Goliath's death, 1 Sam. xvii. 1.

55. Shochoh, the name of two places in Judea, one on the plain, the other in the mountains, Josh. xv. 35; 1 Sam. xvii. 1; probably not far apart.

56. Keilah, Josh. xv. 44, was delivered by David from the Philistines, 1 Sam. xxiii. 5, and is the place where the prophet Habakkuk is supposed to have been buried.

57. Adullam, Josh. xii. 15; xv. 35; 2 Chron. xi. 7; Neh. xi. 30, one of the oldest towns of Canaan, Gen. xxxviii. 1, 12, 20; in a cave near which David concealed himself, 1 Sam. xxii. 1, 2.

58. Eglon, Josh. xv. 39, between Lachish and Hebron, Josh. x. 35, 36.

59. Ashan, Josh. xv. 42; xix. 7; 1 Chron. vi. 59, situated about fifteen miles west of Jerusalem.

60. Ether, Josh. xv. 42, one of the places among which David distributed the spoil won from the Amalekites.

61. Zenan, on the Mediterranean, Josh. xv. 37; perhaps the same with Zaanan, Mic. i. 11.


Ir appears from Gen. x. 13, 14, that the Philistines were of Egyptian origin, though they came to Palestine immediately from Caphtor, Amos ix. 7, which is supposed to have been the same with the island Crete. On their arrival in Canaan, they drove out the Avim from the maritime region between Joppa and the Egyptian border, and took up their abode there, Deut. ii. 23. Here they were living in the time of Abraham, governed by a king who dwelt at Gerar, Gen. xxvi. 1; xx. 2. When the Hebrews, under Joshua, invaded Canaan, the Philistines were divided into five principalities, under as many lords, Josh. xiii. 3. In the time of Saul, we read of "Achish, king of Gath," 1 Sam. xxi. 10; xxvii. 2, in the land of the Philistines. This prince is, in the title of the 34th psalm, called Abimelech; and as the king who was Abraham's contemporary, bore the same name, it is probable that it was a royal title, similar to that of Pharaoh in Egypt, and Cesar in Rome. With the Israelites, the Philistines were, from the beginning, in perpetual war, Judg. x. 11. Many battles between them are recorded in the history of Saul and David, with various results, 1 Sam. iv. 1,2; vii. 13; xvii.; 2 Sam. v. 17—20; viii. 1; xxiii. 9. The Philistines were tributary to Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, but after his death revolted, 2 Chron. xvii. 11; xxi. 16. They were again subdued by Uzziah, who built cities in their territory, 2 Chron. xxvi. 6, 7; but in the reign of his son Ahaz, they took several cities of Judah. Nevertheless, Isaiah represents them as rejoicing at the death of that king, "because the rod of him that smote them is broken,' Isa. xiv. 29. Hezekiah defeated them, 2 Kings xviii. 8; and soon after, Ashdod, one of their cities, was taken by the Assyrians, 2 Kings xviii. 17; Isa. xx. 1. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Jeremiah and Ezekiel threatened the Philistines with a similar calamity, Jer.

xlvii.; Ezek. xxv. 15; which probably came to pass very soon after, as we read no more of them in history. The towns mentioned in Scripture, as belonging to the Philistines, are:

1. Jabneh or Jabneel, Josh. xv. 11, situated a few miles west of Ramah, (see p. 158,) on the road to Gaza. By the Greeks and Romans, it was called Jamnia. In later times a celebrated Jewish school flourished here.

2. Ekron was given by Joshua first to the tribe of Judah, Josh. xv. 45; Judg. i. 18, and afterwards to that of Dan, Josh. xix. 43; but seems to have been always in the hands of the Philistines, 1 Sam. vi. 17; Amos i. 8; Zeph. ii. 4; Jer. xxv. 20; Zech. ix. 5, 7. When the Philistines took the ark of the covenant, they carried it first to Ashdod, and then to Ekron, 1 Sam. v. 7-10. Ahaziah, king of Judah, sent to Ekron, when sick, to inquire of Baal-zebub, a god of the Philistines, 2 Kings i. 1—16.

3. Gath, within the bounds of the tribe of Dan, was, in the days of David, the residence of a Philistine king, named Achish, with whom David himself sought refuge twice, when his life was sought by Saul, 1 Sam. xxi. 10-15; xxvii. 1–7. When David, however, became king, he prosecuted the war against the Philistines, with zeal and success, in the course of it taking Gath with its dependencies, 1 Chron. xviii. 1. Yet when he retired before Absalom, he was accompanied by a guard of six hundred men, called Gittites, supposed to have been from Gath, 2 Sam. xv. 18. In the beginning of the reign of Solomon, we find Achish still reigning, or another of the same name, 1 Kings ii. 39; but the place seems to have been taken soon after by Solomon, 1 Kings iv. 24; 2 Chron. xi. 8. In the reign of Joash it was conquered by Hazael, king of Syria, 2 Kings xii. 17, but was soon retaken, 2 Kings xiii. 25. By Uzziah the walls were broken down, 2 Chron. xxvi. 6. After this time, it is mentioned no more in sacred history.

4. Ashdod, Josh. xv. 46, 47, is mentioned, Josh. xiii.

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