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1 Sam. xiii. 5. Also, a wilderness of Beth-aven, Josh. xviii. 12. The threatenings denounced against Bethel by Amos, (iii. 14,) were fulfilled by Josiah, king of Judah, 2 Kings xxiii. 15. One of the priests sent back from Assyria to teach the people "the manner of the God of the land," took up his abode in Bethel, to teach a sort of mongrel religion; but then, as now, God will not be mocked; he rejects all such mixed and half service. Let us not think to serve God and mammon, but let us seek the Lord with our whole heart.

After the inhabitants of Bethel were carried into captivity, colonists from Judah and Benjamin took possession of the place, Ezra ii. 28; Neh. vii. 32; xi. 31, who were themselves carried captive at a later period. The latter, however, or their descendants, returned, and resumed their former possessions.

15. Tirzah was the residence of the kings of Israel, from Jeroboam, who removed thither from Shechem, to Zimri, who, when besieged by Omri in his palace, to avoid captivity, set fire to the house, and perished in the flames, 1 Kings xvi. 18. Omri, his successor, built Samaria. See p. 146. The precise situation of Tirzah is unknown. It was probably within the bounds of Ephraim.

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16. "When they had made an end of dividing the land for inheritance by their coasts, the children of Israel gave an inheritance to Joshua, the son of Nun, among them according to the word of the Lord they gave him the city which he asked, even Timnathserah in Mount Ephraim: and he built the city, and dwelt therein," Josh. xix. 49, 50. And when he died, "they buried him in the border of his inheritance in Timnath-serah, which is in Mount Ephraim, on the north side of the hill Gaash," (xxiv. 30.) (See p. 91.) The name is written Timnath-heres, in Judg. ii. 9.

17. Two places of the name of Shamir are mentioned in Scripture; one in Mount Ephraim, where Tola, the judge, resided, Judg. x. 1; the other in the mountains of Judah, Josh. xv. 48.

18. The city of Ephraim, mentioned in 2 Sam.xiii. 23, and John xi. 54, was situated, probably, in the Desert of Beth-aven, within the bounds of the tribe of Ephraim. It is uncertain whether the Ephraim which Abijah, king of Judah, took from Jeroboam, king of Israel, 2 Chron. xiii. 19, was the same with that just mentioned. 19. Seirath, on Mount Ephraim, was the place to which Ehud fled, after he had slain Eglon, king of Moab, Judg. iii. 26, 27.

IV. JUDEA.

THE name Judea denotes, sometimes, the whole land of Israel west of Jordan; sometimes the southern part of it. In the latter sense, it was bounded, on the north by Samaria; on the east by the Dead Sea; on the south by Arabia; and on the west by the Mediterranean. The territory of Judea, on the sea-coast, extended as far north as Ptolemais, in a narrow tract of land forming the western boundary of Samaria, and dividing that province from the sea.

Judea comprehended the territory of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, and Simeon, (see p. 128;) and it appears, from a passage in the Apocrypha, that in later times, a part of Samaria and Galilee was added to Judea, 1 Mac. x. When Jerusalem was destroyed by the Chaldees, and the Jews carried captive into Babylon, the Idumeans took advantage of their absence to seize upon the south-western district of Judea. Though they afterwards embraced the Jewish religion, and were united with the Jews, the district which they inhabited continued to be called Idumea, under which name it is mentioned, Mark iii. 8.

The following are the most important places of Judea mentioned in the Bible:

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1. "Jericho, the city of palm-trees," Deut. xxxiv. 3, situated six or eight leagues east of Jerusalem, in the plain of Jordan, was one of the oldest cities in the Holy Land. It stands first among the Canaanitish

kingdoms, enumerated by Joshua, (xii. 9,) and was the first place attacked by the Israelites after passing the Jordan. When taken, it was burned, and the inhabitants all destroyed, with the exception of one family, Josh. vi. 21-25. Notwithstanding the curse which Joshua pronounced upon the man who should rebuild Jericho, "He shall lay the foundation thereof in his firstborn, and in his youngest son shall he set up the gates of it," Josh. vi. 26, we soon find it again mentioned as a city, Judg. iii. 13; 2 Sam. x. 4, 5. These texts, however, may refer simply to the ruins of the old town; for we do not find the fulfilment of the prophecy recorded till the reign of Ahab, in whose days "Hiel the Bethelite did build Jericho: he laid the foundation thereof in Abiram, his firstborn, and set up the gates thereof in his youngest son Segub, according to the word of the Lord, which he spake by Joshua, the son of Nun," 1 Kings xvi. 34. The city itself, however, appears to have flourished. In the days of Elijah and Elisha there was a school of the prophets here; and both those men of God appear to have resided much at Jericho. In the neighbourhood of this place was the spring, the waters of which Elisha healed, 2 Kings ii. 19-22. The spring is still pointed out to travellers, who describe the water as copious and excellent.

We read in Ezra i. 34, and Neh. vii. 36, that three hundred and forty-five of the inhabitants of Jericho, who had been carried captive, returned to Judea with Zerubbabel; and in Neh. iii. 2, we find them at work upon the walls of Jerusalem.

Jericho is several times mentioned in the gospels. Here Zaccheus the publican resided, Luke xix. 1— 10; and here our Lord healed two blind men, Matt. xx. 29; Mark x. 46-52.

Under the Romans, Jericho was the second city of Palestine. It was one of the royal residences of Herod the Great, who died there. It was laid waste by Vespasian, but rebuilt by Adrian. In the war of the

crusades it was again reduced to ashes, and its place is now occupied by a miserable hamlet called Riha.

2. Gilgal, the first encampment of the Hebrews, after the passage of the Jordan, was situated south-east of Jerusalem, between that city and the river. Here the twelve stones were set up, which had been taken from the midst of Jordan, as a memorial of the wonderful event there witnessed, Josh. iv. 20. This place continued for seven years to be the head-quarters of the Israelites, during the war which Joshua carried on against the Canaanites, Josh. ix. 6; x. 6, 9, 15, 43. The tabernacle also remained here until it was removed to Shiloh, Josh. xviii. 1, from which place it was again brought back to Gilgal, as appears from 1 Sam. x. 8; xi. 15; xv. 33.

Gilgal is mentioned, 1 Sam. vii. 16, as one of the places to which Samuel went in circuit yearly, to administer justice. At Gilgal, he assembled the people to "renew the kingdom," that is, to confirm the appointment of Saul, 1 Sam. xi. 14, 15. Gilgal is also mentioned in the history of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, 2 Kings ii. 1; iv. 38. In later times it became notorious for the idolatrous rites celebrated there. To this circumstance, Amos (iv. 4, 5) and Hosea (iv. 15; ix. 15; xii. 11) allude. The place has now totally disappeared.

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3. Engedi, or Hazazon-tamar, 2 Chron. xx. 2, was situated near the middle of the western shore of the Dead Sea. It was celebrated for its palm-trees. The strong holds at Engedi," where David hid himself, 1 Sam. xxiii. 29, were probably caves in the neighbourhood of this city. In Canticles (i. 14,) we read of the "vineyards of Engedi ;" and we learn from modern travellers, that this region has, in later times, been celebrated for its wine.

4. Ziph was the name of two cities belonging to the tribe of Judah. The one was situated at the southern extremity, on the borders of Edom, Josh. xv. 24; the

other much further north, on a hill of the same name, eight Roman miles east of Hebron. This Ziph was one of the cities which Rehoboam fortified, 2 Chron. xi. 8. In the neighbourhood of this place was the wilderness of Ziph, where David flew from Saul's persecution, 1 Sam. xxiii. 13-24. (See p. 101.)

5. Carmel, Josh. xv. 55; 1 Sam. xv. 12, a city on a hill of the same name, (see p. 92,) was situated a few miles to the east of Ziph. Here were the possessions of Nabal, the husband of Abigail, to whom David made application for provisions, and who so churlishly refused to assist him with any, 1 Sam. xxv. 2. Abigail, whom David married after Nabal's death, is called a Carmelitess, 1 Sam. xxvii. 3.

6. Maon, where Nabal resided, though his possessions were in Carmel, 1 Sam. xxv. 2, was situated south of the latter place, Josh. xv. 55. In the neighbourhood was the wilderness of Maon. (See p. 101.)

7. Zoar, one of the cities in the vale of Siddim. It was spared, at Lot's request, when the others were destroyed for their wickedness, Gen. xix. 22, 30. Zoar was situated at the southern extremity of the Dead Sea. In the first century of the Christian era it was a bishop's see. It is now an inconsiderable village. The situation is exceedingly unhealthy, and the people very

poor.

8. Aiath, Isa. x. 28, or Aija, Neh. xi. 31, or Ai, was situated on an elevated spot east of Bethel, Josh. viii. 11. It is mentioned several times in the history of Abraham, Gen. xii. 8; xiii. 3. It was burnt by Joshua, Josh. viii. 24, 25, but afterwards rebuilt. After the return of the Jews from captivity, the Benjamites, to whom the place belonged, resumed possession of it, Neh. xi. 31.

9. There appear to have been two places of the name of Migron; one near the northern frontier, mentioned Isa. x. 29; the other further south, near Gibeah, mentioned 1 Sam. xiv. 2.

10. South of Migron, and east of Beth-aven, lay

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