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this, the Jabbok was the southern boundary of the Amorites, till they were conquered and expelled by the Israelites, who maintained possession of the land, notwithstanding the remonstrances of the Ammonites, Judg. xi. 8. (See p. 51.)

IV. The Hittites dwelt near Hebron in the time of Abraham, who bought a cave from them in that quarter, to bury his dead out of his sight, even his beloved Sarah. This cave served for a burying-place of the patriarchs, who thereby showed their faith in the promises that their descendants should one day possess the land, Gen. xxiii. 3-20; xxv. 9, 10. Their territory seems to have reached as far as Beersheba; for while Isaac was residing there, Esau married two Hittite women, Gen. xxvi. 34; xxvii. 46.

In the time of Moses, as was stated by the spies, the Hittites dwelt with the Amorites in the mountains of Judah, Num. xiii. 29. When the Israelites took possession of the land, the Hittites appear to have removed further north; for, in Judg. i. 26, the region about Bethel, in the tribe of Ephraim, is called "the land of the Hittites." That they continued to maintain some degree of independence, probably still farther to the north, appears from the fact that Uriah, one of David's generals, was a Hittite, 2 Sam. xi. 3, 6; that Solomon was the first who made the Hittites tributary, 1 Kings ix. 20; that he had Hittite women among his wives and concubines, 1 Kings xi. 1; and finally, that in the book of Kings we read of "kings of the Hittites," 1 Kings x. 29; 2 Kings vii. 6. Even after the return of the Hebrews from captivity, we find the Hittites mentioned among the nations with whom the Jews intermarried, Ezra ix. 1, 2.

V. VI. The precise location of the Zemarites is uncertain. The Girgashites dwelt between the Hivites and the Jebusites. The name Perizzites is applied in Scripture to the inhabitants of different and distant regions. Thus in Gen. xiii. 7, it denotes those who dwelt between Bethel and Ai; and in Gen. xxxiv. 30,

the inhabitants of Shechem and the surrounding country. In Josh. xvii. 15, a part of the territory of the children of Joseph is called the land of the Perizzites; while in Judg. i. 4, 5, we find them residing within the bounds of Judah. It is probable that it is not the proper name of any tribe, but signifies "lowlanders," or dwellers in the plain, which is the strict meaning of the word.

The Canaanites, like their neighbours the Phenicians, made considerable advances in refinement and the arts. Moses describes the land as abounding in goodly cities, houses full of all good things, wells, vineyards, and olive-trees, Deut. vi. 10, 11. Like the Syrians and Phenicians, too, they formed a great variety of petty principalities. Their government appears in the earliest times to have been aristocratical, with a chief of limited authority. When Abraham wished to make a purchase from Ephron the Hittite, it was necessary that the bargain should be made in an assembly of the people, Gen. xxiii. 11, 13. Hamor the Hivite was unable to make any stipulation with the sons of Jacob, till the men of Shechem were consulted, Gen. xxxiv. 20—24. Whether the kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim, and Zoar, were Canaanites, is now uncertain. In the time of Moses the land was divided into thirty-one principalities, as we read in Josh. xii. 9. Feuds would be frequent among these numerous communities. In Judg. i. 7, we find Adoni-bezek saying, "Threescore and ten kings, having their thumbs and their great toes cut off, gathered their meat under my table." Some of these chiefs exercised authority over others. Thus Adoni-zedec, king of Jerusalem, when he heard that the Gibeonites had made peace with Israel, summoned four other kings to march with him against Gibeon, Josh. x. 1-4. Immediately afterwards Jabin, king of Hazor, did the same, Josh. xi. 1—3.


WHEN the Israelite took possession of the land of Canaan, it was divided into twelve parts, according to the number of the tribes. The Levites had no portion assigned to them with their brethren, except fortyeight cities, scattered through the territories of the other tribes, Num. xxxv. 2; Josh. xxi. Still the number was complete; for the children of Joseph were divided into two tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh; because Jacob had adopted both the sons of Joseph, and admitted both to equal right with his own children, Gen. xlviii. 5; Josh. xiv. 4.

According to the command received by Moses, Numb. xxvi. 52-56; Josh. xiv. 2, the whole land was to be divided among the tribes by lot; not equally, but in proportion to their strength and numbers. This mode of distribution was adopted in relation only to nine tribes and a half. For before the conquest of the country west of Jordan, the tribes of Reuben and Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh, had settled on the other side, Num. xxxii.; Josh. xiii. 7. This arrangement was requested by the Reubenites and Gadites, on account of the number of their flocks, and the excellence of the pastures in that region. Their request was granted, on condition that they should assist their brethren in the conquest of the land before they took up their abode beyond the river, Num. xxxii. 17-19. As we find no mention of any application of the same kind being made by the Manassites, it is probable that Moses, of his own accord, assigned to half of them their place east of the Jordan; partly because the Reubenites and Gadites were not numerous enough for the entire occupation and defence of that large region, and partly because the Manassites had assisted largely in the conquest of it, Num. xxxii. 39, 40. As they were not able, however, to expel the old inhabitants entirely, only half the tribe could be provided for on that side of the river, Josh. xiii. 13.

In describing the geographical position of the tribes, we shall pursue the order of time in which they obtained possession of their territories; and shall, therefore, begin with the two tribes and a half who settled east of Jordan.

I. Of these, the most numerous was that of Reuben, whose boundary (see Josh. xiii. 16) was "from Aroer, that is on the bank of the river Arnon, and the city that is in the midst of the river," [i. e. on an island in the midst of it,]" and all the plain by" [or unto] "Medeba." The territory of this tribe was divided by the Arnon, from the deserts of Arabia on the east, and the land of Moab on the south. It was bounded on the west by the Jordan, and on the north by the land of Gad. This region, now called Belkah, is still celebrated, as of old, for the richness of its pastures, and the multitudes of cattle, sheep, and goats, which it supports.

In Num. xxxii. 3, etc., and Josh. xiii. 16-20, seventeen cities are enumerated, which were situated within the bounds of the tribe of Reuben. The ruins of some of these places are still visible, and retain the ancient names. Among these are

1. Elealeh, now called Elaal, which lies in ruins, on the top of a hill overlooking the whole plain, and abounds in cisterns and the foundations of old houses, Num. xxxii. 3, 37; Isa. xv. 4; xvi. 9; Jer. xlviii. 34.

2. Heshbon, the ancient royal city of the Amorites, now called Heshban, near which are wells and ponds hewn out of the solid rock, Num. xxi. 26; and alluded to in Sol. Song vii. 4, "Thine eyes are like the fishpools in Heshbon." This city is mentioned in Josh. xiii. 26; xxi. 39, among those belonging to the tribe of Gad. At a later period it was in the hands of the Moabites, Isa. xv. 4; Jer. xlviii. 2.

3. Baal-Meon, now called Mium, Josh. xiii. 17.

4. Medeba, now called Madaba, situated on the remains of an ancient paved causeway, Josh. xiii. 16. Here also are ponds and reservoirs, and the ruins of a temple.

5. Kirjathaim, now called El Thaim, one of the oldest cities east of Jordan, Josh. xiii. 19. It was inhabited in early times by the Emims, one of the aboriginal tribes, Gen. xiv. 5. It was afterwards in possession of the Moabites, and having suffered much in war, was rebuilt by the Reubenites, who seized upon it. Shortly before the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldees, it was again taken by the Moabites, Jer. xlviii. 23; Ezek. xxv. 9.

6. Dibon is mentioned among the cities of Reuben, Josh. xiii. 17; but in Num. xxxiii. 45, is called Dibongad, because rebuilt by the children of Gad, Num. xxxii. 34. In Isa. xv. 9, it is called Dimon.

7. Aroer, one of the land-marks of the tribe of Reuben, now called Araair, situated on the brook Arnon, Josh. xiii. 16. There was another city of this name on the Jabbok, belonging to the tribe of Gad, Josh. xiii. 25.

8. Jahaz, where Sihon, king of the Amorites, was overthrown, Isa. xv. 4, must have been situated on the borders of the land of the Amorites, towards the Desert, Num. xxi. 23; Deut. ii. 32.

II. The tribe of Gad occupied the northern part of the land of Gilead; bounded on the north by the brook Jabbok, on the west by the Jordan, and on the south by the territory of the sons of Reuben. This region is said to have been "half the land of the children of Ammon," who had possessed it of old, until dispossessed by the Amorites, Josh. xiii. 25. They formally demanded it of the Israelites, three hundred years after, during the administration of Jephthah, who rejected the claim, on the ground that the Israelites had taken the land from the Amorites, not the Ammonites, Judg. xi. 26.

The cities of this region are called, in Josh. xiii. 25, the "cities of Gilead," namely, of Upper or North Gilead; the southern portion belonging to Reuben. By a comparison of Josh. xiii. 25-27, with Num. xxxii. 34–36, we obtain a list of thirteen "fenced

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